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Theory of Elasticity

Introduction
Elasticity of Solids
Field Equations of Elasticity - Differential
Formulation
Prismatic Rods
Plane Problems – Theory and Solutions
Plane Problems – Applications
Variational Formulation of Elasticity
Three-dimensional Problems
Index
0
Plane Problems – Theory and
Solutions
Plane Strain and Plane Stress
Planar Anisotropic Case
Planar Isotropic Case – Biharmonic
Equation
Solution in Cartesian Coordinates
Solution in Polar Coordinates
Kolosov-Muskhelishvili Method
Chapter 5
0
Plane Strain and Plane Stress
Plane Strain
Chapter 5.1
1
The state of plane strain exists as a rigorous and
non-conflicting case.
Assumptions
(1) A prismatic body whose length is much larger
than any in-plane dimension, .
(2) In-plane loads are independent of the out-of-
plane coordinate x
3
.
(3) Absence of normal strain , in a direction
perpendicular to the plane.
max
R L >>
0
33
= c

T

end

R
A
end

X
Y
Z
T
side

V

L
A
side

Plane Strain and Plane Stress
Plane Strain
Chapter 5.1
2
Examples
Plane Stress
Plane Strain and Plane Stress
Assumptions
(1)The thickness of the plate L is much less than any
in-plane dimensions, .
(2)The loads are in-plane and their variation along
the out-of-plane coordinate x
3
is neglected.
(3)The top and bottom planes of the body are traction
free.
min
R L <<
1
X
2
X
3
X
L
Chapter 5.1
3
Plane Stress
Plane Strain and Plane Stress
Combination of the last two
assumptions dictates that
0
3
~
i
o
Non-vanishing field variables:
{ }( )
2 1 33
, , , , x x u
o| o| o
o c c
1
X
2
X
3
X
L
Chapter 5.1
4
Consistence Check by Compatibility Equations
Plane Strain and Plane Stress
Compatibility equation
0
,
=
kl ij nil mjk
e e c
In a plane problem
0
,
=
o| | o
c
ij ni mj
e e
For a plane strain problem
0
,
=
o| ¸o ¸| oo
c
n m
e e
Non-trivial components
3 = = n m
0
, ,
= ÷
o| o| || oo
c c
Chapter 5.1
5
Consistence Check by Compatibility Equations
Plane Strain and Plane Stress
For a plane stress problem
0
33
= c
Alternatives:
(1) If both m and n are not equal to 3, the indices i and j has to be
assigned as 3 to avoid the trivial identity of 0≡0 ;
(2) If both m and n are equal to 3, the indices i and j has to be
assigned as not 3 to avoid the trivial identity of 0≡0 , and
consequently producing ;
(3) If either m or n is equal to 3 and the other is not, can
only produce the trivial identity of 0≡0.
0
, ,
= ÷
o| o| || oo
c c
0
,
=
o| | o
c
ij ni mj
e e
Chapter 5.1
6
Consistence Check by Compatibility Equations
Plane Strain and Plane Stress
0
, 33 3 3
=
o| | o o ¸
c e e
The most general form of 33
c
C Bx Ax + + =
2 1 33
c
o| o|
o o c
ij kl ijkl ij
S S = =
Constitutive law under the plane stress situation
Restriction
C Bx Ax S + + =
2 1 33 o| o|
o
Chapter 5.1
7
Generalized Plane Stress
Plane Strain and Plane Stress
}
÷
L
x
L
0
3
d
1
o| o|
o o
The averaged in-plane components of stress
and strain satisfy all in-plane equations.
Chapter 5.1
8
Planar Anisotropic Case
References
Chapter 5.2
9
1. Cherkaev A., Lurie K., Milton G.W.,
Proc. Roy. Soc. London., A438(1992),
519-529

2. Zheng Q.S., Hwang K.C., Proc. Roy.
Soc. London., A452(1996), 2493-2503

3. Yang W., Ma C-C., Proc. Roy. Soc.
London, A454(1998), 1843-1855
Planar Anisotropic Case
Airy Stress Function
Equilibrium equation
2 1
2
12
2
1
2
22
2
2
2
11
, ,
x x x x c c
u c
÷ =
c
u c
=
c
u c
= o o o
0
,
=
| o|
o
( )
2 1
, x x u
Chapter 5.2
10
Planar Anisotropic Case
J -Tensor
Cherkaev, Lurie and Milton (1992 )
I 1 1 J ÷ © =
¸o o|¸o o|
o
,
u = J
0
,
=
¸o o| o|o
c
gg
J
1 is the unit tensor of rank two.
I is the unit tensor of rank four.
σ σ 1 = ·
σ σ I = :
Chapter 5.2
11
Planar Anisotropy
Planar Anisotropic Case
Two dimensional linear
elastic constitutive law:
¸o o|¸o o|
o c S =
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
4 2 2
2
1 1
D 1 D D 1 J I S v
E
{ }
2 2 2
Re Z D C = { }
4 4 4
Re Z D C =
        

