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6.1.1 Forms of Energy 1. Energy is the ability to carry out work. 2. All living things need energy to carry out daily activities. 3. Energy enables us to talk, walk and breathe. 4. We obtain energy from our food. 5. Vehicles and machines need energy to move and function. 6. We can get energy in various forms. There are two main types of energy, i.e. stored energy and working energy.

Various forms or energy

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Stored energy Potential energy Chemical energy Nuclear energy

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Working energy Heat energy Kinetic energy Light energy Electrical energy Sound energy


2. a) b)



Potential energy is the energy possessed by an object as a result of its position or condition. It is an energy stored in an object that is: Raised up high above the surface of the Earth Compressed or stretched The height of an object from the surface of the Earth and the mass of the object influence the total potential energy stored in the object. The further an object is from the surface of the Earth, the higher its potential energy.


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Water at the top of a waterfall Water accumulated in a dam A compressed spring A fruit hanging on a tree

SOME APPLICATIONS OF POTENTIAL ENERGY 1. A compressed or stretched spring has potential energy to rotate the needle of a clock. The stretched rubber band of a catapult has potential energy to release the stone. 2. 3. . Potential energy stored in water is used to move the turbine in a hydroelectric power station.

3. a) b) c) d) Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a moving object. An object has greater kinetic energy when it has a greater speed of motion. 2.KINETIC ENERGY 1. Examples of situations that involve kinetic energy: Blowing wing Moving cars or vehicles A man running Flowing water .

kinetic energy from flowing water in the river is used to carry logs from the forest to the sawmill. 4. Waves have kinetic energy which can be used to rotate a dynamo to generate electrical energy. 2. . Kinetic energy from wind can rotate the blades of windmills to generate electrical energy and to move a yacht. 3. In the logging industry.SOME APPLICATIONS OF KINETIC ENERGY: 1. Kinetic energy from jets of water is used in tin mining.

a) b) c) d) e) 4. 3. Light energy is obtained from objects that produce light. Light energy can be detected by the eyes.LIGHT ENERGY 1. . The Sun Flame from a burning object Glowing light bulb Lightning Chemical reactions The light energy that reaches the Earth originates from the Sun. Some sources of light energy. 2.

5. 4. 3. 2. Sight mechanism in humans Photosynthesis process in green plants Controlling traffic with traffic lights Solar cells absorbing sunlight which is then converted into electrical energy Video and film shows Cameras and photostating machines .SOME APPLICATIONS OF LIGHT ENERGY: 1. 6.

Heat energy flows from an area of higher temperature to an area of lower temperature. 4. a) b) c) d) Heat energy is the energy that brings about a rise in the temperature of an object. 2. Some sources of heat energy: The Sun Fire Burning fuel Electrical applications . A burning material releases heat energy.HEAT ENERGY 1. 3.

2. 5. 4.SOME APPLICATIONS OF HEAT ENERGY: 1. 3. Keeping the body warm Heating water and cooking food Drying wet clothes Preserving food Turning turbine to generate electrical energy .

Some source of sources of sound energy: Voices of man and animals Thunder Sound-producing objects such as bells. 4. 3. Sound energy can be transferred through solids. Sound energy moves through air particles in the form od waves. 2.SOUND ENERGY 1. a) b) c) d) e) Sound energy is produced through the vibration of objects. and horns of vehicles Musical instruments Waves . ticking clocks. liquids and gases but not through a vacuum. Sound energy that is produced by vibrating objects can be detected by ears. 5.

SOME APPLICATIONS OF SOUND ENERGY: 1. 2. Music and songs can be enjoyed as a form of entertainment. 3. . Warning equipment such as sirens from ambulances and police cars can function. Man can communicate with one another.

battery and lightning. a) b) c) Electrical energy is produced by moving charges or electric current. electrical generator. 3.ELECTRICAL ENERGY 1. Some applications of electrical energy: To light a bulb To turn on a television and a computer To turn on an electric kettle or other electrical appliance . 2. Some sources of electrical energy are the dynamo.

