You are on page 1of 34


2.1 Understanding cells 2.2 Understanding unicellular and multicellular organisms 2.3 Understanding that cells from tissues, organs and systems in the human body 2.4 Realising that humans are complex organisms
Prepared by: Lee Hock Tiang

2.1 What is a cell? 1. All living things consist of basic unit known as cells. 2. These cells are microscopic because they can only be seen under a microscope. 3. The cell discovery: a. In 1665, Robert Hooke, an English scientist, became the first person to study the cell. b. He studied a cork that has been sliced very thinly. He discovered that the cork consists of small units in the shape of bricks. These small units are called cells, which in Lantin means ‘small rooms’. 4. A human body is made up of million of cells which have different shapes and sizes.

An animal cell and a plant cell are shown in the following diagrams.

The General Structures of Animal and Plant Cells 1. b. each cell consists of: Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus The cell membrane is a thin. 2. c. b. All living things consist of cells. The cell membrane separates a cell from other cells. a. semi-permeable layer which surrounds a cell to retain the contents of the cell. a. . The cell membrane allows only certain substances to enter or exit the cell because of its semi-permeability. Generally. Cell is the fundamental unit of all living things.

a cell can be said to consist of protoplasm and cell membrane. The nucleus which contains the thread-like genetic substances controls all the activities of the cell. b. Without the nucleus. . The nucleus is a compact body that looks like a big sphere in the cell.The General Structures of Animal and Plant Cells 3. 5. The general structures of animal and plant cells can be observed using a microscope. 4. Protoplasm is made up of nucleus and cytoplasm. 7. a. It consists mainly of water (90%). Therefore. Cytoplasm is a semi-solid (jelly-like) substance which is a place where chemical processes in the cell take place. cell would not live. 6.

The table below lists the structures of cells and their functions. 2. The cell structures help the cells to carry out and maintain the stability of life processes. gives a regular shape and protects the plant cell Animal cell – contains air. Function A place where chemical processes in the cell take place Controls all the activities of the cell and has genetic materials (chromosomes) Supports plant cell. liquid or food particles. Smaller than the vacuole of a plant cell and numerous Plant cell – filled with cell sap and forms the biggest part of a plant cell Contains chlorophyll for the process of photosynthesis Controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell Cell Structure Cytoplasm Nucleus Cell wall Vacuole Chloroplast Cell membrane .The Functions of the Cell Structures 1.

The Similarities and Differences Between Animal and Plant Cells Similarities  Both of the cells have cell membrane. cytoplasm and nucleus Differences Animal cell Small and has an irregular shapes Absence of cell wall Vacuoles exist only in animal cells of the lower category Absence of chloroplasts Plant cell Big and has a regular shape Has cell wall (made up of cellulose) and function to protect the cell and give it a regular shape Has big vacuoles that are spaces which have cell fluid and food Has chloroplasts which contain a green pigment called chlorophyll to absorb sunlight to make food during photosynthesis .

Microscope .

Microscope .

Microorganisms are also known as microbes. 4. protozoa and viruses. 5. in the air. . Microorganisms exist in various habitats including in the water. 2. fungi. Microorganisms include bacteria. on a plant.2 Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms What is a microorganism? 1. 3. Microorganisms are minute living things which can only be seen under microscope. Organisms consist of living things (animals and plats). in the solid and in a human body.2.

rivers and other aquatic places. 2. Examples of unicellular organisms: Animal such as Amoeba and Paramecium Plants such as Euglena. a. 4. Unicellular organisms are normally found in damp places such as drains. 3. b. . ponds. Euglena and Chlamydomonas have chlorophyll and can make their own food. Unicellular organisms are microorganisms which are made up of only one cell and can only be seen under a microscope. Chlamydomonas and Pleurococcus Unicellular organisms performs all life processes within the single cell.Unicellular Organisms 1. 5.

Examples of unicellular .

Multicellular organisms include humans. Each type of cell carries out a specific function or life process. . 4. Hydra is a multicellular animal and Spirogyra is a multicellular plant.Multicellular Organisms 1. Multicellular organisms have many types of cells with distinct and special functions. and plants which consist of many cells. These cause the multicellular organisms to be bigger in size. Hydra and Spirogyra are two examples of simple multicellular organisms. 5. animals 2. 3.

Examples of Multicellular Organism .