n
z z z n
e e e Z
=
2 1
e e e i
z
+ =
Chapter 5.2
12
Planar Anisotropy

Stretch a fiber along
a direction u :
Planar Anisotropic Case
1
X
2
X
u
) (u E
( )
{ }
u u
u
i i
e C e C
E
E
4
4
2
2
Re 1 + + =
2
C
4
C two-fold symmetry four-fold symmetry
Chapter 5.2
13
Planar Anisotropy
Planar Anisotropic Case
planar tetragonal
0
2
= C 0
4
= C
planar orthotropic
0 Im Im
4 2
= = C C
isotropic
0
4 2
= = C C ( ) E E = u
( )
( ) ( ) u u
u
4 cos 2 cos
4 2
a a
E
E
+
=
Chapter 5.2
14
Governing Equations
Planar Anisotropic Case
0
,
= u
±
o|¸o o|¸o
S
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
±
4 2 2
2
1
Re
1
: : D 1 D D 1 J I J S J S v
E
can be regarded as a rank four rotation tensor.
the consequence of S rotated by 90 degrees.
J
±
S
Chapter 5.2
15
Governing Equations
Planar Anisotropic Case
Governing equation can be expressed in a
much simpler form (Yang and Ma, 1998)
0 Re
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
c
u c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c c
c
÷
c
c
z z
C
z z
C
z
Chapter 5.2
16
Planar Anisotropic Case
CLM Shift
For an isotropic material, the governing
equation will be reduced to :
0 Re
2
2
2
2
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
u
c
c
c
c
z z
No Material
constants!!!
o | ¸o o|¸o | o|
v v o T J = u =
, Traction BCs
C
L
M
One may change the Young’s modulus
E and the Poisson’s ratio v arbitrarily
without any influence on the stress state.
Chapter 5.2
17
Planar Isotropic Case –
Biharmonic Equation
Basic Equation for Planar Isotropic Materials
Chapter 5.3
18
( )
o | | o o|
o| o| o| o | o|
c
µc o ìc o o
, ,
,
2
1
2 , 0
u u
f
kk
+ =
+ = = +
Plane strain ¸¸
c c =
kk
Plane stress
( ) 0 2 2
33 33 33
= + + = + = c µ ì ìc µc ìc o
¸¸ kk
¸¸
c
µ ì
ì
c
2
33
+
=
¸¸
c
µ ì
µ ì
c
2
2 2
+
+
=
kk
A unified planar constitutive relation
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
÷
=
o| o| ¸¸ o|
c o c
k
k
µ o 2
1
3
Planar Isotropic Case –
Biharmonic Equation
Basic Equation for Planar Isotropic Materials
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
o| ¸¸ o| |
o o
k
o
µ
c
4
3
2
1
a
v k 4 3÷ =
v
v
k
+
÷
=
1
3
Plane strain
Plane stress
Chapter 5.3
19

Biharmonic Equation
( )
o| o| o|
o o
,
2
u ÷ + u V = V
o o ,
V f ÷ = 0
4
3
2
1
4
1
2
,
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
V
÷
÷ ÷ V
÷
oo o| o| oo
o
k
o o
k
0
,
= +
o | o|
o f
( )
Stress Plane
Strain Plane

1
1
2 1
1
1
2
2 2 2 2
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
V
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
= V
+
÷
= u V V V V
v
v
v
k
k
V
2 2
4
1
V = V
+
oo
o
k
0
, ,
= ÷
o| o| || oo
c c
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
o| ¸¸ o| |
o o
k
o
µ
c
4
3
2
1
a
V 2
2
+ u V =
oo
o
Chapter 5.3
20
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
Rectangular Regions
Chapter 5.4
21

X
Y
a a
b
b
A strong boundary condition has to be prescribed point-wise.
A weak boundary condition can be relaxed to an integral form.
The error induced
by the weak BCs is
characterized by the
Saint-Venant
corrective solution.
Polynomial Solution
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
0
2 2
= u V V
o| o| o|
o o
,
2
u ÷ u V =
( )
¿
=
= u
0
,
N
N
y x P
¿
=
÷
=
N
i
i i N
i N
y x A P
0
P
0
and P
1
induce no stress.
SUGGEST :
Chapter 5.4
22
Polynomial Solution
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
0
4
0
4 4
= = V
¿
÷
=
÷ ÷
N
i
i i N
i N
y x B P
4 , , 0 , 0 ÷ = = N i B
i

Solution family
N
P
~
N
P P
~
, ,
~
3

3 2
~
,
~
P P
4 independent coefficients
3 independent coefficients
Chapter 5.4
23
Examples of Lower Degree Polynomials
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
Polynomial of degree 2
Y
X
-A
1
2A
0
2A
2
2
2 1
2
0
y A xy A x A + + = u
2
2A
xx
= o
0
2A
yy
= o
1
A
xy
÷ = o
Chapter 5.4
24
Examples of Lower Degree Polynomials
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
Polynomial of degree 3

X
Y
Pure bending
3
3
2
2
2
1
3
0
y A xy A y x A x A + + + = u
y A x A
yy 1 0
2 6 + = o y A x A
xy 2 1
2 2 ÷ ÷ = o y A x A
xx 3 2
6 2 + = o
0 , 0
3 2 1 0
= = = = A A A A
Pure bending
y A
xx 3
6 = o
0 = =
yy xy
o o
Chapter 5.4
24
Lateral Bending of a Slender Rectangle
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
X
Y
b
b
a
F
BCs :
0 =
xx
o
F dy
b
b
xy
=
}
÷
o
: 0 = x
b y ± =
0 =
yy
o 0 =
xy
o
Chapter 5.4
26
Lateral Bending of a Slender Rectangle
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
2
2
y
xx
c
u c
= o
main stress, proportional to xy
TRY :
3
1
xy C = u
xy C
xx 1
6 = o y C
xy 1
3 ÷ = o 0 =
yy
o
b y
xy
± = = at 0 o
NOT satisfy the BC :
CORRECT :
xy C xy C
2
3
1
+ = u
Chapter 5.4
27
Lateral Bending of a Slender Rectangle
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
The final stress
function :
( )
3
2 2
4
3
b
b y Fyx ÷
= u
Stresses :
2
2
3
b
Fxy
xx
= o
( )
3
2 2
4
3
b
y b F
xy
÷
= o
0 =
yy
o
Chapter 5.4
28
Lateral Bending of a Slender Rectangle
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
Q
UESTI ON
:
Does the global equilibrium maintain?
BCs at the right end:
}
÷
=
b
b
xx
y 0 d o F y
b
b
xy
=
}
÷
d o Fa y y
b
b
xy
=
}
÷
d o
REASON
: Local equilibrium plus suitable boundary
conditions along three side naturally leads to the global
balance for the boundary traction over the remaining side.
Chapter 5.4
29
Higher Degree Polynomials – Reduction by
Symmetry
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
B
C
Symmetric part to x (or) y
Stress function contains only the
even degree terms of x (or) y
Anti-symmetric part to x (or) y
Stress function contains only the
odd degree terms of x (or) y.
Chapter 5.4
30
Reduction by Symmetry
Bending of a slender
rectangle by uniformly
distributed pressure :
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates

