# y x x y

xy y x
c c
| c
÷ = t
c
| c
= o
c
| c
= o
2
2
2
2
2
, ,
0 2
4
4
4
2 2
4
4
4
= | V =
c
| c
+
c c
| c
+
c
| c
y y x x
Using the Airy Stress Function approach, it was shown that the plane
elasticity formulation with zero body forces reduces to a single governing
biharmonic equation. In Cartesian coordinates it is given by

and the stresses are related to the stress function by

We now explore solutions to several specific problems in both
Cartesian and Polar coordinate systems
Cartesian Coordinate Solutions
Using Polynomials
In Cartesian coordinates we choose Airy stress function solution of polynomial form

where A
mn
are constant coefficients to be determined. This method produces
polynomial stress distributions, and thus would not satisfy general boundary
conditions. However, we can modify such boundary conditions using Saint-Venant’s
This formulation is most useful for problems with rectangular domains, and is
commonly based on the inverse solution concept where we assume a polynomial
solution form and then try to find what problem it will solve.
Noted that the three lowest order terms with m + n s 1 do not contribute to the
stresses and will therefore be dropped. It should be noted that second order terms
will produce a constant stress field, third-order terms will give a linear distribution of
stress, and so on for higher-order polynomials.
Terms with m + n s 3 will automatically satisfy the biharmonic equation for any
choice of constants A
mn
. However, for higher order terms, constants A
mn
will have to
be related in order to have the polynomial satisfy the biharmonic equation.
¿¿
·
=
·
=
= |
0 0
) , (
m n
n m
mn
y x A y x
Example 8.1 Uniaxial Tension of a Beam
x
y
T
T
2l
2c
Boundary Conditions:
0 ) , ( ) , (
0 ) , ( , ) , (
= ± t = ± t
= ± o = ± o
c x y l
c x T y l
xy xy
y x
Since the boundary conditions specify constant
stresses on all boundaries, try a second-order
stress function of the form
2
02
y A = | 0 , 2
02
= t = o = o
xy y x
A
The first boundary condition implies that A
02
= T/2,
and all other boundary conditions are identically
satisfied. Therefore the stress field solution is
given by
0 , = t = o = o
xy y x
T
Displacement Field (Plane Stress) Stress Field
E
T
E
e
y
v
E
T
E
e
x
u
x y y
y x x
v ÷ = vo ÷ o = =
c
c
= vo ÷ o = =
c
c
) (
1
) (
1
) ( , ) ( x g y
E
T
v y f x
E
T
u + v ÷ = + =
0 ) ( ) ( 0 2 = ' + ' ¬ =
µ
t
= =
c
c
+
c
c
x g y f e
x
v
y
u
xy
xy
o o
o o
v x x g
u y y f
+ e =
+ e ÷ =
) (
) (
. . . Rigid-Body Motion
“Fixity conditions” needed to determine RBM terms
0 ) ( ) ( 0 ) 0 , 0 ( ) 0 , 0 ( ) 0 , 0 ( = = ¬ = e = = x g y f v u
z
Example 8.2 Pure Bending of a Beam
Boundary Conditions:
Expecting a linear bending stress distribution,
try second-order stress function of the form
3
03
y A = |
0 , 6
03
= t = o = o
xy y x
y A
Moment boundary condition implies that
A
03
= -M/4c
3
, and all other boundary conditions
are identically satisfied. Thus the stress field is
Stress Field
“Fixity conditions” to determine RBM terms:

x
y
M
M
2l
2c
} }
÷ ÷
÷ = ± o = ± o
= ± t = ± t = ± o
c
c
x
c
c
x
xy xy y
M ydy y l dy y l
y l c x c x
) , ( , 0 ) , (
0 ) , ( ) , ( , 0 ) , (
0 ,
2
3
3
= t = o ÷ = o
xy y x
y
c
M
) (
4
3
2
3
) (
2
3
2
3
2
3 3
3 3
x g y
Ec
M
v y
Ec
M
y
v
y f xy
Ec
M
u y
Ec
M
x
u
+
v
= ¬ v =
c
c
+ ÷ = ¬ ÷ =
c
c
0 ) ( ) (
2
3
0
3
= ' + ' + ÷ ¬ =
c
c
+
c
c
x g y f x
Ec
M
x
v
y
u
o o
o o
v x x
Ec
M
x g
u y y f
+ e + =
+ e ÷ =
2
3
4
3
) (
) (
0 ) 0 , ( and 0 ) 0 , ( = ÷ = ± l u l v
3 2
16 / 3 , 0 Ec Ml v u
o o o
÷ = = e =
Displacement Field (Plane Stress)
Example 8.2 Pure Bending of a Beam
Solution Comparison of Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of Materials

x
y
M
M
2l
2c
] 4 4 [
8
,
0 ,
2 2 2
l x y
EI
M
v
EI
Mxy
u
y
I
M
xy y x
÷ + v = ÷ =
= t = o ÷ = o
3 / 2
3
c I =
Elasticity Solution
Mechanics of Materials Solution
Uses Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to
find bending stress and deflection of
beam centerline
] 4 [
8
) 0 , (
0 ,
2 2
l x
EI
M
x v v
y
I
M
xy y x
÷ = =
= t = o ÷ = o
Two solutions are identical, with the exception of the x-displacements
Example 8.3 Bending of a Beam by

