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Amino Acids Proteins, and Enzymes

Types of Proteins Amino Acids The Peptide Bond

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growth hormone catalyzes reactions in cells immune response 2 .Types of Proteins • • • • • • • Type Structural Contractile Transport Storage Hormonal Enzyme Protection Examples tendons. hair. nails muscles hemoglobin milk insulin. cartilage.

Amino Acids • • • • Building blocks of proteins Carboxylic acid group Amino group Side group R gives unique characteristics R side chain I H2H—C —COOH I H 3 .

Examples of Amino Acids H I H2N—C —COOH I H glycine CH3 I H2N—C —COOH I H alanine 4 .

Types of Amino Acids Nonpolar R = H. -N-) Polar/Acidic R = –CH2COOH. CH3. alkyl groups. –CH2C–NH2. -SH. (polar groups with –O-. –CH2SH. or -COOH Polar/ Basic R = –CH2CH2NH2 5 . aromatic O Polar ll R = –CH2OH.

NH2–CH2–COOH CH3 | CH–OH | B.Learning Check AA1 Identify each as (1) polar or (2) nonpolar A. NH2–CH–COOH (Serine) 6 (Glycine) .

(1) NH2–CH–COOH (Serine) 7 (Glycine) .(2) NH2–CH2–COOH CH3 | CH–OH | B.Solution AA1 Identify each as (1) polar or (2) nonpolar A.

lys. ile. thr. met. his.Essential Amino Acids • 10 amino acids not synthesized by the body • arg. trp. phe. val • Must obtain from the diet • All in diary products • 1 or more missing in grains and vegetables 8 . leu.

Amino Acids as Acids and Bases • Ionization of the –NH2 and the –COOH group • Zwitterion has both a + and – charge • Zwitterion is neutral overall + NH2–CH2–COOH glycine H3N–CH2–COO– Zwitterion of glycine 9 .

pH and ionization H+ + H3N–CH2–COOH + OH– H3N–CH2–COO– H2N–CH2–COO– Positive ion Low pH zwitterion neutral pH Negative ion High pH 10 .

Alanine in base. 11 CH3 H2N–CH2–COO– (2) Select from the above structures . Alanine in acid. B.Learning Check AA2 CH3 + H3N–CH–COOH (1) A.

(2) Alanine in base. B.Solution AA2 CH3 + H3N–CH–COOH (1) A. (1) Alanine in acid. 12 CH3 H2N–CH2–COO– (2) Select from the above structures .

The Peptide Bond Amide bond formed by the –COOH of an amino acid and the –NH2 of the next amino acid + O || + CH3 | | H peptide bond 13 CH3 + | H3N–CH–COO– NH3–CH2–COH O + || NH3–CH2–C – N–CH–COO– .

Peptides • Amino acids linked by amide (peptide) bonds Gly H2Nend Lys Phe Arg Ser -COOH end Peptide bonds Glycyllysylphenylalanylarginylserine 14 .

glycine.Learning Check AA3 What are the possible tripeptides formed from one each of leucine. and alanine? 15 .

and alanine Leu-Gly-Ala Leu-Ala-Gly Ala-Leu-Gly Ala-Gly-Leu Gly-Ala-Leu Gly-Leu-Ala 16 .Solution AA3 Tripeptides possible from one each of leucine. glycine.

Learning Check AA4 Write the three-letter abbreviations for the following tetrapeptide: CH3 CH3 CH CH3 CH3 O H CH O H SH CH2 O H 17 S CH2 CH2 O - H3N CH C N CH C N CH C N CH C O .

Solution AA4 CH3 CH3 CH CH3 CH3 O H CH O H SH CH2 O H S CH2 CH2 O H3N CH C N CH C N CH C N CH C O Ala-Leu-Cys-Met 18 .