X
Y
a a
b
b
y x
xx
2
· o
Without more complications, the Airy stress function
would involve polynomials of degree 5 and below.
Undetermined constantants : 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 = 18
Chapter 5.4
31
Higher Degree Polynomials
Bending of a slender rectangle by uniformly
distributed pressure:
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates

X
Y
a a
b
b

Pa Pa
2 P
yy
= o
2 P
yy
÷ = o 2 P
yy
÷ = o
2 P
yy
÷ = o
Chapter 5.4
32
Higher Degree Polynomials
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates

Pa Pa
2 P
yy
= o
2 P
yy
÷ = o
Stress function :
3
5
2
4
5
3
3 2
2
4
1
y C y x C y C y x C y x C + + + + = u
Strong BCs :
b y
p
yy xy
± = = = at
2
, 0  o o
Weak BCs :
a x y y y
b
b
xx
b
b
xx
± = = =
} }
÷ ÷
at 0 d , 0 d o o
Chapter 5.4
33
Higher Degree Polynomials
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates

X
Y
a a
b
b
Airy stress function :
( )
2 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 5 3 2
3
10 2 5 15 5
4
x b y b y a y x b y y x
ab
p
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ = u
Stresses :
( ) y b y a y y x
b
p
xx
2 2 3 2
3
6 15 10 15
20
+ ÷ ÷ = o
( )
2 2
3
4
3
y b
b
px
xy
÷ = o ( )
3 2 3
3
2 3
4
b y b y
b
p
yy
÷ ÷ = o
Chapter 5.4
34
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
Solution by Fourier Series
q
1
(x)
q(x)
Y
X
Symmetric
( )
¿
·
=
= u
1
cos
k
k k
x y f ì
Anti-symmetric
( )
¿
·
=
= u
1
sin
k
k k
x y f ì
Chapter 5.4
35
Solution by Fourier Series
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
( )
¿
·
=
= u
1
cos
k
k k
x y f ì
( )
¿
·
=
= u
1
sin
k
k k
x y f ì
0
2 2
= u V V
( ) ( )
( ) y y D C
y y B A y f
k k k
k k k k
ì
ì
sinh
cosh
+ +
+ =
Chapter 5.4
36
Solution by Fourier Series
Solution in Cartesian
Coordinates
For an infinite or a semi-infinite beam
( ) ( )
}
·
= u
0
d cos , , ì ì ì x y f y x
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | y yD C y yB A y f ì ì ì ì ì ì ì sinh cosh , + + + =
Chapter 5.4
37
Polar Coordinates
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
38
u
r
X
Y
u cos r x = u sin r y =
2 2
y x r + =
x
y
1
tan
÷
= u
u
u
u
u
u
c
c
÷
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
r r x r x
r
x
sin
cos
u
u
u
u
u
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
r r y r y
r
y
cos
sin
Polar Coordinates
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
39
u
r
X
Y
|
|
.
|

\
|
c c
c
÷
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
u u
u u
u
u u
r r r r r r r x
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
cos sin 2
1 1
sin cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
c c
c
÷
c
c
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
u u
u u
u
u u
r r r r r r r y
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
cos sin 2
1 1
cos sin
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
c c
c
÷
c
c
÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
÷
c
c
=
c c
c
u u
u u
u
u u
r r r r r r r y x
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2
1 1
sin cos
1 1
cos sin
Basic Equations in Polar Coordinates
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
40
Stresses
2
2
2
1 1
u
o
c
u c
+
c
u c
=
r r r
rr
2
2
r c
u c
=
uu
o |
.
|

\
|
c
u c
c
c
÷ =
u
o
u
r r
r
1
Laplace operators
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
u c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
= V
r r r r y x
2
2
2
2 2
2
4
1 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
u r r r r
Biharmonic
operators
Basic Equations in Polar Coordinates
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
41
Displacements
u u
u
sin cos u u u
r x
÷ =
u u
u
cos sin u u u
r y
+ =
Strains
u
u
u u
u
u c
u u u
2 2
sin
1
cos sin
1
cos
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
÷ +
c
c
=
u
r r
u u
r r
u
r
u
r
u
r r r
xx
u
u
u u
u
u c
u u u
2 2
cos
1
cos sin
1
sin
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
÷ ÷
c
c
=
u
r r
u u
r r
u
r
u
r
u
r r r
yy
( ) u u
u
u u
u
c
u u u
2 2
sin cos
1
2
1
cos sin
1
÷
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷ ÷
c
c
=
r r r
xy
u
r r
u
r
u u
r r
u
r
u
Basic Equations in Polar Coordinates
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
42
Transformation
r
u
r
xy yy xx rr
c
c
= + + = u u c u c u c c cos sin 2 sin cos
2 2
|
.
|