x
y
w
2c
2l
wl
wl
Boundary Conditions:
Stress Field
}
}
}
÷
÷
÷
= ± t
= ± o
= ± o
÷ = ÷ o
= o
= ± t
c
c
xy
c
c
x
c
c
x
y
y
xy
wl dy y l
ydy y l
dy y l
w c x
c x
c x
 ) , (
0 ) , (
0 ) , (
) , (
0 ) , (
0 ) , (
5 23 3 2
23
3
03
2
21
2
20
5
y
A
y x A y A y x A x A ÷ + + + = |
2
23 21
3
23 21 20
3 2
23 03
6 2
2 2 2
)
3
2
( 6 6
xy A x A
y A y A A
y y x A y A
xy
y
x
÷ ÷ = t
+ + = o
÷ + = o
2
3
3
3
3 2
3 2
2
4
3
4
3
4 4
3
2
)
3
2
(
4
3
5
2
4
3
xy
c
w
x
c
w
y
c
w
y
c
w w
y y x
c
w
y
c
l
c
w
xy
y
x
+ ÷ = t
÷ + ÷ = o
÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = o
BC’s
Example 8.3 Beam Problem
Stress Solution Comparison of Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of Materials

x
y
w
2c
2l
wl
wl
Elasticity Solution Mechanics of Materials Solution
) (
2
3
2
3 2
)
5 3
( ) (
2
2 2
3 2
3
2 3
2 2
y c x
I
w
c y c
y
I
w
y c y
I
w
y x l
I
w
xy
y
x
÷ ÷ = t
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷ = o
÷ + ÷ = o
) (
2
0
) (
2
2 2
2 2
y c x
I
w
It
VQ
y x l
I
w
I
My
xy
y
x
÷ ÷ = = t
= o
÷ = = o
Shear stresses are identical, while normal stresses are not
Example 8.3 Beam Problem
Normal Stress Comparisons of Elasticity
with Elementary Mechanics of Materials
o
y
/w - Elasticity
o
y
/w - Strength of Materials

o
x
/w - Elasticity
o
x
/w - Strength of Materials
l/c = 2
l/c = 4
l/c = 3
Maximum differences between the two theories exist
at top and bottom of beam, and actual difference in
stress values is w/5. For most beam problems where
l >> c, the bending stresses will be much greater than
w, and thus the differences between elasticity and
strength of materials will be relatively small.
Maximum difference between the two theories is w
and this occurs at the top of the beam. Again this
difference will be negligibly small for most beam
problems where l >> c. These results are generally true
o
x
– Stress at x=0
o
y
- Stress
Example 8.3 Beam Problem
Normal Stress Distribution on Beam Ends
x
y
w
2c
2l
wl
wl
End stress distribution does not
vanish and is nonlinear but gives
zero resultant force.
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = ± o
c
y
c
y w y c y
I
w
y l
x
5
1
3
1
2
3
5 3
) , (
3
3 2 3
w y l
x
/ ) , (± o
Example 8.3 Beam Problem
x
y
w
2c
2l
wl
wl
) ( )]
5 6
(
2
) ( )
3
2
2 12
[(
2
) ( )]
3
2
3
( )
5
2
3
2
( )
3
[(
2
2 2 4 2
2 2
3 2 2 4
3
2
3 2 3 3
2
x g
y c y y
x l
y c y c y
EI
w
v
y f
c
y c
y
x
y c y
x y
x
x l
EI
w
u
+ ÷ v + ÷ v + + ÷ ÷ =
+ + ÷ v + ÷ + ÷ =
o o o o
v x x c l
EI
w
x
EI
w
x g u y y f + e ÷ v + ÷ ÷ = + e =
2 2 2 4
] )
5
8
( [
4 24
) ( , ) (
Choosing Fixity Conditions
0 ) , ( ) , 0 ( = ± = y l v y u
] )
2 5
4
(
5
12
1 [
24
5
, 0
2
2 4
l
c
EI
wl
v u
o o o
v
+ + = = e =
] )
2 5
4
(
5
12
1 [
24
5
] )
2 5
4
(
2
[
12
]
5 6 2
) [(
3
2
2 12 2
)]
3
2
3
( )
5
2
3
2
( )
3
[(
2
2
2 4
2 2
2 4
2 2 4 2
2 2
3 2 2 4
3
2
3 2 3 3
2
l
c
EI
wl
x c
l x
y c y y
x l
y c y c y
EI
w
v
c
y c
y
x
y c y
x y
x
x l
EI
w
u
v
+ + +
|
|
.
| v
+ + + ÷

\
|
÷ + ÷ v + + ÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ v + ÷ + ÷ =
] )
2 5
4
(
5
12
1 [
24
5
) 0 , 0 (
2
2 4
max
l
c
EI
wl
v v
v
+ + = =
EI
wl
v
24
5
4
max
=
Strength of Materials:
Good match for beams where l >> c
Displacement Field (Plane Stress)
Cartesian Coordinate Solutions
Using Fourier Methods
A more general solution scheme for the biharmonic equation may be
found using Fourier methods. Such techniques generally use separation of
variables along with Fourier series or Fourier integrals.
) ( ) ( ) , ( y Y x X y x = |
0 2
4
4
2 2
4
4
4
=
c
| c
+
c c
| c
+
c
| c
y y x x
| ± = o i
0 0
] cosh ) ( sinh ) [( cos
] cosh ) ( sinh ) [( sin
] cosh ) ( sinh ) [( cos
] cosh ) ( sinh ) [( sin
= | = o
| + | +
o o ' + ' + o o ' + ' o +
o o + + o o + o +
| | ' + ' + | | ' + ' | +
| | + + | | + | = |
x x H F x x G E y
x x H F x x G E y
y y D B y y C A x
y y D B y y C A x
3
3
2
2 1 0 0
x C x C x C C + + + = |
= |
2
9
2
8 7
3
6
2
5 4 0
xy C y x C xy C y C y C y C + + + + + = |
= o
y x
e Y e X
| o
= = ,
Choosing
x
y
q
o
sinπx/l
l
2c
q
o
l/t
q
o
l/t
t = t
t ÷ = t
t ÷ = o
= ÷ o
= ± t
= o = o
}
}
÷
÷
/ ) , (
/ ) , 0 (
) / sin( ) , (
0 ) , (
0 ) , (
0 ) , ( ) , 0 (
l q dy y l
l q dy y
l x q c x
c x
c x
y l y
c
c
o xy
c
c
o xy
o y
y
xy
x x
Boundary Conditions:
] cosh ) ( sinh ) [( sin y y D B y y C A x | | + + | | + | = |
)] cosh 2 sinh ( sinh
) sinh 2 cosh ( cosh [( cos
] cosh ) ( sinh ) [( sin
)] sinh 2 cosh ( cosh
) cosh 2 sinh ( sinh [( sin
2
2
2
y y y D y B
y y y C y A x
y y D B y y C A x
y y y D y B
y y y C y A x
xy
y
x
| + | | + | +
| + | | + | | | ÷ = t
| | + + | | + | | ÷ = o
| + | | + | +
| + | | + | | | = o
) 1 coth (
) 1 tanh (
+ | | ÷ =
+ | | ÷ =
c c C B
c c D A
(
¸
(