3. This energy is also called energy of motion. Some examples of mechanical energy: An operating machine such as the rotating blades of a fan The rotating wheels of a vehicle The oscillation of a simple pendulum The board of a seesaw which is moving up and down The rocking of a cradle . 2. 4. a) b) c) d) e) Mechanical energy is made up of kinetic energy and potential energy Mechanical energy is produced by machines and objects which change their positions.MECHANICAL ENERGY 1.

sound and electrical energy. 5. 6. 4. The chemical energy stored in food is released when the food is oxidized in the body to provide heat energy. petrol and alcohol are burnt. In a dry cell. 2. 3. Chemical energy can change to heat. light. Chemical energy is the energy stored in chemical substances such as food and fuel.CHEMICAL ENERGY 1. the chemical energy stored is converted into electrical energy. Chemical energy is released when an object undergoes chemical reaction or when it is burnt. charcoal. When fuels such as natural gas. the stored chemical energy is released in the form of light and heat energy. .

SOME APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENERGY: 1. Production of mechanical energy to move egines of vehicles and machines. 2. Chemical energy in food produces heat energy to keep the body warm. 3. Chemical energy in the battery produces electrical energy for electrical equipments to function. .

NUCLEAR ENERGY 1. Nuclear fission is the splitting up of an atom to form smaller atoms. Nuclear energy released during nuclear fusin and fission exists in the form of heat. light and sound energy or in the form of hazardous radiation. Nuclear energy is stored in the nucleus of an atom. . Two types of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy: Nuclear fusion is the combination of two small atoms to produce a bigger atom. a) b) 3. 2.

To produce atomic and hydrogen bombs. To move nuclear submarines. 2.SOME APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY: 1. . 3. To produce electrical energy in nuclear-generating stations.

Waves and tides 7. The Sun 2.6. Water 5. Fossil fuels 6. Biomass 3.1. Wind 4. Radioactive substances . Geothermal sources 8.2 SOURCES OF ENERGY Some examples of energy sources: 1.

Solar energy is used by green plants to carry out photosynthesis.THE SUN 1. 3. . Solar energy can be converted into heat and electrical energy. The Sun gives out solar energy. 2.

Biomass energy is used to produce: Steam to warm houses Electrical energy by driving turbines and dynamos In Malaysia. Decomposition of plant and animal wastes by bacteria produces carbon dioxide and biomass fuels such as alcohol and biogas.BIOMASS 1. 2. 3. methane gas is generated in tanks as fuel by decomposing organic wastes from rubber estates and palm oil plantations. Plant and animal waste can be burnt to produce biomass energy. . a) b) 4.

2. a) b) c) Wind moves from a cooler place to a warmer place and wind possesses kinetic energy. 3. Some applications of wind energy: To move a windmill To move a sailing boat To move wind turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy . Uneven heating of the surface of the surface of the Earth by the Sun creates wind.WIND 1.

it has kinetic energy. Potential energy is stored in the water in the dam. 2.WATER 1. A dam can block water in a river. When the water flows out. . Turbines in a hydroelectric power station are turned by kinetic energy from the flowing water. 3.

natural gas and petroleum are fossil fuels. 2. diesel. a) b) c) Coal. Fossil fuels are widely used nowadays especially to move vehicles. kerosene) – to move vehicles and engines .FOSSIL FUELS 1. Some uses of fossil fuels: Coal – to warm houses in cold countries Natural gas – to cook food Petroleum (petrol. These fossil fuels were formed from the remains of plants and animals buried in the Earth millions of years ago. 3.

WAVES AND TIDES 1. . Tides are used to rotate turbines to generate electrical energy. High and low tides occur due to the gravitational pull of the Moon towards the sea water. Waves have potential energy and kinetic energy. 2. 3. 4. Waves are produced when wind blows on the surface of the sea.

.GEOTHERMAL SOURCES 1. Geothermal energy is converted into electrical energy. Steam from geysers is used to generate electrical energy. 4. 3. 2. The inside of the Earth is very hot and some of the heat energy of hot springs. We obtain geothermal energy from the inside of the Earth as heat energy. geysers and volcanoes come out through eruptions.