\
|
÷
c
c
+
c
c
=
r
u
r
u u
r
r
r
u u
u
u
c
1
2
1
r
u u
r
r
+
c
c
=
u
c
u
uu
1
Plane Problems with Axi-symmetry
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
43
A plane geometry with axi-symmetry
(1) Assumption of plane strain or plane stress holds ;
(2) Geometry does not depend on the polar angle.
b
u
r
a
X
Y
Single-valued-ness
{ }( ) { }( ) u c o t u c o
o o| o| o o| o|
u u , , 2 , , = +
Plane Problems with Axi-symmetry
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
44
Stress function
( ) ( )
¿ ¿
·
=
·
=
+ = u
0 0
sin cos
n
n
n
n
n r g n r f u u
( )
( )
0
d
d 1
d
d
2
2
2
2
2
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
r g
r f
r
n
r r r
n
n
Biharmonic equation
1 , 0 = n The solution has the form of r
k
.
Characteristic
equation
( )( ) | | 0 2
2
2
2 2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ n k n k
n n k ± ± = 2 ,
Plane Problems with Axi-symmetry
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
45
Solutions to Euler’s function :
1 = n
3 , 1 ÷ = k Simple roots 1 = k Duplex root
( )
1
14 13 12
3
11 1
ln
÷
+ + + = r A r A r r A r A r f
0 = n
2 , 0 = k Duplex roots
( ) r A A r A r A r f ln ln
04 03 02
2
01 0
+ + + =
( )
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
r A r A r A r A r f
÷ + ÷ +
+ + + =
4 3
2
2
2
1 1 > n
Plane Problems with Axi-symmetry
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
46
BCs :
a r = ( ) u o
1
F
rr
= ( ) u o
u 3
F
r
=
b r = ( ) u o
2
F
rr
= ( ) u o
u 4
F
r
=
( ) 1,2,3,4 , sin cos
0 0
= + =
¿ ¿
·
=
·
=
j n b n a F
n
nj
n
nj j
u u u
For each trignomic terms, one can always finds 4
equations to solve for the 4 coefficients
4 3 1
, , ,
n n n2 n
A A A A
Plane Problems with Axi-symmetry
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
47
Axi-symmetry
( ) r A A r A r A r f ln ln
04 03 02
2
01 0
+ + + == = u
Stresses
( )
2
04
02 01
ln 2 1 2
r
A
r A A
rr
+ + + = o
( )
2
04
02 01
ln 2 3 2
r
A
r A A ÷ + + =
uu
o
0 =
u
o
r
Example : A Hole under Remote Shear
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
48
t
a
a
t
ru
BCs :
a r
r rr
= = = at 0
u
o o
· =
= =
=
r
yy xx
xy
at
0 o o
t o
Example : A Hole under Remote Shear
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
49
u
t
t 2 sin
2
2
r xy ÷ = ÷ = u
· Uniform
solution
Perturbation
solution
( ) ( ) u u 2 sin 2 sin
2
24 22 2
* ÷
+ = = u r A A r g
u
t
2 sin
2
2
24 22
2 *
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ÷ = u + u = u
÷ ·
r A A r
u t o 2 sin
6 4
4
24
2
22
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ =
r
A
r
A
rr
u t o
u
2 cos
6 2
4
24
2
22
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
r
A
r
A
r
u t o
uu
2 sin
6
4
24
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
r
A
Example : A Hole under Remote Shear
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
50
t
a
Stresses
u t o 2 sin
3 4
1
4
4
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
r
a
r
a
rr
u t o
u
2 cos
3 2
1
4
4
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + =
r
a
r
a
r
u t o
uu
2 sin
3
1
4
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
r
a
Along the rim of the hole
u t o
uu
2 sin 4 ÷ =
=a r
The maximum hoop stress
4
3
,
4
t t
u ÷ =
Degeneracy (Solution)
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
51
Terms that do not induce a stress :
u u sin cos Cr Br A Cy Bx A + + = + + = u
13 03
and A A
can be neglected.
1 = n
2
2
+ ÷n
n
r A
n
n
r A
3
( ) ( ) ( )
c c c c c c
c
÷ + ÷ + + ÷
÷ + + = + =
1 1 1 1 1 1
r r
D
r r C Br Ar r f
c + =1 n
( ) r Dr Cr r f ln 2 , lim
0
+ =
÷
c
c
Degeneracy
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
52
0 = n
2 + n
r
2 + ÷n
r
r r r
n
n
n
ln
d
d
lim
2 2
0
=
+
÷
n
r
n
r
÷
r r
n
n
n
ln
d
d
lim
0
=
÷
Other
cu cu
c c
sin cos Br Ar + = u
u ln ln B r A + = u
0 = =
uu
o o
rr
2
r
B
r
=
u
o
1 = n
u u u u cos sin Cr Br + = u
0 = =
uu u
o o
r
r
C
r
B
rr
u u
o
sin 2 cos 2
÷ =
Michell’s Solution
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
53
J. H. Michell, Proc. London. Math. Soc. Vol.31
(1899), 100-124
( )
( )
( )
( )
¿
¿
·
=
÷ + ÷ +
·
=
÷ + ÷ +
÷
÷
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + = u
2
4 3
2
2
2
1
2
4 3
2
2
2
1
13
1
14 12
3
11
13
1
14 12
3
11
04 03
2
02
2
01
sin
cos
sin sin ln
sin cos ln
ln ln
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n r B r B r B r B
n r A r A r A r A
r B r B r r B r B
r A r A r r A r A
A r A r r A r A
u
u
u u u
u u u
u
A Circular Hole under Tension
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
54
o o
3o
÷o ÷o
3o
BCs :
a r
r rr
= = = at 0
u
o o
· =
= =
=
r
yy xy
xx
at
0 o o
o o
Uniform
solution
( ) u
o o
2 cos 1
4 2
2 2
÷ = = u r y
A Circular Hole under Tension(Details)
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
55
From Michell’s solution, the
terms that might match the
uniform solution:
( )
( ) r r r r
r r r r
ln , ln , 2 cos
ln , ln ,
2 2
2 2
u
Terms that lead to decaying stresses :
( ) u 2 cos , 1 , ln
2 ÷
r r
Stress function
( ) u u u
o
2 cos 2 cos ln 2 cos 1
4
2 2 ÷
+ + + ÷ = u Cr B r A r
A Circular Hole under Tension
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
56
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = 1
4 3
2
2 cos
1
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
r
a
r
a
r
a
rr
u o o
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
3
2
2 cos
1
2
4
4
2
2
r
a
r
a u o o
o
uu
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ = 1
2 3
2
2 sin
2
2
4
4
r
a
r
a
r
u o
o
u
Stresses
Displacements for Circular Hole under Shear
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
57
t
t
t
t
Stresses
u t o 2 sin
3 4
1
4
4
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
r
a
r
a
rr
u t o
u
2 cos
3 2
1
4
4
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + =
r
a
r
a
r
u t o
uu
2 sin
3
1
4
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
r
a
Displacements for Circular Hole under Shear
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
58
Strain
( )
u
v t
c 2 sin
1 3 4
1
4
4
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
| +
+ ÷ + =
c
c
=
r
a
r
a
v
E r
u
r
rr
( )
u
v v
v
t
c
uu
2 sin
1 3 4
1
4
4
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
| +
÷ + ÷ ÷ =
r
a
r
a
E
( ) ( )
u
v v
v
t
c
u
2 cos
! 3 1 2
1
4
4
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
| +
÷
+
+ + =
r
a
r
a
E
r
( )
( )
) ( 2 sin
1 4
1
4
4 2
u u v
t
f
r
a v
r
a
r
E
u
r
+
(
¸
(