¸
t t
+
t t
t
÷
=
l
c
l
c
l
c
l
l
c
q
C
o
cosh sinh 2
sinh
2
2
(
¸
(

¸

t t
÷
t t
t
÷
=
l
c
l
c
l
c
l
l
c
q
D
o
cosh sinh 2
sinh
2
2
Stress Field
l
t
= |
Example 8.4 Beam Problem

x
y
q
o
sinπx/l
l
2c
q
o
l/t q
o
l/t
Bending Stress
(
(
(
(
¸
(
t t
+ t
t
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
t ÷
t
+
t
t
+

¸

t t
+ t
t
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
t ÷
t
+
t
t
t t
÷ = o
t
= | + | | ÷ = + | | ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸
t t
÷
t t
t
=
(
¸
(

¸
t t
+
t t
t
÷
=
| + | | + | +
| + | | + | | | = o
l
c
l
c
l c
l
y
l
l
c
c
l
y
l
l
y
y
l
c
l
c
l c
l
y
l
l
c
c
l
y
l
l
y
y
l
x
l
c q
l
c c C B c c D A
l
c
l
c
l
c
l
l
c
q
D
l
c
l
c
l
c
l
l
c
q
C
y y y D y B
y y y C y A x
o
x
o o
x
cosh sinh
cosh coth cosh 2 sinh
cosh sinh
sinh tanh sinh 2 cosh
sin sinh
2
, ) 1 coth ( , ) 1 tanh (
cosh sinh 2
cosh
,
cosh sinh 2
sinh
)] sinh 2 cosh ( cosh
) cosh 2 sinh ( sinh [( sin
2
2
2
2
2
l
x
y
c
l q
c
y
l
x l q
I
My
l
x
y
c
l q
l
x
l
y
l
y
l
y
c
l q
B D A C
c
l q
D
c l
o
o
x
o o
x
o
t
t
÷ =
t
t
÷ = ÷ = o
t
t
÷ ~
t
|
.
|

\
| t
+
t t
t
÷ ~ o
~ ÷ ~ ~
t
÷ ~
>>
sin
2
3
3 / 2
sin
sin
2
3
sin sinh cosh
4
3
0 , , 0 ,
4
3
:
2 3
2
3
2
2
2 3
2
3 3
3
5 3
5
: Theory Materials of Strength
case the For
2 / l x =
Example 8.4 Beam Problem
x
y
q
o
sinπx/l
l
2c
q
o
l/t q
o
l/t
o o
u y y y y D
y y y C
y B y A x
E
u
+ e ÷ | + | | v + +
| + | | v + +
| v + + | v + |
|
÷ =
]} sinh 2 cosh ) 1 [(
] cosh 2 sinh ) 1 [(
cosh ) 1 ( sinh ) 1 ( { cos
0 ) 0 , ( ) 0 , 0 ( ) 0 , 0 ( = = = l v v u ] 2 ) 1 ( [ , 0 C B
E
u v
o o o
+ v +
|
= = = e
] tanh ) 1 ( 2 [ sin ) 0 , ( c c x
E
D
x v | | v + + |
|
=
] tanh
2
1
1 [ sin
2
3
) 0 , (
4 3
4
l
c
l
c
l
x
E c
l q
x v
o
t t v +
+
t
t
÷ =
o o
v y y y y D
y y y C
y B y A x
E
v
+ e + | v ÷ ÷ | | v + +
| v + ÷ | | v + +
| v + + | v + |
|
÷ =
]} cosh ) 1 ( sinh ) 1 [(
] sinh ) 1 ( cosh ) 1 [(
sinh ) 1 ( cosh ) 1 ( { sin
For the case l >> c
5 3
5
4
3
t
÷ ~
c
l q
D
o
Strength of Materials
l
x
E c
l q
x v
o
t
t
÷ = sin
2
3
) 0 , (
4 3
4
Displacement Field (Plane Stress)
Example 8.5 Rectangular Domain with
Boundary Conditions
Must use series representation for Airy stress
) ( ) , (
0 ) , (
0 ) , (
0 ) , (
x p b x
b x
y a
y a
y
xy
xy
x
÷ = ± o
= ± t
= ± t
= ± o

p(x)
x
y
a a
p(x)
b
b
2
0
1
1
] sinh cosh [ cos
] sinh cosh [ cos
x C x x G x F y
y y C y B x
m
m m m m m m
n
n n n n n n
+ o o + o o +
| | + | | = |
¿
¿
·
=
·
=
¿
¿
¿
¿
¿
¿
·
=
·
=
·
=
·
=
·
=
·
=
o + o o + o o o +
| + | | + | | | = t
o + o o + o o o +
+ | | + | | | ÷ = o
o o + o o o ÷
| + | | + | | | = o
1
2
1
2
1
2
0
1
2
1
2
1
2
)] sinh cosh ( sinh [ sin
)] sinh cosh ( sinh [ sin
)] cosh 2 sinh ( cosh [ cos
2 ] sinh cosh [ cos
] sinh cosh [ cos
)] cosh 2 sinh ( cosh [ cos
m
m m m m m m m m
n
n n n n n n n n xy
m
m m m m m m m m
n
n n n n n n n y
m
m m m m m m m
n
n n n n n n n n x
x x x G x F y
y y y C y B x
x x x G x F y
C y y C y B x
x x G x F y
y y y C y B x
Use Fourier series theory to handle general
boundary conditions, and this generates a
doubly infinite set of equations to solve for
unknown constants in stress function form.
See text for details
Polar Coordinate Formulation
Airy Stress Function Approach | = |(r,θ)
|
.
|

