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CHAPTHER 3 MATTER

Prepared by: LEE HOCK TIANG

All living things can be divided into matter and nonmatter. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. For examples : book, air, soil and animals. Examples of non-matter are light, sound, heat and electricity. Matter can exist in three different states: (a) Solid (b) Liquid (c) Gas Solids rice, sugar, salt, coins, stones, sand and steel Liquids cooking oil, kerosene, lubricant and alcohol Gases air, cooking gas and water vapour

Properties
Arrangement of particles Distance between particles Movement of particles

Solid
Closely packed Very little space between the particles Vibrate about a fixed position

Liquid
Further apart More space between the particles Move randomly and freely

Gas
Very far apart A lot of space between the particles Move randomly, freely and faster in any direction. Indefinite High Very weak

Volume Level of energy Attractive force between particles Ability to be compressed

Definite Low Strong

Definite Medium Weak

Cannot

Cannot

Can

Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space


To Show Air Has Mass

Two balloon are filled with air and are balanced onto a wooden rod.

Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space


To Show Air Has Mass

The balloon that was poked with a pin has become lighter than the other balloon.

Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space


To Show Air Occupies Space

When the water level in the flask rises, the balloon inflates. The water that enters the flask takes up the space of air in the flask. The displaced air then, enters the balloon. This causes the balloon to inflate.

Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space


To Show Water Occupies Space

Water fills the space in the beaker.

Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space


To Show Water Has Mass

The mass of water can be measured by using lever balance.

The Concept of Density


Definition Density of an object is mass per unit volume of that object. Density = Mass Volume SI unit = kg/ m3 1 g/cm3 = 1 000 kg/m3

Example of densities of some common materials


Solid
Material Cork Density ( g/cm3 ) 0.25

Wood
Ice Wax Sand

0.7
0.92 0.95 1.6

Glass
Aluminium Iron Copper Lead Uranium

2.5
2.6 7.9 8.9 11.4 19.0

Example of densities of some common materials


Liquid
Material Alcohol Density ( g/cm3 ) 0.8

Petrol
Olive oil Water Sea water

0.8
0.9 1.0 1.o3

Dead sea brine

1.8

Example of densities of some common materials


Gas
Material Hydrogen Density ( g/cm3 ) 0.001

Air
Oxygen Carbon dioxide

0.0013
0.001 0.002

The density of regular shaped objects

The diagram shows block A with mass 5.0 kg. What is the density of block A? Density = Mass / Volume = 5.0 kg (0.1m x 0.1m x 0.2 m) = 5.0 kg 0.002 m3 = 2500kg/m3

The density of irregular shaped objects


Mass of stone = 50g What is the density of the stone? Density = Mass / Volume = 50g (40-20 cm3) = 50 g 20 cm3 = 2.5g/cm3

Floating and Sinking


Different objects have different densities. A solid floats on a liquid if it is less dense than the liquid. A solid sinks in a liquid if it is denser than the liquid. The less dense liquids will float on denser liquids.

Cork (0.25gcm-3) Petrol (0.7gcm-3 ) Water (1.0 gcm-3) Wood (0.91gcm-3) Lead (11.4 gcm-3)

Mercury (13.6 gcm-3)

Floating and Sinking

Application
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Submarine Transport timber Ships and boats Buoy Hot air Balloon Floats

END Thank You