¸
+
÷ + + =
r
u
r
rr
c
c
= c
Displacements for Circular Hole under Shear
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
59
r
u r
u
÷ =
c
c
uu
u
c
u
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) r g F
r
a
r
a
r
E
u + ÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
÷
+ + = u u v
v
v
t
u
2 cos 1
1 2
1
3
4 2
( ) ( )
}
= u u u d f F
|
.
|

\
|
÷
c
c
+
c
c
=
r
u
r
u u
r
r
r
u u
u
u
c
1
2
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 = = ' ÷ = ' ' + C r g r r g F F u u
( ) u u u sin cos B A F + = ( ) Cr r g =
Displacements for Circular Hole under Shear
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
60
Displacement fields
( )
( )
u u u
v
v
t
sin cos 2 sin
1 4
1
3
4 2
B A
r
a
r
a
r
E
u
r
+ +
(
¸
(

¸
+
÷ + + =
( )
( )
( ) Cr B A
r
a
r
a
r
E
u + + ÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
÷
+ + = u u u v
v
v
t
u
cos sin 2 cos 1
1 2
1
3
4 2
Translation : A = B = 0
Rotation : C = 0
Displacements for Circular Hole under Shear
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
61
t
t
t
t
along the hole :
E
a
u
a r
r
u t 2 sin 4
=
=
4
5
,
4
t t
u =
4
7
,
4
3 t t
u =
MAX :
MIN :
Axi-symmetric Problems(Details)
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
62
p
i
p
o
Displacement fields:
( ) r u u
r r
= 0 =
u
u
0
d
d 1
d
d
2 2
2
= ÷ +
r
u
r
u
r r
u
r r r
r
C
r C u
r
2
1
+ =
Displacements of Michell’s Solution
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
63
BCs :
a r = ( ) u o
1
F
rr
= ( ) u o
u 3
F
r
=
b r = ( ) u o
2
F
rr
= ( ) u o
u 4
F
r
=
Zero resultant forces and zero resultant torque:
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | |
} }
÷ = ÷
t t
u u u u u u u u u u
2
0
4 2
2
0
3 1
d sin cos d sin cos F F b F F a
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | |
} }
+ = +
t t
u u u u u u u u u u
2
0
4 2
2
0
3 1
d cos sin d cos sin F F b F F a
( ) ( )
} }
=
t t
u u u u
2
0
4
2
2
0
3
2
d d F b F a
Displacements of Michell’s Solution
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
64
Orthogonality of Fourier series dictates that the
above conditions only bears influence on the
terms of
1 , 0 = n
Q
UESTI ON
: Three independent equations
WHILE four sets of coefficients?
14 11 14 11 04 01
, , B B A A A A   

: Single-valued-ness requirement of the
displacement fields, and that imposes restrictions on the
multi-valued terms in u
r
u
u
that are linear in u.
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Complex Variables
Chapter 5.6
65
Recall: in-plane elasticity formulation of an
isotropic solid without body forces :
0
2
= V
oo
o u V =
2
oo
o
0
2 2
= u V V
In-plane stress trace is harmonic
The Airy stress function is biharmonic
Analogy to the anti-plane problems
iy x z + = iy x z ÷ =
Complex Variables
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
66
Derivatives
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
y
i
x y z
y
x z
x
z 2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
y
i
x y z
y
x z
x
z 2
1
z z y
i
x y
i
x c c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
= V
2
2
4