\
|
u c
| c
c
c
÷ = t
c
| c
= o
u c
| c
+
c
| c
= o
u
u
r r
r
r r r
r
r
1
1 1
2
2
2
2
2
0
1 1 1 1
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
4
= |
|
|
.
|

\
|
u c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
u c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= | V
r r r r r r r r
R
S
x

y

u
r

-

Airy Representation
Biharmonic Governing Equation
) , ( , ) , ( u = u =
u u
r f T r f T
r r
Traction Boundary Conditions

t
ru
o
r
o
u
Polar Coordinate Formulation
Plane Elasticity Problem
|
.
|

\
|
÷
c
c
+
u c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
u c
c
+ =
c
c
=
u u
u
u
u
r
u
r
u u
r
e
u
u
r
e
r
u
e
r
r
r
r
r
1
2
1
1
0 , 2
) ( ) (
2 ) (
2 ) (
= t = t µ = t
o + o v = + ì = o
µ + + ì = o
µ + + ì = o
u u u
u u
u u u
u
rz z r r
r r z
r
r r r
e
e e
e e e
e e e
Strain Plane
0 ,
1
) (
1
) (
) (
1
, ) (
1
= = t
v +
=
+
v ÷
v
÷ = o + o
v
÷ =
vo ÷ o = vo ÷ o =
u u u
u u
u u u
rz z r r
r r z
r r r
e e
E
e
e e
E
e
E
e
E
e
Stress Plane

Strain-Displacement
Hooke’s Law
General Solutions in Polar Coordinates
Michell Solution
u
= u |
b
e r f r ) ( ) , (
0
) 4 ( 2 1 2 1 2
4
2 2
3
2
2
2
=
+
+ '
÷
+ ' '
÷
÷ ' ' ' + ' ' ' ' f
r
b b
f
r
b
f
r
b
f
r
f
Choosing the case where b = in, n = integer gives the general Michell solution
¿
¿
·
=
÷ ÷ +
·
=
÷ ÷ +
u + + + +
u + + + +
u u + u + + + + +
u u + u + + + + +
u + + + +
+ + + = |
2
2
4 3
2
2 1
2
2
4 3
2
2 1
16 15
3
14
13
12 11
16 15
3
14
13
12 11
2
7
2
6 5 4
2
3
2
2 1 0
sin ) (
cos ) (
sin ) log log (
cos ) log log (
) log log (
log log
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n r b r b r b r b
n r a r a r a r a
r r b r b r b
r
b
r r b r b
r r a r a r a
r
a
r r a r a
r r a r a r a a
r r a r a r a a
We will use various
terms from this general
solution to solve
several plane problems
in polar coordinates
0
1 1 1 1
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
4
= |
|
|
.
|

\
|
u c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
u c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= | V
r r r r r r r r
Axisymmetric Solutions
r r a r a r a a log log
2
3
2
2 1 0
+ + + = |
0
2 3 log 2
2 log 2
2 3
2
1
3
2 3
2
1
3
= t
+ + ÷ = o
+ + + = o
u
u
r
r
a a
r
a
r a
a a
r
a
r a
Cr B A a
E
r
u
B A
r a r a r r a a
r E
u
r
+ u ÷ u +
u
=
u + u +
(
¸
(

¸

v ÷ + v + ÷ v ÷ +
v +
÷ =
u
sin cos
4
cos sin
) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( log ) 1 ( 2
) 1 ( 1
3
2 3 3 1
Stress Function Approach: |=|(r)
Navier Equation Approach: u=u
r
(r)e
r
(Plane Stress or Plane Strain)
0
1 1
2 2
2
= ÷ +
r
r r
u
r dr
du
r dr
u d
r
C r C u
r
1
2 1
+ =
Displacements - Plane Stress Case
Gives Stress Forms
0 , ,
2 2
= t + ÷ = o + = o
u u r r
B
r
A
B
r
A
• a
3
displacement formulation approach
• Could also have an axisymmetric elasticity problem using | = a
4
u
which gives o
r
= o
u
= 0 and t
ru
= a
4
/r = 0, see Exercise 8-14
Underlined terms represent
rigid-body motion
Example 8.6 Thick-Walled Cylinder
Under Uniform Boundary Pressure
r
1
r
2
p
1
p
2
B
r
A
B
r
A
r
+ ÷ = o
+ = o
u 2
2
Boundary Conditions
General Axisymmetric
Stress Solution
2 2 1 1
) ( , ) ( p r p r
r r
÷ = o ÷ = o
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
1
) (
r r
p r p r
B
r r
p p r r
A
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2 2
1
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2 2
1
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
1
1 ) (
1 ) (
r r
p r p r
r r r
p p r r
r r
p r p r
r r r
p p r r
r
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷ = o
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
= o
u
Using Strain Displacement
Relations and Hooke’s Law
for plane strain gives the
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
v ÷ +
÷
÷
÷
v +
=
÷ v ÷
v +
=
r
r r
p r p r
r r r
p p r r
E
r
A
B r
E
u
r
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
) 2 1 (
1 ) ( 1
] ) 2 1 [(
1
Example 8.6 Cylinder Problem Results
Internal Pressure Only
r
1
/r
2
= 0.5
r/r
2

o
r
/p
o
θ
/p
D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s

S
t
r
e
s
s

Dimensionless Distance, r/r
2

Thin-Walled Tube Case:

p p r r r r ) 3 / 5 ( ) /( ) ( ) (
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1 max
= ÷ + = o
u
t
pr
o
~ o
u
1
1 2
<< ÷ = r r t 2 / ) (
2 1
r r r
o
+ =
Matches with Strength
of Materials Theory

r
1
r
2
p

Special Cases of Example 8-6
Pressurized Hole in an Infinite Medium

r
1
p

· ÷ =
2 2
and 0 r p
0 , ,
2
2
1
1 2
2
1
1
= o = o ÷ = o
u z r
r
r
p
r
r
p
r
r p
E
u
r
2
1 1
1 v +
=
Stress Free Hole in an Infinite Medium
· ÷ ÷ = =
2 2 1
, , 0 r T p p
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = o
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = o
u
2
2
1
2
2
1
1 , 1
r
r
T
r
r
T
r
T r 2 ) ( ) (
1 max max
= o = o = o
u u

