You are on page 1of 12

RECYCLE REUSE REDUCE .

.

.

.

.

textiles. reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials. archaeological studies of ancient waste dumps show less household waste (such as ash.[3] . Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass. broken tools and pottery)— implying more waste was being recycled in the absence of new material. and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing. the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste—such as food or garden waste—is not typically considered recycling. Reuse. Recycle" waste hierarchy. paper. metal. andelectronics. Although similar in effect. reduce energyusage. cleaned.[1][2] Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce. There are some ISO standards related to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice. and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production. During periods when resources were scarce. with recorded advocates as far back as Plato in 400 BC. Recycling has been a common practice for most of human history.Recycling is a process to change (waste) materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials. plastic.[2] Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside. then sorted. reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal.

. as according to the United States' National Waste & Recycling Association. Yorkshire.[3] In 1813. This material combined recycled fibres with virgin wool. Buy-back centres[edit] Buy-back centres differ in that the cleaned recyclates are purchased. The three main categories of collection are "drop-off centres. The West Yorkshire shoddy industry in towns such as Batley and Dewsbury. They are the easiest type of collection to establish. These systems lie along the spectrum of trade-off between public convenience and government ease and expense. Unfortunately. lasted from the early 19th century to at least 1914 COOLECTION A number of different systems have been implemented to collect recyclates from the general waste stream. but suffer from low and unpredictable throughput. which can only be resold for US$30. thus providing a clear incentive for use and creating a stable supply.[4] In Britain dust and ash from wood and coal fires was collected by 'dustmen' and downcycled as a base material used in brick making. The post-processed material can then be sold on. Benjamin Law developed the process of turning rags into 'shoddy' and 'mungo' wool in Batley.In pre-industrial times. there is evidence of scrap bronze and other metals being collected in Europe and melted down for perpetual reuse. as well as a lack of public waste removal in ever more densely populated areas. either an installed or mobile collection station or the reprocessing plant itself. government subsidies are necessary to make buyback centres a viable enterprise." "buy-back centres.[2] Drop-off centres[edit] Drop-off centres require the waste producer to carry the recyclates to a central location. The main driver for these types of recycling was the economic advantage of obtaining recycled feedstock instead of acquiring virgin material." and "curbside collection". it costs on average US$50 to process a ton of material. hopefully creating a profit.

although some products may be recycled or composted as well. economically sound and equitable across all five boroughs. This can include a wide array of products including food waste. paper products. In this section. commissioner of the New York City Department of Sanitation. Think about this the next time you throw that banana peel. consists of anything normally discarded from a home or community.” How it Was…and How it Will Be Many years ago. Municipal solid waste does not include wastes from industrial activities. and environmentally safer way to get rid of its refuse. but they didn’t meet the air standards of the EPA and they didn’t generate much power. among others. The collected waste is then moved to transfer facilities and carted off to landfills—located in various surrounding states—which are now nearly all at capacity. . economically sound. Bloomberg talked about the passing of his administration’s long-term plan to achieve the goal of becoming “more environmentally responsible. it has been reported that New York spent almost $1 billion per year on trash and recyclables collection. In a recent radio address.230 collection trucks. typically called garbage or trash.Municipal solid waste. and yard waste. “They were also an annoyance to people in the area. Prior to cutting back recycling services.000 tons (that’s right…tons!) of garbage each day. trash was burned in incinerators. Finally. plastic packaging and junk mail away: residents of New York City and its surrounding boroughs are responsible for generating 12. Picking up this mammoth daily load are 2.” says John Doherty. Household waste is typically landfilled. you will learn about these processes and the trends in waste disposal. New York City is figuring out that there must be a more convenient. Mayor Michael R.

scrap can have significant monetary value. A wrecking yard.Scrap metal originates both in business and residential environments. where it is processed for later melting into new products.) by weight. such as parts of vehicles. building supplies. Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption. and surplus materials. Typically a "scrapper" will advertise their services to conveniently remove scrap metal for people who don't need it. or breaker's yard). or need to get rid of it. junkyard. Customers are typically required to supply all of their own tools and labour to extract parts. Unlike waste. Scrap is often taken to a wrecking yard (also known as a scrapyard. depending on its location. Many scrapyards also sell bulk metals (stainless steel. etc. . although many scrap yards that deal in large quantities of scrap usually do not. often selling entire units such as engines or machinery by weight with no regard to their functional status. often at prices substantially below the retail purchasing costs of similar pieces. may allow customers to browse their lot and purchase items before they are sent to the smelters. and some scrapyards may first require waiving liability for personal injury before entering.

Benefits of recycling scrap metals[edit] According to research conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency.115 kg of iron ore 625 kg of coal 53 kg of limestone Energy savings from other metals include: Aluminium savings of 95% energy Copper savings of 85% energy Lead savings of 65% energy Zinc savings of 60% energy . recycling scrap metals can be quite beneficial to the environment. Using recycled scrap metal in place of virgin iron ore can yield:[5] 75% savings in energy 90% savings in raw materials used 86% reduction in air pollution 40% reduction in water use 76% reduction in water pollution 97% reduction in mining wastes Every ton of new steel made from scrap steel saves: 1.