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RECORDING TECHNIQUES:

The magnetic recording on the disk surface is


by magnetic R/W head.
Data is stored on the magnetic medium by
causing magnetization of particles on the
media.

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There are three types of Recording Techniques:

1- FM Recording Techniques (Frequency


Modulation)
2- MFM (Modified Frequency Modulation)
3- RLL (Run Length Limited )

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FM Recording Techniques:
It was the original data –encoding technique
used for data storing on magnetic recording
surface.
It also called as “Single density recording”

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4µs

Clock Pulse

1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Data Pattern

FM Encoded
Data

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Method of encoding:
In This method Clock pulse is present in the beginning of
each bit cell. The Data pulse is written in the middle of the
bit cell.
 if data is 1, data pulse is present.
If data is 0, data pulse is not present.
In this recording technique two flux changes in each bite
cell.
Each bit cell is 4μs duration for floppy disk.
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1 bit is stored in two pluses :
 Clock pulse
 Data Pulse
 0 bit is stored in only one clock pulse and no data
pulse is present
For :
A binary digit 1 is stored as two pluse (PP)
A Binary digit 0 is stored as one pulse and one “No
pulse”(PN)
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Example:
Suppose we want to Store a binary digit 110010110

4 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
(PP) (PP) (PN) (PN) (PP) (PN) (PP) (PP) (PN)

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M F M Recording Technique:
 It is called “Double density Recording”.
 Clock pulse is not present at the beginning of each bit cell.
 Advantage of MFM recording technique is that , it read or
write fewer pulses.
 Disadvantage of MFM recording technique is more
complex then MF .

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4µs

Clock
pulse
1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

Data
Pattern D D D D
C D

MFM

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Method:
 When Data is 1 , there is no clock pulse. Only data pulse is
present at the center of the bit cell.
When data is 0 preceded by 0 , then the clock pulse is written
at the beginning of the current bit cell, but no data pulse is
written.
When data is 0 preceded by 1, Neither clock pulse nor data
pulse is written.

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In MFM Recording o and 1 are encoded as :
 1 is always stored a (NP)
 0 when preceded by another 0 is stored as
(PN)
 0 when preceded by 1, is stored as (NN)

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For Example:
1 0 0 1
(NP) (NN) (PN) (NP)

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RLL Recording Technique:
Popular encoding scheme for HDD.
It record data on disk twice then MFM and three
times as much information of MF.
It provide much faster data transfer as compare to
the other encoding scheme.
The mames comes from minimum no (Run Length)
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And maximum no. (Run Limit) of “No pulse” valued
allowed between two pulses.
The RLL encoding combines group of bits into a
generate specific patterns of flux reversals.
For RLL encoding, an encoder/decoder table is
used to find the pulse signal to be usedfor different
data bit groups.

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Table:
Data Bit Pulse Encoding
10 NP NN
11 PN NN
000 NN NP NN
010 PN NP NN
011 NN PN NN
0010 NN PN NP NN
0011 NN NN PN NN
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For example:
Encode a Byte 100011
The bit 10 is encoded as NP NN
The bit 0010 is encoded as NN PN NP NN

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Question:
1- For the Pattern 11100011. Draw waveform for
following.
1- FM 2- MFM
2- For the data pattern 11011000, draw waveform for the
Following.
1- MFM 2- RLL

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