T
T
r
1
Example 8.7 Infinite Medium with a Stress
T a
T
x
y
u ÷ = u · t
u ÷ = u · o
u + = u · o
= u t = u o
u
u
u
2 sin
2
) , (
) 2 cos 1 (
2
) , (
) 2 cos 1 (
2
) , (
0 ) , ( ) , (
T
T
T
a a
r
r
r r
Boundary Conditions
u + + + +
+ + + = |
÷
2 cos ) (
log log
24
2
23
4
22
2
21
2
3
2
2 1 0
a r a r a r a
r r a r a r a a
u ÷ ÷ + = t
u + + + ÷ + + = o
u + + ÷ + + + = o
u
u
2 sin )
2 6
6 2 (
2 cos )
6
12 2 ( 2 ) log 2 3 (
2 cos )
4 6
2 ( 2 ) log 2 1 (
2
24
4
23 2
22 21
4
23 4
22 21
2
1
2 3
2
24
4
23
21
2
1
2 3
r
a
r
a
r a a
r
a
r a a
r
a
a r a
r
a
r
a
a
r
a
a r a
r
r
Try Stress Function
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷ = t
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = o
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = o
u
u
2 sin
2 3
1
2
2 cos
3
1
2
1
2
2 cos
4 3
1
2
1
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
r
a
r
a T
r
a T
r
a T
r
a
r
a T
r
a T
r
r
Example 8.7 Stress Results
T a
T
x
y
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷ = t
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = o
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = o
u
u
2 sin
2 3
1
2
2 cos
3
1
2
1
2
2 cos
4 3
1
2
1
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
r
a
r
a T
r
a T
r
a T
r
a
r
a T
r
a T
r
r

1
2
3
30
210
60
240
90
270
120
300
150
330
180 0
T a / ) , ( u o
u
T a / ) , ( u o ÷
u
0 ) 30 , ( , ) 0 , (
) 2 cos 2 1 ( ) , (
= o ÷ = o
u ÷ = u o
u u
u
o
a T a
T a

T
a
r
/ )
2
, (
t
o
u
r/a
,

o
u
/
T

T a 3 ) 2 / , (
max
= t ± o = o
u
Superposition of Example 8.7
= +
T
1

T
2

T
1

T
2

Equal Biaxial Tension Case
T
1
= T
2
= T
Tension/Compression Case
T
1
= T , T
2
= -T
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ÷ = t
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ = o
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = o
u
u
2 sin
2 3
1
2 cos
3
1
2 cos
4 3
1
2
2
4
4
4
4
2
2
4
4
r
a
r
a
T
r
a
T
r
a
r
a
T
r
r
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = o
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = o
u
2
2
1
2
2
1
1 , 1
r
r
T
r
r
T
r
T r 2 ) ( ) (
1 max max
= o = o = o
u u
T a a T a a 4 ) 2 / 3 , ( ) 2 / , ( , 4 ) , ( ) 0 , ( = t o = t o ÷ = t o = o
u u u u
Review Stress Concentration Factors
Around Stress Free Holes
T
T
r
1

T a
T
x
y

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
45
o
K = 2
K = 3
K = 4
=
Stress Concentration Around
Stress Free Elliptical Hole – Chapter 10
x
y

S
x
= o
·
b
a
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ = o
¢
a
b
S 2 1
max

0
5
10
15
20
25
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Eccentricity Parameter, b/a
S
t
r
e
s
s

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
c
t
o
r
Circular Case
(o
¢
)
max
/S
Maximum Stress Field
Stress Concentration Around Stress Free
Hole in Orthotropic Material – Chapter 11
Isotropic Case
Orthotropic Case Carbon/Epoxy
o
x
(0,y)/S
S
S
x
y
2-D Thermoelastic Stress Concentration
Problem Uniform Heat Flow Around
Stress Free Insulation Hole – Chapter 12
x
y
q
a
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
o
= t
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o
÷ = o
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
o
÷ = o
u
u
cos
2
1
sin
2
1
sin
2
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
r
a
r
a
k
qa E
r
a
r
a
k
qa E
r
a
r
a
k
qa E
r
r
u
o
÷ = u o = o
u
sin ) , (
max
k
qa E
a
Stress Field
k qa E a / ) 2 / , (
max
o = t ± o = o 
Maximum compressive stress on hot side of hole
Maximum tensile stress on cold side
2 / t = u
2 / t ÷ = u
Steel Plate: E = 30Mpsi (200GPa) and o= 6.5µin/in/
o
F (11.7µm/m/
o
C),
qa/k = 100
o
F (37.7
o
C), the maximum stress becomes 19.5ksi (88.2MPa)
Nonhomogeneous Stress Concentration Around Stress

n = 0 (homogeneous case)
n = 0.2
n = 0.4
n = 0.6
b/a = 20
v = 0.25
n = -0.2
n
o
a
r
E r E |
.
|

\
|
= ) (

-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Power Law Exponent, n
S
t
r
e
s
s

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
c
t
o
r
,

K
homogeneous case
b/a = 20
v = 0.25
Three Dimensional Stress Concentration
Problem – Chapter 13
x
y
z
a
S
S
Normal Stress on the x,y-plane (z = 0)
|
|
.
|