Kolosov-Muskhelishivilli Potentials
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
67
( ) z
z
¢ o
oo
' ' =
c
c
2
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( ) z z z
z g z
¢ ¢ ¢
¢ o
oo
' = ' + ' =
+ ' =
Re 4 2
2
( ) ( ) { } z z
z z
¢ ¢ o
oo
' + ' = =
c c
u c
= u V 2 4
2
2
( ) ( ) ( ) { } z z z z
z
¢ ¢ ¢ + ' + ' =
c
u c
2
1
( ) ( ) { }
}
+ = u z z z z d Re ¢ ¢
Fields by Complex Potentials
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
68
Kolosov and Muskhelishivilli potentials :
{ } ¢ ¢,
Stress
( ) z
yy xx
m
¢
o o
o ' =
+
= Re 2
2
( ) ( ) z z z
i
xy
xx yy
d
¢ ¢
o
o o
o
' + ' ' =
+
÷
=
2
Strain
( ) z
m
yy xx
m
¢
µ
k
o
µ
k
c c
c '
÷
=
÷
=
+
= Re
2
1
4
1
2
( ) ( ) { } z z z i
d xy
xx yy
d
¢ ¢
µ
o
µ
c
c c
c + ' ' = = +
÷
=
2
1
2
1
2

Fields by Complex Potentials
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
69
Displacement
( ) ( ) ( ) { } z z z z f iu u u
y x
¢ ¢
µ
÷ ' ÷ = + =
2
1
c
xy
xx yy
d
ic
c c
c +
÷
=
2 (
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷
c
c
x
u
y
u
i
x
u
y
u
y
x x
y
2
1
( )
y x
iu u
y
i
x
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
÷
2
1
( )
y x
iu u
z
÷
c
c
÷
Fields by Complex Potentials
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
70

