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Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

I. Brief Profile of The

Proponent

ALBERT BANDURA
He was born December 4, 1925, in the small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada.  He was educated in a small elementary school and high school in one, with minimal resources, yet a remarkable success rate.  After high school, he worked for one summer filling holes on the Alaska Highway in the Yukon. He received his bachelors degree in Psychology from the University of British Columbia in 1949.  He  went on to the University of Iowa, where he received his Ph.D. in 1952.  It was there that he came under the influence of the behaviorist tradition and learning theory. While at Iowa, he met Virginia Varns, an instructor in the nursing school.  They married and later had two daughters.  After graduating, he took a postdoctoral position at the Wichita Guidance Center in Wichita, Kansas. In 1953, he started teaching at Stanford University.  While there, he collaborated with his first graduate student, Richard Walters, resulting in their first book, Adolescent Aggression, in 1959. Bandura was president of the APA in 1973, and received the APA’s Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions in 1980. 

“Learning would be exceedingly laborious, no to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. fortunately, must human behavior is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed and later occasion this coded information serve as a guide for action.”

What is Social Learning Theory?
The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as “Observational Learning” (modelling), this type of

II. Basic Concept

1. People can learn through observation.
Observational learning is a process in which learning occurs through observing and imitating others. In Bandura’s famous “Bobo doll” studies, he demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura’s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed.

Bandura identified three basic models:
live model verbal instructional model symbolic model

2. Mental states are important to learning.
Intrinsic Reinforcement Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behaviour. He described intrinsic reinforcement as form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishments. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connects learning theories to cognitive developmental theories.

While behaviorists believed that learning lead to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors.

3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior

III. Significant Procedures and Processes

A. Modelling Process
Attention: the person must first pay attention to the model Retention: the observer must be able to remember the behavior that has been observed Motor reproduction: the ability to replicate the behavior that the model has just demonstrated Motivation: the final necessary ingredient for modeling to occur  

B. Modelling therapy
  The therapy Bandura is most famous for.  The theory is that, if you can get someone with a psychological disorder to observe someone dealing with the same issues in a more productive fashion, the first person will learn by modeling the second.

IV. Implication of Social Learning Theory to Classroom Situation

A. Students often learn a great deal simply by observing other people. B. Describing the consequences of behavior can effectively increase the appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones. C. Modeling provides an alternative of teaching new behaviors. D. Teachers and parents must show appropriate behaviors and must take care that they do not show inappropriate behaviors. E. Teachers should expose students to a variety of other models. F. Students must believe that they are capable of accomplishing school tasks.

That’s all...
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Submitted to: Sir Bert Tuga Professor in Theories of Learning (Prof. Ed. 03)
Submitted by: Contado, Jessa Rocillo, Michelle II-14 BSE English

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