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Application 7-6 interface

Presentation
6-5 interface Session 5-4 interface Transport 4-3 interface Network 3-2 interface Data Link 2-1 interface Physical

The OSI layer shows WHAT needs to be done and not HOW it should be done.
A layer in the OSI model communicates with three other layers
the layer above it - service user the layer below it - service provider the same layer at its communication partner

Service access point (SAP) is a conceptual location at which one OSI layer can request the services of another OSI layer.

Link
Application 7-6 interface Intermediate node

Link
Application 7-6 interface

Presentation
6-5 interface Session 5-4 interface Transport 4-3 interface Network 3-2 interface Data Link 2-1 interface Physical Physical Physical Data Link Data Link Network

Presentation
6-5 interface Session 5-4 interface Transport 4-3 interface Network 3-2 interface Data Link 2-1 interface Physical

Physical communication

Physical communication

Network

Network

Router
Application 7-6 interface Application 7-6 interface

Presentation
6-5 interface Session 5-4 interface Transport 4-3 interface Network 3-2 interface Data Link 2-1 interface Physical Physical Physical Data Link Data Link Network

Presentation
6-5 interface Session 5-4 interface Transport 4-3 interface Network 3-2 interface Data Link 2-1 interface Physical

Physical communication

Physical communication

Network

Network

Gateway
Application 7-6 interface Application Application Application 7-6 interface Presentation Presentation

Presentation
6-5 interface Session 5-4 interface Transport 4-3 interface Network 3-2 interface Data Link 2-1 interface Physical

Presentation
6-5 interface

Session

Session

Session 5-4 interface

Transport

Transport

Transport 4-3 interface

Network

Network

Network 3-2 interface

Data Link

Data Link

Data Link 2-1 interface

Physical

Physical

Physical

Physical communication

Physical communication

Functions
Application 7-6 interface

User interface How data is presented

Presentation
6-5 interface Session 5-4 interface Transport 4-3 interface Network 3-2 interface Data Link 2-1 interface Physical

Keeping data separate from different applications

Reliable or unreliable delivery Multiplexing Logical addressing, which routers use for path determination Combination of bits into bytes, and bytes into frames Access to the media using MAC address Moving of bits between devices Specification of voltage, wire speed, and cable pin-outs

Application Layer
Interface Between Human and Data Networks Provides network services directly to applications

Application Layer

Telnet SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol FTP File Transfer Protocol SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol NCP Network core protocol SMB Service Message Block

Presentation Layer

7. Application

6. Presentation

Format of data Data structure Data conversion Data compression Data encryption

Presentation Layer

7. Application

6. Presentation

MPEG Motion Picture Expert Group QuickTime ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal interchange GIF - Graphical Interchange Format TIFF Tagged Image File Format JPEG Joint Photographic Expert Group

Session Layer
Provides session-oriented services between source and destination Major Issues:
how is connection established? how is transmission synchronized? how is connection terminated? how is connection resumed if service interrupted?

NFS Network File System SQL - Structured Query Language RPC Remote Procedure Call ZIP - Zone Information Protocol

Transport Layer
Source to destination delivery of messages (collection of packets). Major Issues:
how is message segmented into packets? how are packets reassembled into messages? how are packets delivered to correct application (port address)? is connection between source and destination maintained? and if so, how?

Transport Layer
Responsible for source-to-destination (end-to-end) delivery of the entire message. Provides reliable, transparent transfer of data over networks. Connection oriented Error detection and recovery Segmentation & reassembly

Connectionless

Network Layer
Purpose: control subnet operation -- source to destination delivery of packet (header+frame) Major Issues:
Logical addresses: source and destination how is packet switched when it arrives at intermediate node? how is packet routed from source to destination? how is transmission flow between network nodes regulated? how is internetworking handled (passing packet between different network technologies)? Devices use Transport layer to connect processes Network layer connects devices to each other

Network Layer

Responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet Route, routing table, routing protocol Logical address IP IPX AppleTalk

What is Routing?
Routing is moving the incoming packets to the destination

What does Router do?


Determines the optimal path to the destination What does optimal route mean ? to each destination Learns about different path
Minimize mean packet delay and stores the best throughput path information in the routing Maximize the network table Mininize the number of hops along the path

Transports the packets to the destination

Routing
Protocols

Routing protocols
enables a packet to be forwarded from one host to another based on the addressing scheme IGRP, Enhanced IGRP, OSPF, EGP, BGP, RIP.

Routed protocols (Network protocols)


provides mechanisms for sharing routing information between routers to update the routing tables occur at the upper five layers Internet Protocol (IP), AppleTalk, Novell NetWare and Xerox Network System (XNS).