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Prepared By:Sumant Sahu Metallurgy 3203808302



 The earliest known production of steel is a piece of ironware excavated from an archaeological site and is about 4. with an annual production of nearly 1330 million tons. .  Steel is used in all walks of life.000 years old. is one of the most consumed product worldwide. right from a small pin to an aircraft. an alloy of iron and carbon. many a things are made up of steel. Steel.

 The steel making process has covered a long journey in these many years. . the Bessemer process. the process being cheaper and faster. Open Hearth Process and finally into the latest technology of Basic Oxygen Furnace or the LD Converter.  The modern LD Converter now accounts for most of the Steel production worldwide.

 The LD Converter process was developed in Austria between 1947 and 1949. this process was first installed at Rourkela Steel Plant in 1956 with vessels of about 35 ton capacity. . the name LD Converter.  In India.  The first commercial plants were installed in Linz and Donawitz during 1952-1953 and hence.



ageing steel. the spherical bottom. which is capable to rotate the vessel through 360°. The vessel used in the process is like pear shape. Each of these is welded construction of non.  A steel ring is welded from inside at the junction of bottom of the body to support the permanent lining of the vessel. the cylindrical body (shell) and the conical top.  The vessel is divided into three segments viz. .  Tilting gear is attached.

Converter Specifications Converters : 3 Nos Capacity Height of Shell Diameter of Shell : 130T :8m :6m Hot Metal charge Scrap :130 T : 10-15 T SMS II .

 The lance is suspended by a wire rope and can be inserted in or withdrawn from the furnace by means of an electrically operated lance gear. The lance is nearly 8-10 meters long and its diameter varies with furnace capacity in the range of 20-25 cm.  The tip of the lance is water cooled by using a copper tip which is welded to the steel tubes. .  The lance is made of three concentric steel tubes to circulate water around the central tube and pass oxygen through the most inner tubes.

SMS II .Lance Design Cu Tip welded to Concentric pipes 5 hole lance Throat Dia : 25 mm Water cooled Life: > 300 heats.


Samples of metal and slag are taken and temperature is measured by thermocouple. Before starting a heat. De-oxidation is done in the ladle. The charging of bulk materials is done at different times during the blow as per requirement and according to the computer advice. the furnace is inspected and then      scrap is charged. . The end point is detected by the amount of oxygen consumed and by experience. The ladle then goes to continuous casting shop after argon rinsing. The cranes charge hot metal immediately.

04%- Mn.0.2% P.3% P.8% Si.4.6%-4.4% Mn. S.6%-1.16% S.07% C. .2% Si. BEFORE TREATMENT  AFTER TREATMENT C.

Heat Generation • C + O → CO • C +2O →CO2 Slag Formation  Si + 2O → SiO2  Mn + O → MnO  2Fe + O2 → 2FeO Iron Reduction  Si + 2FeO → SiO2 + 2Fe  Mn + FeO → MnO + Fe  C + FeO → CO + Fe .

a) Charging b) Oxygen Blowing c) Sampling & Temp. Measurement d) Corrections before Tapping e) Tapping f) Nitrogen Splashing. Coating Degassing TOTAL TIME - 5 min 20min 8 min 5 min 5 min 7 min - 50 min .

Metal .

.  Less investment cost.  Better lining life.  No need of external fuel because the reaction involved is exothermic.  Less space is required.  Economical.  Less Nitrogen content. Fast process.

thus limiting the amount scrap that can be used.The major disadvantage of LD process is that the charge must include a considerable quantity of molten pig iron. .