3 Cell Organization in the Human Body Type of Human Cells and Their Functions 1. Each type of cell has own function. Human beings are complex multicellular organisms made up of millions of cells. . A specialized cell is a cell that carries out a certain function and this is important in order to carry out and maintain the stability of the life processes. 3. 2. There are different types of cells with different shapes and sizes. 4.2.

Cells in the Human Body .

The types of cells in the human body and their functions Type of cells Function Red blood cells White blood cells Nerve cells Muscle cells Reproductive cells (sperm/ovum) Epithelial cells Carry oxygen throughout the body Protect the body from infections by destroying bacteria Send messages (nerve impulses) from one part of the body to another Control and enable movements of body parts Involved in reproduction Protect the surfaces of organs .

They are: a. Muscle tissue which consists of muscle cells that contract and relax to enable movements of body parts c. fat. Connective tissue which connects and binds different tissues together as in blood. Epithelial tissue which consists of epithelial cells that function to protect the cells beneath them b. In humans. . cartilage and bone tissues. there are four main types of tissues. Nerve tissue which consists of nerve cells transmit information (nerve impulses) from one part of the body to another d. A group of cells with the same structure and function is known as tissue.Cell Organization in the Human Body Human Tissue 1.

Some examples of human tissues .

muscle tissues. 2. 3. The cell organization of the human heart is shown in the diagram below: . the heart is made up of blood tissues.Human Organs 1. An organ is a group of different tissues cooperating to carry out a certain task or function. nerve tissues and connective tissues that cooperate to pump blood to the entire body. For examples.


2. small intestine and liver. . duodenum. This system helps in digesting and absorbing food. A group of different organs that cooperate to carry out a certain life process is known as a system. pancreas. The organs in the system help to digest large and complex food molecules such as starch. 4. the human digestive system is made up of different organs such as the mouth. oesophagus. protein and fat into smaller food molecules so that they can be absorbed and utilized by the body. 3. For examples. The digestive process occurs in the digestive tract which begins from the mouth and ends at the anus. stomach.Human Systems 1.

from the simple to the complex form. 2. All the systems in the body work together to form an independent organism. Human beings is an organism that is formed by a number of systems. Organism System Organ Tissue Cell Simple Complex Cell  Tissue  Organ  System  Organism . The cell organization can also be represented in the form of the following graph.Organisms 1. 3.

.Human Systems Respiratory system  Nose. trachea. lungs  Oxygen is inhaled into the body while carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body  During respiration. oxygen is drawn in and carbon dioxide is removed.

lungs  Disposes off waste products that are no longer needed by the body  Lungs-carbon dioxide and water vapour  Skin-urea.Human Systems Excretory system  Kidney. mineral salts and water  Kidney-urea. skin. mineral salts and water .

stomach  Digests and absorbs food for body usage .Human Systems Digestive system  Mouth.

. the movement of the human arm is caused by the action of a pair of muscle known as the biceps and triceps.Human Systems Muscular system  Muscles  Enables body movements  Muscles usually react as opposing pairs to produce movements  For examples.

Human Systems Skeletal system  Bones  Maintains the body shape  Provides support for the body  Provides protection to internal organs such as the heart and lungs .

Human Systems Reproductive system  Reproduces offspring to continue the generation .

nerve  Coordinates all activities in the body  Receives stimuli from the surrounding and evaluates nerve impulses .Human Systems Nervous system  Brain. spinal cord.

Human Systems Blood circulatory system  Heart. blood vessels  Carries oxygen and nutrients to the whole body  Carries unwanted excretory materials to the excretory organs to be disposed off from the body .

organs and systems. c. 2. Humans are considered to be complex organisms because they have various types of cells that form tissues. a.4 The Human Being – A Complex Organism 1. b.2. e. A human is a special organism that has been blessed with common sense to: Think rationally Store knowledge Differentiate between good and bad Possess emotions and compassion Possess cultural and moral values . d.

Division of labour allows the body to function more effectively as each cell does a specialized job. As a complex multicellular organism. 4. 6. cell specialization is very important in order to carry out various functions efficiently.2. Division of labour ensures that different organs and systems perform different jobs.4 The Human Being – A Complex Organism 3. . Many tasks can be carried out simultaneously because there are many systems in human body. 7. 5. 8. All the systems are interrelated to one another to ensure that whole organism function effectively. These special characteristics in human put them above all the other living organisms.