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capital. and deliver the marketable output (goods). process or reprocess the inputs.PRODUCTION SYSTEMS • "The methods. transportation." • The methods and procedures used to produce goods for the market • Utilize material. . procedure or arrangement which includes all functions required to accumulate (gather) the inputs. and labor resources • Produce and distribute products.


in one long continuous process. then all products become defected until the problem is found. . • If equipment malfunctions. the entire process is halted. • The higher rate of production is matched by a reliance on all machines equally. each like the last.MASS PRODUCTION • The product is highly standardized • Units can be made in a single flow. • If equipment breaks down. • Allows to produce units very quickly and often use raw materials as efficiently as possible.

• But for this flexibility of process.BATCH PRODUCTION • includes jobs that move through the steps of production in clear groups • The units are all operated on at the same time per batch. . • Batch production allows for efficient use of equipment by moving batches around in patterns to different areas of specialty. companies must accept the time and analysis it takes to find the ideal batch production flow • complexity can raise the costs of management.

• Factories with job order production tend to use general purpose machines • which means the company receives good value for their expense. and employees that use them develop a wide variety of skills. .JOB ORDER PRODUCTION • products are complicated enough that they must be worked on one at a time by a select number of employees with the right skills. • Costs for setup changes tend to be higher than other types of production • Raw materials can be varied and costly.


planing and slotting • Milling • Broaching • Generation • Hobbing • Sunderland method using rack type cutter • Gear shaping .GEAR PRODUCTION METHODS Preparation of the gear blank • Casting • forging • drilling Producing & finishing Teeth • Forming • Shaping.


after preforming and machining.GEAR FINISHING Gear teeth. are finished generally by • gear shaving • gear rolling or burnishing • grinding • lapping .

BATCH PRODUCTION OF GEAR The following production methods can be adopted for batch production of gears • Gear Milling • Gear Hobbing • Broaching .