\
|
v ÷
+
v ÷
v ÷
+ = o
5
5
3
3
) 5 7 ( 2
9
) 5 7 ( 2
5 4
1 ) 0 , (
r
a
r
a
S r
z
S a
z z
) 5 7 ( 2
15 27
) ( ) 0 , (
max
v ÷
v ÷
= o = o 04 . 2
) (
3 . 0
max
=
o
¬ = v
S
z

1.9
1.95
2
2.05
2.1
2.15
2.2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Poisson's Ratio
S
t
r
e
s
s

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
c
t
o
r
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
1 2 3 4 5
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

S
t
r
e
s
s

i
n

L
o
a
d
i
n
g

D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

Dimensionless Distance, r/a
Two Dimensional Case: o
u
(r,t/2)/S
Three Dimensional Case: o
z
(r,0)/S , v = 0.3
Wedge Domain Problems
) 2 sin 2 cos (
21 21 6 2
2
u + u + u + = | b a a a r
u + u ÷ ÷ = t
u + u + u + = o
u ÷ u ÷ u + = o
u
u
2 sin 2 2 cos 2
2 sin 2 2 cos 2 2 2
2 sin 2 2 cos 2 2 2
21 21 6
21 21 6 2
21 21 6 2
a b a
b a a a
b a a a
r
r

x
y
u
o
|
r
Use general stress function solution to include
terms that are bounded at origin and give
uniform stresses on the boundaries
Quarter Plane Example (o = 0 and | = t/2)
x
y
S
r
u
0 ) 0 , ( ) 0 , ( = t = o
u u
r r
r
) 2 sin
2
2 cos 1 (
2
) 2 sin 2 cos
2
2
2
(
2
) 2 sin 2 cos
2
2
2
(
2
u
t
÷ u ÷ = t
u + u
t
÷ u ÷
t
= o
u ÷ u
t
+ u ÷
t
= o
u
u
S
S
S
r
r
S r
r
r
= t t
= t o
u
u
) 2 / , (
0 ) 2 / , (
Half-Space Examples
Uniform Normal Stress Over x s 0

x
y
T
r
u Try Airy Stress Function
u + u = | 2 sin
2
21
2
6
r b r a
u ÷ ÷ = t
u + u = o
u
u
2 cos 2
2 sin 2 2
21 6
21 6
b a
b a
r
T r r
r r
r
r
÷ = t o = t t
= t = o
u u
u u
) , ( , 0 ) , (
0 ) 0 , ( ) 0 , (
Boundary Conditions
) 2 cos 1 (
2
) 2 2 (sin
2
) 2 2 (sin
2
u ÷
t
= t
u ÷ u
t
= o
u + u
t
÷ = o
u
u
T
T
T
r
r
Use BC’s To Determine Stress Solution
Half-Space Under Concentrated Surface
Force System (Flamant Problem)
x
y
Y
X
r
u
C
Try Airy Stress Function
Boundary Conditions
Use BC’s To Determine Stress Solution
u u + +
u u + = |
sin ) log (
cos ) log (
15 12
15 12
r b r r b
r a r r a
( )
2 1
e e Forces Y X
r r
r r
C
r
r
+ ÷ =
= t o = t t
= t = o
}
u u
u u
0 ) , ( , 0 ) , (
0 ) 0 , ( ) 0 , (
0
] sin cos [
2
= t = o
u + u
t
÷ = o
u u r
r
Y X
r
Flamant Solution Stress Results
Normal Force Case

Dimensionless Distance, x/a
o
y
/(Y/a)
t
xy
/(Y/a)
D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s

S
t
r
e
s
s

x
y
Y
o
r
= constant
or in Cartesian
components
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
3
2
2 2 2
2
2
) (
2
cos sin
) (
2
sin
) (
2
cos
y x
Yxy
y x
Yy
y x
y Yx
r xy
r y
r x
+ t
÷ = u u o = t
+ t
÷ = u o = o
+ t
÷ = u o = o
0
sin
2
= t = o
u
t
÷ = o
u u r
r
r
Y
y = a
a Y
y
t = o / 2
Flamant Solution Displacement Results
Normal Force Case
0
1 1
sin
2
) (
1 1
sin
2
) (
1
= t
µ
= ÷
c
c
+
u c
c
= ¸
u
t
v
= vo ÷ o =
u c
c
+ = c
u
t
÷ = vo ÷ o =
c
c
= c
u
u u
u
u
u
u
u
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
u
r
u u
r
Er
Y
E
u
r r
u
Er
Y
E r
u
] cos ) 1 ( cos log 2 sin )
2
)( 1 ( [
] sin log 2 cos )
2
)( 1 [(
u v + ÷ u ÷ u
t
÷ u v ÷ ÷
t
=
u ÷ u
t
÷ u v ÷
t
=
u
r
E
Y
u
r
E
Y
u
r
) 1 (
2
) , ( ) 0 , ( v ÷ ÷ = t =
E
Y
r u r u
r r
] log 2 ) 1 [( ) , ( ) 0 , ( r
E
Y
r u r u + v +
t
÷ = t ÷ =
u u
On Free Surface y = 0

-0.5 0 0.5
-0.6
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
Y
Note unpleasant feature of 2-D model that
displacements become unbounded as r ÷ ·
Comparison of Flamant Results with
3-D Theory - Boussinesq’s Problem

x
y
z
P
0
) 1 ( 2
4
) 2 1 (
4
2
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ v ÷

=
(
¸
(

¸

+
v ÷
÷

=
u
u
R
z
R
P
u
z R
r
R
rz
R
P
u
z
r
5
2
5
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
,
2
3
2
) 2 1 (
) 2 1 ( 3
2
R
rz P
R
Pz
z R
R
R
z
R
P
z R
R
R
z r
R
P
rz z
r
t
÷ = t
t
÷ = o
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
t
v ÷
= o
(
¸
(

