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# CHAPTHER 3 MATTER

## Prepared by: LEE HOCK TIANG

All living things can be divided into matter and nonmatter. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. For examples : book, air, soil and animals. Examples of non-matter are light, sound, heat and electricity. Matter can exist in three different states: (a) Solid (b) Liquid (c) Gas Solids rice, sugar, salt, coins, stones, sand and steel Liquids cooking oil, kerosene, lubricant and alcohol Gases air, cooking gas and water vapour

Properties
Arrangement of particles Distance between particles Movement of particles

Solid
Closely packed Very little space between the particles Vibrate about a fixed position

Liquid
Further apart More space between the particles Move randomly and freely

Gas
Very far apart A lot of space between the particles Move randomly, freely and faster in any direction. Indefinite High Very weak

Cannot

Cannot

Can

## Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space

To Show Air Has Mass

Two balloon are filled with air and are balanced onto a wooden rod.

## Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space

To Show Air Has Mass

The balloon that was poked with a pin has become lighter than the other balloon.

## Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space

To Show Air Occupies Space

When the water level in the flask rises, the balloon inflates. The water that enters the flask takes up the space of air in the flask. The displaced air then, enters the balloon. This causes the balloon to inflate.

## Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space

To Show Water Occupies Space

## Matter Has Mass and Occupies Space

To Show Water Has Mass

## The Concept of Density

Definition Density of an object is mass per unit volume of that object. Density = Mass Volume SI unit = kg/ m3 1 g/cm3 = 1 000 kg/m3

## Example of densities of some common materials

Solid
Material Cork Density ( g/cm3 ) 0.25

Wood
Ice Wax Sand

0.7
0.92 0.95 1.6

Glass

2.5
2.6 7.9 8.9 11.4 19.0

## Example of densities of some common materials

Liquid
Material Alcohol Density ( g/cm3 ) 0.8

Petrol
Olive oil Water Sea water

0.8
0.9 1.0 1.o3

1.8

## Example of densities of some common materials

Gas
Material Hydrogen Density ( g/cm3 ) 0.001

Air
Oxygen Carbon dioxide

0.0013
0.001 0.002

## The density of regular shaped objects

The diagram shows block A with mass 5.0 kg. What is the density of block A? Density = Mass / Volume = 5.0 kg (0.1m x 0.1m x 0.2 m) = 5.0 kg 0.002 m3 = 2500kg/m3

## The density of irregular shaped objects

Mass of stone = 50g What is the density of the stone? Density = Mass / Volume = 50g (40-20 cm3) = 50 g 20 cm3 = 2.5g/cm3

## Floating and Sinking

Different objects have different densities. A solid floats on a liquid if it is less dense than the liquid. A solid sinks in a liquid if it is denser than the liquid. The less dense liquids will float on denser liquids.

Cork (0.25gcm-3) Petrol (0.7gcm-3 ) Water (1.0 gcm-3) Wood (0.91gcm-3) Lead (11.4 gcm-3)

## Floating and Sinking

Application
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Submarine Transport timber Ships and boats Buoy Hot air Balloon Floats