Some uses of nuclear energy: To drive turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy To drive propellers which move submarines .RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES 1. a) b) The splitting of the atoms of uranium or plutonium in a controlled way in reactor produces nuclear energy. 2.

.6. 4. 2.1. The Sun gives out direct energy to the Earth as heat and light energy. Nuclear fusion occurs in the Sun as hydrogen atoms combine to form helium atoms and release a large amount of heat and light energy. All living things depend on energy from the Sun.3 THE SUN AS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF ENERGY 1. 3. The Sun is the primary source of energy on Earth.

Human beings can carry out their daily activities. . The food chain is affected if plants do not carry out photosynthesis. Energy for operating appliances such as solar calculators and solar heaters is obtained from solar energy.SOME OF THE EXAMPLES ARE AS FOLLOW: a) b) c) d) Green plants can make food through photosynthesis.

d) Organic substances of dead plants and animals become fossil fuels after millions of years. a) Green plants absorb sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. c) When plants are eaten by animals. waves are produced. b) Energy stored by plants is kept in the form of chemical energy. the chemical energy of the plants is transferred to their bodies. .All energy on the Earth has direct or indirect relation with the Sun as the Sun is the primary source of energy. e) When land and sea are heated by the Sun. When wind blows on the surface of the sea. wind is produced.

. Total energy before change = Total energy after change 3. Converters are used to change energy from one to another.1. 5. a) b) 2. 4. The Principle of Conservation of Energy states that: Energy cannot be created or destroyed Energy can be changed from one form to another Energy is conserved because: Some energy may be wasted as heat energy.4 ENERGY CHANGES 1.6. Energy changes from one from to another.

Friction sound is heard and the palms of both hands are warm. Kinetic energy  Heat energy + Sound energy (movement of (the palms of (friction sound) hands) the hands become warm) .SOME EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES AND THE ENERGY CHANGES INVOLVED Rubbing the palms of both hands.

Chemical  Electrical + Light + Heat energy energy energy energy (energy stored (current flow (bulb is (the glass in the battery in the circuit) lighted) area of the of the torchlight) torchlight become hot) .SOME EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES AND THE ENERGY CHANGES INVOLVED Switching on a torchlight Light is produced and the glass of the torchlight becomes hot.

SOME EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES AND THE ENERGY CHANGES INVOLVED Plucking guitar strings The sound of the guitar is heard. Potential energy  Kinetic energy + Sound energy (the guitar strings (the strings of (sound of the Are stretched when the guitar vibrate) guitar) They are plucked) .

SOME EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES AND THE ENERGY CHANGES INVOLVED Tossing a ball upwards The ball reaches a maximum height and falls to the floor. Kinetic  Energy (the ball Moves upwards) Potential + Kinetic + Sound energy energy energy (the energy (the ball (when the stored in the moves ball hits ball because downwards) the floor) of its height) .

We can group the various sources of energy into renewable and non-renewable. 4. . Energy sources can be divided into two types: Renewable energy sources Non-renewable energy sources Renewable energy sources are energy sources that always exist and cannot be depleted even if they are used constantly.6. 3. Non-renewable energy sources are energy sources that can be depleted and cannot last forever. a) b) 2.2.1 RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY 1.

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 1. 5. 4. 2. 3. 6. The Sun Wind Biomass Water Tidal waves geothermal .

NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 1. a) b) c) 2. Fossil fuels Natural gas Petroleum Coal Radioactive substances .

The accumulated sunlight turns to heat energy to heat up water and cook food. 6. . 4. Solar energy is energy from the Sun and it is a clean and non-polluting source of energy. Solar-heated equipments absorb light energy from the Sun. 5. 2. it is very weak.RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY THE SUN 1. 3. Nuclear reactions that occur in the Sun produce heat and light energy. Although energy from the Sun can be obtained easily on the Earth. This solar energy has its disadvantages as it is dependent on weather and the cost of making devices to collect the energy is high. A solar cell is an equipment used to turn solar energy to electrical energy as seen in calculators and satellites.