¸

+
v ÷
+ ÷
t
= o
u
5
2
5
2
2 3 2 5
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
3
,
2
3
) (
) 2 )( 2 1 ( 3
2
,
2
3
) (
) 2 (
) 2 1 (
3
2
) (
) 2 (
) 2 1 (
3
2
) 1 ( 2
4
,
2 1
4
,
2 1
4
R
Pxz
R
Pyz
z R R
xy z R
R
xyz
R
P
R
Pz
z R R
z R y
z R
R
R
z
R
z y
R
P
z R R
z R x
z R
R
R
z
R
z x
R
P
R
z
R
P
w
z R R
z
R
Py
v
z R R
z
R
Px
u
xz yz
xy z
y
x
t
÷ = t
t
÷ = t
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ v ÷
÷
t
÷ = t
t
÷ = o
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
÷ v ÷ ÷
t
÷ = o
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
÷ v ÷ ÷
t
÷ = o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ v ÷

= |
.
|

\
|
+
v ÷
÷

= |
.
|

\
|
+
v ÷
÷

=
Cartesian Solution
Cylindrical Solution
Free Surface Displacements
R
P
R u
z

v ÷
=
2
) 1 (
) 0 , (
Corresponding 2-D Results
] log 2 ) 1 [( ) 0 , ( r
E
P
r u + v +
t
÷ =
u
3-D Solution eliminates the
unbounded far-field behavior
Half-Space Under Uniform Normal
p
x
y
a a
u
1
u
2
u u
t
÷ = u u o = t
u
t
÷ = u o = o
u u
t
÷ = u o = o
cos sin
2
cos sin
sin
2
sin
cos sin
2
cos
2
3 2
2 2
r
Y
r
Y
r
Y
r xy
r y
r x
u u u
t
÷ = t
u u
t
÷ = o
u u
t
÷ = o
d
p
d
d
p
d
d
p
d
xy
y
x
cos sin
2
sin
2
cos
2
2
2
] 2 cos 2 [cos
2
cos sin
2
)] 2 sin 2 (sin ) ( 2 [
2
sin
2
)] 2 sin 2 (sin ) ( 2 [
2
cos
2
1 2
1 2 1 2
2
1 2 1 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
u ÷ u
t
= u u u
t
÷ = t
u ÷ u ÷ u ÷ u
t
÷ = u u
t
÷ = o
u ÷ u + u ÷ u
t
÷ = u u
t
÷ = o
}
}
}
u
u
u
u
u
u
p
d
p
p
d
p
p
d
p
xy
y
x

dx
r
u
du
u
dY = pdx = prdu /sinu
Half-Space Under Uniform Normal

Dimensionless Distance, x/a
D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s

S
t
r
e
s
s

o
y
/p
t
xy
/p

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Dimensionless Distance, y /
D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s

M
a
x
i
m
u
m

S
h
e
a
r

S
t
r
e
s
s
a
t
max
/p
t
max
/(Y/a)
t
max
- Contours
Generalized Superposition Method

x
y
a
a
t(s)
p(s)
ds
y s x
s x s t y
s
y s x
s x s p y
ds
y s x
s x s t y
ds
y s x
s p y
ds
y s x
s x s t
ds
y s x
s x s p y
a
a
a
a
xy
a
a
a
a
y
a
a
a
a
x
} }
} }
} }
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+ ÷
÷
t
÷
+ ÷
÷
t
÷ = t
+ ÷
÷
t
÷
+ ÷ t
÷ = o
+ ÷
÷
t
÷
+ ÷
÷
t
÷ = o
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
3
2 2 2
3
2 2 2
2
] ) [(
) )( ( 2
] ) [(
) )( ( 2
] ) [(
) )( ( 2
] ) [(
) ( 2
] ) [(
) )( ( 2
] ) [(
) )( ( 2
Photoelastic Contact Stress Fields

Notch/Crack Problem

y
u
o
| = 2t - o
r
0
Stress Free Faces
x
] ) 2 cos( ) 2 sin( cos sin [ u ÷ ì + u ÷ ì + ìu + ìu = |
ì
D C B A r
] ) 2 sin( ) 2 ( ) 2 cos( ) 2 ( sin cos [ ) 1 (
] ) 2 cos( ) 2 sin( cos sin [ ) 1 (
2
2
u ÷ ì ÷ ì ÷ u ÷ ì ÷ ì + ìu ì ÷ ìu ì ÷ ì ÷ = t
u ÷ ì + u ÷ ì + ìu + ìu ÷ ì ì = o
÷ ì
u
÷ ì
u
D C B A r
D C B A r
r
¬ = t t = t o = t = o
u u u u
0 ) 2 , ( ) 2 , ( ) 0 , ( ) 0 , ( r r r r
r r
Boundary Conditions:
 , 2 , 1 , 0 , 1
2
0 ) 1 ( 2 sin = + = ì ¬ = ÷ ì t n
n
At Crack Tip r ÷ 0:
Try Stress Function:
) ( , ) (
1 2 ÷ ì ÷ ì
= = r O r O nt Displaceme Stress
Finite Displacements and Singular Stresses at Crack Tip ¬ 1< ì <2 ¬ ì = 3/2
Notch/Crack Problem Results
(
¸
(

