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Prepared by: LEE HOCK TIANG

The Sun as a source of heat
1. The Sun is the primary source of energy. 2. The Sun is extremely hot as nuclear reactions occur in the Sun to give out heat energy. 3. The Sun releases light and heat energy to the Earth. 4. The distance between the Sun and the Earth is about 150 million kilometres. 5. The heat energy that reaches the Earth is only a small portion of the whole energy of the Sun. 6. The atmosphere of the Earth helps to reflect some heat energy from the Sun so that the surface of the Earth is not too hot.

Heat as a Form of Energy
1. Heat is a form of energy that causes an object to become hot. 2. The unit of heat is joule (J). 3. Heat is transferred from hot to cold areas. 4. Different substances are affected differently by heat. 5. Heat energy is also known as the thermal energy. 6. Heat supplied to an object can cause the: (a) temperature of the object to rise (b) size of the object to increases (c) object to feel hot

(b) quantity of material (mass and volume) An object with a bigger mass and volume has a higher amount of heat. The quantity of heat in an object depends on the: (a) type of material Different objects of different materials have different quantity of heat. (c) temperature The higher the temperature of an object. . the higher its heat content.Heat as a Form of Energy 7.

Sources of Heat 1. The sources of heat are: (i) Nuclear energy (ii) Electrical energy (iii) Friction (iv) Mechanical energy (v) Solar energy (vi) Chemical energy . Different forms of energy can be converted to heat energy. 2.

Drying wet clothes under the Sun 3. Melting iron from ores is steel industries 6. Generating electricity by producing steam 7. Cooking and heating water by burning fuel 4. Drying tea leaves using the Sun’s heat or a heater. Sterilizing instruments through boiling water 8.Uses of Heat Heat is used in many activities. . Preserving food by killing bacteria 5. Evaporating sea water to produce salt using the Sun’s heat. Heating up body during cold weather 2. 9. 1.

the higher the temperature. 2. 5. 4. . The differences between heat and temperature are shown in the following table. A thermometer is used to measure the temperature of a substance or an object. The hotter an object (body). Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of an object. Temperature can be measured in degree Celsius (°C) but the SI unit for temperature is Kelvin (K).Heat and Temperature 1. Heat and temperature are different. 3.

Heat and Temperature Heat Is a form of energy Measured in the unit of joule (J) Transferred from hot to cold areas Temperature Is the degree of hotness or coldness of an object Measured in the unit of degree Celsius (°C) Increases when the movement of particles in matter increases .

Expansion and Contraction of Matter 1. When we heat an object. . The particles of expanded objects move faster and further apart. Heat affects the three states of matter. 3. the object expands but it contracts when it is cooled. An object cools down when it loose heat energy. The heat also makes the object increase in volume. The volume of the object decreases as the particles move slower and come closer to each other. Solids have the smallest change in volume compared to liquids and gases. 2. 5. 4.

Heat flow occurs through three methods. Heat energy can be transferred from one area to another when there is a difference in temperature. 2. which are: (a) conduction through solids (b) convection through liquids or gases (c) radiation through vacuum 3. .Heat Flow 1. Heat flow faster when the difference in temperature is greater.

. conduction cannot take place in a vacuum. 3. a portion of the kinetic energy would be transferred to other particles during collisions. As there are no particles in a vacuum.Conduction 1. Therefore. Conduction is a process of heat transfer from hot to cold areas through solid substances by vibrating particles. 5. It occurs when there is a difference of heat along a piece of metal. 4. 2. the particles vibrate and collide frequently with one another. When the particles at one end receive heat.

5. 2.Convection 1. Convection cannot occur in solids because the solids particles cannot move freely. . Convection is a process of heat transfer in fluids (liquids and gases). Heat is transferred in the fluid from hotter to colder areas. Hot fluid has a lower density and rises upwards. 4. 3. Colder fluid has a higher density and descends to the bottom to fill the empty space left by the hot fluid that had risen up.

Radiation is a process of heat flow from a source of heat to the environment without any medium or matter. 4. The heat that flows through radiation is called the radiated heat. The radiated heat from the Sun flows through a vacuum in space to the surface of the Earth trough radiation. Radiated heat is able to: (a) move through a vacuum (b) be absorbed or reflected (c) move with the same speed as light (d) move in a straight line in the form of waves . 2. 3.Radiation 1.

Comparing the Methods of Heat Flow The comparisons of conduction. Aspect Method of heat transfer Conduction Heat is transferred through vibration of the particles and collisions with neighbouring particles Convection Heat is transferred through particles moving from hot to cold areas Radiation Heat is transferred without any medium Medium of transfer Vacuum condition Rate Occurs in solids Cannot take place in a vacuum A fast process Occurs in fluids (liquids and gases) Cannot take place in vacuum A slow process Does not need a medium Can take place in a vacuum A very fast process . convection and radiation are shown in the following table.

. 5. They are caused by the convection current.Heat Flow in Natural Phenomena 1. This heat flow occurs through radiation. Land breeze and sea breeze are natural phenomena. The heat from the Sun can be felt by us on Earth even thought it is very far from the Sun to the Earth. 4. Another example of natural phenomenon that involves heat flow is the warming of Earth by the Sun. 2. 3.

. Therefore. During the night. the land is colder than the sea. the land loses heat faster than the sea. 3. The hot air on the surface of the sea rises and is replaced by the cold air coming from the land. This movement of air from the land to the sea forms the land breeze. 2.Land Breeze 1.