yy xx m
c c c + = 2
( )
( ) { } z u
z
iu u
y
i
x y
u
x
u
c
y x
y
x
¢
µ
k
'
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
c
c
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
Re
1
2 Re
Re
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } 0 1 Re = ' ÷ ÷ ' ÷ ' z z z f ¢ k ¢
( ) ( ) { } 0 Re = ' ÷ ' z z f ¢ k
( ) ( ) | o e µ k¢ i z i z z f + + + = 2
Fields by Complex Potentials
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
71
Rigid translation
Rigid body rotation
o
e
|
Complex displacement
Strain energy density
( ) ( ) ( ) z z z z u
c
¢ ¢ k¢ µ ÷ ' ÷ = 2
( ) ( ) | | { }
2
2
Re 1 2
2
1
2
1
¢ ¢ ¢ k
µ
c o c o c o
o| o|
' ' + ' + ' ÷ = + = = z z W
d d m m
Coordinate Transform
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
72
u
X
Y
X '
Y
'
( ) z e iy x e iy x z
i i o o ÷ ÷
= + = + =
* * *
c
i
c
u e u
o ÷
=
*
m m
o o =
*
d
i
d
e o o
o 2 *
=
Coordinate Transform
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
73
( )
y x
i
r
iu u e iu u + = +
÷ u
u
yy xx rr
o o o o
uu
+ = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
= +
÷
xy
xx yy i
r
rr
i e i o
o o
o
o o
u
u
uu
2 2
2
u
X
Y
X'
Y'
Coordinate Transform
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
74
u
X
*
Y
*
z
0
z
z
*
Y
X
*
0
z z z + =
y y x x yy xx
~ ~ ~ ~ o o o o + = +
( ) ( ) { } 0
~
Re = ' ÷ ' z z ¢ ¢
( ) ( ) z z
~
¢ ¢ =
y x
x x y y
xy
xx yy
i i ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~
2 2
o
o o
o
o o
+
÷
= +
÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z z z z z z
~ ~ ~
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ' + ' ' = ' + ' '
( ) ( ) ( ) z z z z ¢ ¢ ¢ ' ÷ =
0
~
Disks
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
75
U
c
=U
0
(u)
a
By Taylor series:
( )
¿
·
=
=
0 n
n
n
z z ¢ ¢ ( )
¿
·
=
=
0 n
n
n
z z ¢ ¢
Complex displacement:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
¿
·
=
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ = ÷ ' ÷ =
0
2
2
n
in
n
n i
n
in
n
n
c
e e n e r z z z z u
u u u
¢ ¢ k¢ ¢ ¢ k¢ µ
( )
( )
¿
·
=
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ =
0
2
0
) ( 2
n
in
n
n i
n
in
n
n
e e n e a u
u u u
¢ ¢ k¢ u µ BCs:
Holes
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
76
I
0
I
1
}
= A ÷ 0 d
o| o|
o o
0 = A
d
o ( ) | | ( ) z z z ¢ ¢ ' A ÷ = ' ' A
( ) 0 = ' ' A z ¢ ( ) 0 = ' A z ¢
0 = A
m
o
( ) ( ) | | 0 = ' + ' A z z ¢ ¢
( ) iA z t ¢ 2 = ' A i z t 2 ln = A ( ) | | 0 ln = ÷ ' A z A z ¢
( ) ( ) ( ) z S z A z + = ' ln ¢
( ) 0 = ' ' A z ¢
A is REAL.
Holes
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
77
Single-valued analytical function can be expressed
by Laurent series.
( )
¿
·
· ÷
+ + =
n
n
z z B z Az z ¢ ¢ ln ln ( )
¿
·
· ÷
+ =
n
n
z z C z ¢ ¢ ln
A is REAL, B, C and are COMPLEX.
n n
¢ ¢ ,
the Michell’s solutions for holes
u i r z + = ln ln
Increments of Complex Displacement by
Circling the Hole
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
78
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli functions
( ) ( ) z z B z Az z
*
ln ln ¢ ¢ + + = ( ) ( ) z z C z
*
ln ¢ ¢ + =
are single-valued analytic functions of z. ( ) ( ) z z
* *
,¢ ¢
I
0
I
1
( ) | | C B Az
i
u
c
+ + + = A k k
µ
t
1
Increment of the
complex displacement
Inserted Wedge
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
79
A
( ) ( )
u
u
k
µ
t
iu u e Az
i
u
r
i
c
+ A = + = A 1
0 = A
r
u
( )
Ar
G
u
1 +
= A
k t
u
Be interpreted as inserting
a wedge of an angle :
( )
A
µ
k t
o
1 +
=
( )
z z ln
1 +
=
k t
µo
¢
0 = ¢
o
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
80
C B + k
( )
y x
ib b
i
C B + = +
t
µ
k
x x
u b A =
y y
u b A =
( )
y x
ib b
i
B C ÷ ÷ ÷ =
t
µ
k
Burgers vector
| i
y x
be ib b = +
2 2
y x
b b b + =
x
y
b
b
1
tan
÷
= |
Dislocations
Solutions of Single-valued Displacements
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
81
For a problem free of inserted wedge or dislocations,
The Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli solution is reduced to
( ) ( ) z z B z
*
ln ¢ ¢ + =
( ) ( ) z z B z
*
ln ¢ k ¢ + ÷ =
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Concentrated Forces
Chapter 5.6
82
Following the derivation in the textbook
by Lu and Luo, Section 8.1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | z z z z iR R i
y x
¢ ¢ ¢ ' + ' + A = +
For the single-valued-ness of , and
the relation
( ) ( ) z z
* *
,¢ ¢
i z t 2 ln ÷ = A
( ) ) 1 ( 2 k t + ÷ = + iB iR R i
y x
( )
( )
( ) z z
iR R
z
y x
*
ln
1 2
¢
k t
¢ +
+
+
÷ =
( )
( )
( ) ( ) z z iR R z
y x
*
ln
1 2
¢
k t
k
¢ + ÷
+
=
Solutions without Wedges, Dislocations and
Concentrated Forces
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
83
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli functions
( ) ( )
¿
·
=
÷
+ = =
1
0
*
k
k
k
z a z a z z ¢ ¢ ( ) ( )
¿
·
=
÷
+ = =
1
0
*
k
k
k
z b z b z z ¢ ¢
Stresses at infinity :
( )
0
Re a
m
=
·
o
0
b
d
=
·
o
Stresses along the Hole (Details)
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
84
Traction distribution along a circle:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | z z z e z z i
i
r rr
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ o o
u
u
'
+
' '
÷
'
+
'
= ÷
2
BCs can be expanded by Fourier series
in complex form:
¿
·
÷· =
÷
= ÷
m
im
m r rr
e C i
u
u
o o
~ ~
A Circular Hole under Tension(Details)
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
85
o o
3o
÷o ÷o
3o
Remote tension
2
o
o =
·
m
2
o
o ÷ =
·
d
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli stress functions
( )
1 2
2 4
÷
+ = z a z z
o o
¢ ( )
2 4 1 2
2 2 2
÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷ = z a z a z z
o o o
¢
A Circular Hole under Tension(Details)
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
86
Stresses
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = u
o
o 2 cos 2 1
2
2
2
r
a
m
u u
u
u uu
o o o o
o o o o o o o
i i
i
r rr
e
r
a
r
a
e
r
a
z
a
z
a
z
a z
e i
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
3
2
2
3 2
3 2 2
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ÷ = + ÷
Compare with
Michell’s Solution
A Circular Hole under Tension(Details)
Kolosov-Muskhelishvilli
Method
Chapter 5.6
87
Great benefits of the complex variable approach lie
in the evaluation of displacement field.
( ) ( ) ( ) { } z z z z e Gu
i
c
¢ ¢ k¢
u
÷
'
÷ = 2
( ) u k
k o
2 cos 1 1
2
1
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + + + +
÷
=
r
a
r
a
r
a
G
r
u
r
( ) u k
o
u
2 sin 1 1
4
4
4
2
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ ÷ + ÷ =
r
a
r
a
G
r
u
Plane Problems with Axi-symmetry
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
36
Solutions to Euler’s function :
( )
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
r A r A r A r A r f
÷ + ÷ +
+ + + =
4 3
2
2
2
1
0 = n
2 , 0 = k Duplex roots
1 = n
3 , 1 ÷ = k Simple roots 1 = k Duplex root
( )
1
14 13 12
3
11 1
ln
÷
+ + + = r A r A r r A r A r f
( ) r A A r A r A r f ln ln
04 03 02
2
01 0
+ + + =
1 > n
back
Degen
u cos
3
r u cos 2r u sin 2r u cos 6r
u u sin r r / cos 2 u 0 0
u cos ln r r r / cos 2 u r / sinu r / cosu
r / cosu
3
/ cos 2 r u ÷
3
/ sin 2 r u ÷
3
/ cos 2 r u
u sin
3
r u sin 2r u cos 2r ÷ u sin 6r
u u cos r r r / sin 2 u ÷ 0 0
u sin ln r r r / sinu r / cosu ÷ r / sinu
r / sinu
3
/ sin 2 r u ÷
3
/ cos 2 r u
3
/ sin 2 r u

Michell solution
|
rr
o
u
o
r

uu
o
2
r
2 0 2
r r ln
2
1 ln 2 + r 0 3 ln 2 + r
r ln
2
/ 1 r
0
2
/ 1 r ÷
u 0
2
/ 1 r
0