¸

u
÷ u ÷
u
÷ u ÷ = t
(
¸
(

¸

u
÷ u +
u
÷ u = o
(
¸
(

¸

u
+ u +
u
+ u ÷ = o
u
u
)
2
sin
3
1
2
3
(sin )
2
cos
2
3
(cos
1
4
3
)
2
cos
2
3
(cos )
2
sin 3
2
3
(sin
1
4
3
)
2
cos
3
5
2
3
(cos )
2
sin 5
2
3
(sin
1
4
3
B A
r
B A
r
B A
r
r
r
) cos 3 1 (
2
cos
2
) cos 1 (
2
sin
2
3
) cos 1 (
2
sin
2
3
) cos 1 (
2
cos
2
3
) cos 3 1 (
2
sin
2
) cos 3 (
2
cos
2
3
0 ÷
0
+ 0 +
0
÷ = t
0 +
0
+ 0 +
0
÷ = o
0 ÷
0
÷ 0 ÷
0
÷ = o
u
u
r
B
r
A
r
B
r
A
r
B
r
A
r
r
y
u
o
| = 2t - o
r
0
Stress Free Faces
x
Transform to 0 Variable
• Note special singular behavior of stress field O(1/\r)
• A and B coefficients are related to stress intensity factors and are useful in fracture
mechanics theory
• A terms give symmetric stress fields – Opening or Mode I behavior
• B terms give antisymmetric stress fields – Shearing or Mode II behavior
Crack Problem Results
Contours of Maximum Shear Stress
Mode I (Maximum shear stress contours)

Mode II (Maximum shear stress contours)
Experimental Photoelastic Isochromatics
Courtesy of URI Dynamic Photomechanics Laboratory

Mode III Crack Problem – Exercise 8-32
y
u
r
x

t
uz
Contours for Mode III Crack Problem
) , ( , 0 y x w w v u = = =
0
1 1
2
2
2 2
2
2
=
u c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
w
r r
w
r r
w
w
2
sin
2
,
2
cos
2
,
2
sin
u µ
= t
u µ
= t
u
=
u
r
A
r
A
r A w
zr z
Anti-Plane Strain Case
( )
2 / 1 ÷
r O Stresses Again
t
zu
- Stress Contours
Curved Beam Under End Moments
}
}
÷ = o
= o
= t = t
= o = o
u
u
u u
b
a
b
a
r r
r r
M rdr
dr
b a
b a
0
0 ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (

a
b
r
M M
0
] ) log( ) log( ) log( [
4
)] log( ) log( ) log( [
4
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
= t
÷ + + + ÷ ÷ = o
+ + ÷ = o
u
u
r
r
a b
r
a
a
b
r
b
a
b
r
b a
N
M
r
a
a
b
r
b
a
b
r
b a
N
M

Dimensionless Distance, r/a

D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

o
u
a
2
/
M

Theory of Elasticity
Strength of Materials
b/a = 4
r r a r a r a a log log
2
3
2
2 1 0
+ + + = |
Curved Cantilever Beam
P
a
b
r
u
u
+
÷ + ÷ = t
u
+
÷ ÷ = o
u
+
÷ + = o
u
u
cos ) (
sin ) 3 (
sin ) (
2 2
3
2 2
2 2
3
2 2
2 2
3
2 2
r
b a
r
b a
r
N
P
r
b a
r
b a
r
N
P
r
b a
r
b a
r
N
P
r
r
Dimensionless Distance, r/a
D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

o
u
a
/
P

Theory of Elasticity
Strength of Materials

u = t/2 b/a = 4
}
}
}
} }
}
= t t
+ = t o
÷ = t o
= o = o
= t
= u t = u t
= u o = u o
u
u
u
u u
u
u u
b
a
r
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
r
r r
r r
dr r
b a P rdr r
P dr r
rdr r dr r
P dr r
b a
b a
0 ) 2 / , (
2 / ) ( ) 2 / , (
) 2 / , (
0 ) 0 , ( ) 0 , (
) 0 , (
0 ) , ( ) , (
0 ) , ( ) , (
u + + + = | sin ) log (
3
r Dr Cr
r
B
Ar
Disk Under Diametrical Compression
+
P
P
D
=
+
Flamant Solution (1)
Flamant Solution (2) Radial Tension Solution (3)
Disk Problem – Superposition of Stresses
P
P
u
2
y
x
u
1
r
1
r
2
1 1
2
1
) 1 (
1
3
1
) 1 (
1
2
1
1
) 1 (
sin cos
2
cos
2
sin cos
2
u u
t
÷ = t
u
t
÷ = o
u u
t
÷ = o
r
P
r
P
r
P
xy
y
x
0 ,
2
) 3 ( ) 3 ( ) 3 (
= t
t
= o = o
xy y x
D
P
(
¸
(

¸
+
÷
÷
t
= t
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
+
÷
t
÷ = o
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
+
÷
t
÷ = o
4
2
2
4
1
2
4
2
3
4
1
3
4
2
2
4
1
2
) ( ) ( 2
1 ) ( ) ( 2
1 ) ( ) ( 2
r
x y R
r
x y R P
D r
y R
r
y R P
D r
x y R
r
x y R P
xy
y
x
2 2
2 , 1
) ( y R x r  + =
2 2
2
2
) 2 (
2
3
2
) 2 (
2
2
2
2
) 2 (
sin cos
2
cos
2
sin cos
2
u u
t
÷ = t
u
t
÷ = o
u u
t
÷ = o
r
P
r
P
r
P
xy
y
x
Disk Problem – Results
0 ) 0 , (
1
) 4 (
4 2
) 0 , (
4
4 2
) 0 , (
2 2 2
4
2
2 2
2 2
= t
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+ t
÷ = o
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
t
= o
x
x D
D
D
P
x
x D
x D
D
P
x
xy
y
x
0 ) , 0 (
1
2
2
2
2 2
) , 0 (
2
) , 0 (
= t
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
+
÷ t
÷ = o
=
t
= o
y
D y D y D
P
y
D
P
y
xy
y
x
Constant

(Theoretical t
max
Contours) (Photoelastic Contours)
(Courtesy of URI Dynamic Photomechanics Lab)
x-axis (y = 0)
y-axis (x = 0)

P
P
u
2
y
x
u
1
r
1
r
2
Applications to Granular Media Modeling
Contact Load Transfer Between Idealized Grains
(Courtesy of URI Dynamic Photomechanics Lab)
P
P
P
P

Four-Contact Grain