This cold air which moves fast is wind. This air rises to the top. operate machines and pump water into agricultural areas. rotate windmills. 5. Wind is formed when the Earth is heated by the Sun and this makes different parts of the Earth’s surface heated unequally. Moving air is called wind. 2. . Air which is closest to the surface of the Earth becomes hot and expands. 4. Cold air which is denser moves into the space vacated by the hot air. 3.RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY WIND 1. Wind is also used to move yachts.

3. a large amount of organic wastes is required. Biomass energy is obtained from the decaying process of organic waste matter. The chemical energy stored in the biomass fuel is formed during decomposition of animal and plant waste. 2. To produce sufficient amount of energy.RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY BIOMASS 1. .

To obtain this type of energy.RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY WATER 1. Energy from water can be used to generate electricity. 5. The disadvantages of this source of energy are it upsets the balance of nature and destroys the natural habitats of many living organisms. 2. 6. The gravitational potential energy changes to kinetic energy when the water flows to the bottom to rotate the turbine in the hydroelectric power station. 3. . 4. dam construction involving a high cost is needed and it requires a large area. Huge dams are built in high-altitude areas to accumulate rain and river water. The movement of the dynamo generates electricity. The turbine then rotates a dynamo.

RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY TIDAL WAVES 1. Tides are caused by the gravitational force of the Moon and the rotation of the Earth. The disadvantages of producing this type of energy are the difficulty to get a suitable place to build the station and its high cost. 3. 2. Energy from the tidal waves can be used to rotate a turbine and generate electricity. .

High cost of construction is involved in order to get this energy. The areas suitable for producing geothermal energy are limited. Geothermal energy is the heat energy released from the centre of the Earth. . 2. 3.RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY GEOTHERMAL 1.

NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY FOSSIL FUELS 1. Fossil fuels such as petroleum and natural gas originate from animal and plants remains which have been buried in the crust of the Earth millions of years ago. 2. The use of this energy sources can cause several problems: a) Health problem b) Production of acidic gases such as sulphur dioxide c) Pollution of the environment .

. 3. Nuclear energy is produced by radioactive substances.NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY Radioactive Substances 1. 2. The most commonly used radioactive substances are uranium and plutonium. The cost of constructing a nuclear reactor is high and it difficult to obtain suitable elements.

3.2 THE NEED TO CONVERSE ENERGY 1.6. a) b) c) The development of a country depends on the availability of natural sources of energy. Solar energy is a good alternative for generating electrical energy.2. Communication devices make it easier for us to contact people abroad. Petrol makes our vehicles move faster and effectively. Energy makes our standard of living higher. especially in tropical countries. There are many benefits that we can obtain from renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. The following shows some examples. . 2.

5. .2. wind and wave energy can be used with the help of more sophisticated and efficient equipments. We can construct buildings that use more of solar energy. 4.3 WAYS TO USE ENERGY EFFICIENTLY 1. 6. We can invent equipments that can change the heat energy released to useful mechanical energy. We have to use alternative sources of energy more widely. A certain percentage of energy lost in the form of heat energy when changes of energy take place. 3. 2. Solar.6. Electrical energy should be used more efficiently. 7. We have to use energy efficiently.

Conserving the natural sources of energy is very important to: Delay the depletion of non-renewable energy sources Avoid wastage of energy Ensure that energy is widely used in the fields that need it Avoid bad effects on humans and the environment . a) b) c) d) Natural sources of energy are very important to us in our daily lives. 2.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSERVING ENERGY SOURCES 1.6.

2. 8. Using electrical appliances which use less energy. 5. papers and aluminium. Creating solar-powered vehicles.2 THE USE AND MANAGEMENT OF SOURCES OF ENERGY We can use and manage energy efficiently by: 1. Using wind to move turbines to produces electrical and mechanical energy. 6. .6. 3. Designing buildings that use solar energy. 9.3. Recycling materials such as plastics. Switching off electrical appliances when not in use. Using public transports instead of driving cars whenever possible. Ensuring that the machines are always in good conditions. Using natural fertilizers and reducing the use of pesticides. 7. 4.