This movement of the air from the sea to the land forms the sea breeze. 3. Therefore. The hot air on the land which has a lower density rises upwards. During the day. 2. the sea is colder than the land. The cold air from the sea moves to the land to replace the hot air. . the land becomes hot faster than the sea.Sea Breeze 1.

Generally. An insulator is a material that cannot conduct heat well. Generally. A heat conductor is a materials that can conduct heat well. non-metals are good insulators of heat. Some application of heat conductors: (a) Cooking utensils are made of copper and aluminium (b) Metal solders are made of copper (c) Car radiators are made of copper (d) Thermometers are filled with mercury (a liquid metal) (e) Wire gauze is made of iron . 3. all metals are good conductors of heat.Heat Conductors and Heat Insulators 1. 2.

d) Covers of pots. c) Flask stoppers are made of rubber. h) Polystyrene is used to make some cups. g) Blankets are made of cotton wool to trap air. .Some application of heat insulators: a) House ceilings are made of asbestos. f) Sawdust is used to cover ice blocks to trap air. pans or ovens are made of glass. b) Handles and holders of cooking utensils are made of wood. e) Igloos are built of ice blocks.

3. Changes in the states of matter are shown in the diagram. These physical changes are reversible processes. 2.Effect of Heat on Matter 1. . Matter changes its form when is adsorbed or when heat is released.

2. This causes the solid particles to vibrate and rotate at a higher speed. When the particles obtain enough energy. 3. the particles absorb heat and obtain more energy. they move further away from one another and the solid becomes liquid. . b) Ice melts into water when it is heated. When a solid is heated.Melting 1. Some examples of melting: a) A candle melts when it is heated. The temperature at which the solid turns into liquid is known as the melting point.

Freezing 1. When a liquid is cooled. As the particles lose energy. the particles release heat and lose energy. . they move nearer to one another and the liquid becomes solid. 2. 3. The temperature at which the liquid turns into a solid is known as the freezing point. An example of freezing is when water turns into ice in a freezer.

As the particles obtain enough energy. 4. 2. 3.Boiling 1. Water turns into steam when it is heated up to its boiling point. The temperature at which the liquid turns into a gas is known as the boiling point. they move further away from one another and the liquid becomes gas. the particles absorb heat and obtain more energy. . When a liquid is heated.

Evaporation occurs at the surface of the liquid. 3. 4.Evaporation 1. When a liquid is heated or exposed to heat at any temperature below its boiling point. evaporation occurs. . Some examples of evaporation: (a) When perfume is sprayed on the skin the alcohol evaprates from the skin. As the particles obtain energy. 2. (b) Water evaporates from the surface of the Earth such as from the lakes and rivers. they move further away from one another and the liquid becomes gas.

Some examples of condensation: (a) Water droplets formed on the outer wall of a glass containing ice. (b) Dew forms on grass and leaves during a cold night. When a gas is cooled. the particles release heat and lose energy. Thus.Condensation 1. 3. . 2. they move near to one another and the gas becomes liquid.

During sublimation.Sublimation 1. . sublimation occurs. When a gas changes to a solid (releases heat) or a solid changes to a gas (absorb heat) without going through the liquid state. Some examples of sublimation: (a) Mothballs that are used in cupboards can undergo sublimation. 2. 3. 4. (b) Iodine crystal sublimate to vapour (gas) when heated. the solid particles obtain enough energy to change to a gas without going through the liquid state. Gas particles can also release energy and change to a solid without going through the liquid state.

This causes the mercury level in the capillary tube to rise. (b) The bulb of a thermometer is filled with mercury. the mercury contracts and the level of the mercury in the capillary tube falls. Mercury in a thermometer (a) A thermometer is used to measure temperature. . Mercury expands when temperature increases. (c) When the temperature drops.Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter 1.

(b) At room temperature. Bimetallic strip in a fire alarm (a) A fire alarm consists of a bimetallic strip of iron and brass that is connected to an alarm bell. (d) Brass expands more the iron. heat from the fire causes the bimetallic strip to expand.Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter 2. Therefore. (e) Thus. . the bimetallic strip bends and touches the contact screw. the contact screw does not touch the bimetallic strip. (c) When fire breaks out. the electric circuit is completed and the bell rings.

. Gaps between railway tracks (a) Railways tracks have gaps to allow for expansion during a hot day. (b) This can prevent the railway tracks from becoming crooked.Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter 3.

Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter 4. (b) The bridge expands during a hot day and contracts during a cold day. . Roller in steel bridges (a) A steel bridge is built with one fixed end and the other end placed on rollers to allow the bridge to expands.

(b) This is a allow for the expansion of the concrete on a hot day without cracking the road.Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter 5. . Gaps on a concrete road (a) Roads have narrow spaces or gaps between their concrete tiles.

Loosened electrical cables and telephone wires (a) Electrical cables and telephone wires are loosened between the supporting poles.Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter 6. (b) This allows the cables and wires to contract when it is cold. .

Metal cap of a bottle (a) A bottle that is tightly sealed with a metal cap can be opened easily after placing the metal cap under running hot water. (b) This is because the metal cap expands when it is heated.Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter 7. .

This causes the tyres to grip tightly onto the train wheels. (c) The tyres are fixed on the wheels and allowed to contract.Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter 8. . (b) The steel tyres are heated so that they expand and become larger than the train wheels. Metal cap of a bottle (a) The steel tyres are slightly smaller than the train wheels.