STRESS
back
Disp
Circular
Michell
1
Appendix
Michell solution
STRESS
( ) u n r
n
cos
2 +
( )( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 2 1 ÷ + ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1 + ( )( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 2 1 + +
( ) u n r
n
cos
2 + ÷
( )( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1 2
÷
÷ + ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1
÷
÷ ÷ ( )( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 2 1
÷
÷ ÷
( ) u n r
n
cos ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1
2 ÷
÷ ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1
2 ÷
÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1
2 ÷
÷
( ) u n r
n
cos
÷
( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1
2 ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1
2 ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1
2 ÷ ÷
+
( ) u n r
n
sin
2 +
( )( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 2 1 ÷ + ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1 + ÷ ( )( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 2 1 + +
( ) u n r
n
sin
2 + ÷
( )( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1 2
÷
÷ + ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1
÷
÷ ( )( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 2 1
÷
÷ ÷
( ) u n r
n
sin ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1
2 ÷
÷ ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1
2 ÷
÷ ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1
2 ÷
÷
( ) u n r
n
sin
÷
( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1
2 ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
cos 1
2 ÷ ÷
+ ( ) ( ) u n r n n
n
sin 1
2 ÷ ÷
+

2
Appendix
back
Disp
Circular
Michell
Michell solution
DISPLACEMENT
|
r
u µ 2
u
µu 2
2
r
( )r 1 ÷ k 0
r r ln
2

( ) r r r ÷ ÷ ln 1 k ( ) u k r 1 +
r ln r / 1 ÷ 0
u 0 r / 1 ÷

3
Appendix
back
Disp
Circular
Michell
Michell solution
DISPLACEMENT
u cos
3
r
( ) u k cos 2
2
r ÷ ( ) u k sin 2
2
r +
u u sin r
( )
( ) ] cos ln 1
cos sin 1 [
2
1
u k
u u u k
r + +
÷ ÷

( )
( ) ] sin ln 1
sin cos 1 [
2
1
u k
u u u k
r + ÷
÷ ÷

u cos ln r r
( )
( ) ] cos ln 1
cos sin 1 [
2
1
u k
u u u k
r ÷ +
÷ +

( )
( ) ] sin ln 1
sin cos 1 [
2
1
u k
u u u k
r ÷ ÷
÷ +

r / cosu
2
/ cos r u
2
/ sin r u
u sin
3
r
( ) u k sin 2
2
r ÷ ( ) u k cos 2
2
r + ÷
u u cos r
( )
( ) ] sin ln 1
sin cos 1 [
2
1
u k
u u u k
r + ÷
+ ÷

( )
( ) ] cos ln 1
cos sin 1 [
2
1
u k
u u u k
r + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷

u sin ln r r
( )
( ) ] sin ln 1
sin cos 1 [
2
1
u k
u u u k
r ÷ +
÷ + ÷

( )
( ) ] cos ln 1
cos sin 1 [
2
1
u k
u u u k
r ÷ +
+ +

r / sinu
2
/ sin r u
2
/ cos r u ÷

4
Appendix
back
Disp
Circular
Michell
Michell solution
DISPLACEMENT
( ) u n r
n
cos
2 +
( ) ( ) u k n r n
n
cos 1
1 +
÷ ÷ ( ) ( ) u k n r n
n
sin 1
1 +
+ +
( ) u n r
n
cos
2 + ÷
( ) ( ) u k n r n
n
cos 1
1 + ÷
÷ + ( ) ( ) u k n r n
n
sin 1
1 + ÷
+ ÷ ÷
( ) u n r
n
cos ( ) u n nr
n
cos
1 ÷
÷ ( ) u n nr
n
sin
1 ÷

( ) u n r
n
cos
÷
( ) u n nr
n
cos
1 ÷ ÷
( ) u n nr
n
sin
1 ÷ ÷

( ) u n r
n
sin
2 +
( ) ( ) u k n r n
n
sin 1
1 +
÷ ÷ ( ) ( ) u k n r n
n
cos 1
1 +
+ + ÷
( ) u n r
n
sin
2 + ÷
( ) ( ) u k n r n
n
sin 1
1 + ÷
÷ + ( ) ( ) u k n r n
n
cos 1
1 + ÷
+ ÷
( ) u n r
n
sin ( ) u n nr
n
sin
1 ÷
÷ ( ) u n nr
n
cos
1 ÷
÷
( ) u n r
n
sin
÷
( ) u n nr
n
sin
1 ÷ ÷
( ) u n nr
n
cos
1 ÷ ÷
÷

5
Appendix
back
Disp
Circular
Michell
Michell’s Solution
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
51
J. H. Michell, Proc. London. Math. Soc. Vol.31
(1899), 100-124
( )
( )
( )
( )
¿
¿
·
=
÷ + ÷ +
·
=
÷ + ÷ +
÷
÷
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + = u
2
4 3
2
2
2
1
2
4 3
2
2
2
1
13
1
14 12
3
11
13
1
14 12
3
11
04 03
2
02
2
01
sin
cos
sin sin ln
sin cos ln
ln ln
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n r B r B r B r B
n r A r A r A r A
r B r B r r B r B
r A r A r r A r A
A r A r r A r A
u
u
u u u
u u u
u
back
HOLES
A Circular Hole under Tension(Details)
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
53
From Michell’s solution, the
terms that might match the
uniform solution:
( )
( ) r r r r
r r r r
ln , ln , 2 cos
ln , ln ,
2 2
2 2
u
Terms that lead to decaying stresses :
( ) u 2 cos , 1 , ln
2 ÷
r r
Stress function
( ) u u u
o
2 cos 2 cos ln 2 cos 1
4
2 2 ÷
+ + + ÷ = u Cr B r A r
back
HOLES
A Circular Hole under Tension
Solution in Polar
Coordinates
Chapter 5.5
54
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = 1
4 3
2
2 cos
1
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
r
a
r
a
r
a
rr
u o o
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
3
2
2 cos
1
2
4
4
2
2
r
a
r
a u o o
o
uu
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ = 1
2 3
2
2 sin
2
2
4
4
r
a
r
a
r
u o
o
u
Stresses
back
HOLES