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Contents

Theory

HW
Connectivity Security

Synchronization
QOS Demo Case

PRAN
Iub over IP/Ethernet in WCDMA RAN P6 are

supported in all IP transport enabled RBSs. Any RBS equipped with CBU can support IP transport. Any RNC HW release prior to R4 does not support IP transport. BSS 07B ,WCDMA RAN P6

Challenges to Mobile Operators


The introduction of IP/Ethernet in GSM/WCDMA RAN is driven today by a number of challenges faced by mobile operators:
Introduction of Mobile Broadband applications (such as Mobile TV): increasingly

large volumes of data traffic are setting up a new scenario where operating costs and revenues are decoupled. Mobile operators cannot charge as much per bit for data services as for voice services and thus there is a need to reduce the transmission cost per bit. Ethernet-based RAN backhaul networks may enable mobile operators achieve this goal. It is expected that Ethernet will bring lower OPEX and CAPEX for operators. In terms of CAPEX, Ethernet equipment may be cheaper than TDM/ATM (also valid for interface cards). In terms of OPEX, Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet interfaces can be remotely managed so they can be dynamically adjusted to meet operators requirements (such as additional capacity).

Challenges to Mobile Operators


Expand coverage: new RBS indoor solutions can be deployed without major investments. FTTx and DSL deployments will provide widely available access to Ethernet based MAN and WAN networks. Convergence fixed-mobile: many operators are merging fixed and mobile transport networks into one common access transport network typically based on Ethernet.

2G & 3G Transport Network


Core Network
Iur

RNC BSC
Abis

BSC

RNC
Abis Iub

GSM Access Network


Abis

WCDMA Access Network

Iub

RBS
Iub

RBS

RBS RBS

RBS RBS

IP in combined GSM/WCDMA RAN networks

Changes ATM IP
AAL2 QoS classes DiffServ Code Point or Ethernet priority
QoS separation on IP and/or Ethernet level is supported by Ericsson Nodes IP DiffServ Code Points are operator configurable should be configured according to

the IP/Eth network configuration priority orders In the IP case there is no QoS differentiation in the default configuration (DiffServ Code Point 0 and Ethernet priority 0 for all traffic classes)

ATM overhead IP overhead Node Synch on AAL0 Node Synch over FACH (for both ATM & IP) Network Synch extracted form PDH/SDH NTP/UDP/IP IPv4

Generic Iub Interface Protocol Reference Model (Ericsson)


Radio Network Control Plane Radio Network Layer Transport Network Control Plane Radio Network User Plane
DCH, HS-DSCH, E-DCH FACH, PCH, RACH FPs and Node Sync (over FACH) Node Synch Network Synch

NBAP

Control Plane

User Plane

Transport Network Layer


SCTP SAAL-UNI

ALCAP (Q.2630 , Q.2150.2) NTP

SAAL-UNI ATM IP

UDP

AAL2

AAL0

Ethernet Physical Layer (E1, J1, STM-1 etc)

Simple RAN transport


Primary Site
OSS-RC

RNS 1

RNS 2

RNC 1

RNC 2

GE

GE

GE

GE

LAN Switch

X
LAN Switch

COMINF

LAN Switch

RBS site 1

RBS site 2

RBS site 3
LAN Switch

GE

GE

GE

GE

RBS 1

RBS 2

RBS 31

RBS 32

RNC & RBS HW

RNC

RBS

Iu
Iur ET MFG ET MFX

Iub

ET MFX

Changes ATM IP in P5 (Cont.)

User Plane (AAL2)


AAL2 class A: PCH, RACH, FACH, Network syncDCH AMR/CS AAL2 class B: DCH PS CCH + Node sync AAL2 class C: HSDPA

NBAP-Dedicated (SAAL-UNI/AAL5)

GBR (CS and PS) NBAP DCH BE Interactive 1 ALCAP (SAAL-UNI/AAL5) O&M Interactive 2 NBAP-Common (SAAL-UNI/AAL5) Interactive 3 Background

Carrier Network -- L2 VPN


Ethernet has become the predominant technology for Local Area Networks (LAN) connectivity and is gaining acceptance as a transport technology, specifically in Metropolitan and Wide Area Networks (MAN and WAN, respectively). Layer 2 VPNs provide point-to-point tunnels (pseudo wires) between two provider edge (PE) nodes across a Packet Switched Network. Customer

Ethernet frames can be sent transparently across the transport network so that the customer Ethernet frame is delivered unmodified at the other edge of the tunnel. L2 VPNs are increasingly gaining momentum among service providers and are definitely an option for IP RAN transport since Ethernet is used as the link layer technology in Ericssons RAN nodes (STN devices, BSC LAN switches, WCDMA RBS, RNC). Carrier Ethernet networks already provide this type of VPN services.

Carrier Network -- L3 VPN

L3 VPNs are currently the most widespread solution for VPN connectivity. BGP/MPLS networks have become the de-facto standard for this type of services. Defines a mechanism so that service providers can use their IP/MPLS backbones to provide VPN services to their customers. A Layer 3 VPN is a set of sites that share common routing information and whose connectivity is controlled by a collection of policies. The sites that make up a Layer 3 VPN are connected over a provider's existing public backbone. L3 VPNs are also known as BGP/MPLS VPNs because BGP is used to distribute VPN routing information across the provider's backbone and MPLS is used to forward VPN traffic across the backbone to remote VPN sites.

xDSL
xDSL is a family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. xDSL networks are very common today and have been deployed by many fixed operators, typically as ADSL. Provided that the required characteristics are fulfilled (see section 9) xDSL technologies can be used in IP RAN backhaul networks. However neither ADSL nor ADSL2+ offers the capacity required for HSPA bearers (14.4 Mbps DL and 1.44 Mbps UL)

and thus they are not adequate for this purpose. VDSL2 can offer the capacity to transport HSPA bearers.

Contents
Theory

HW
Connectivity Security

Synchronization
QOS Demo Case

Dimensioning

Macro Site

Micro Site

Main-Remote

New RBSs in P5

RBS3518 Main-Remote Base-station Capacity


Channel elements: up to UL/DL 512/768 HSDPA/Enhanced-UL prepared

Other
6x1 and 3x2 configurations Dualband support Transmission options: E1/J1/T1, STM-1, E3/T3 Wall, pole or floor mounting 15 km optical fibre length

RBS 3216/3116 Macro Base Station Main Characteristics: Macro coverage and extended macro coverage
Small size with compact design Outdoor or Indoor cabinet Up to 3 sectors in one cabinet Multiple power output options with up to 60 W per cell-carrier Up to 768/768 channel elements in uplink/downlink HSDPA and Enhanced-Uplink support. Support for remote radio units (RRU)

RBS3308 Micro
Radio

1x1 to 1x2 per cabinet Channel Element: UL/DL 256/256 CE Supports: RX-diversity, HSDPA and Enhanced Uplink
Transport

8 x E1/T1/J1 or 2 E3/T3 or 2 STM-1 4 x E1/T1/J1 + 2 E3/T3 or 4 x E1/T1/J1 + 2 STM-1 Cascading up to 3 RBS 3308 IP over Ethernet (prepared)

Other

TMA/ASC/RET support Site LAN External alarms

RBS 3206

ET-M4
For RNC & NodeB STM-1 The unit is a line terminal board with two STM1/OC-3c interfaces for ATM transport ET-M4 is an ATM Exchange Terminal board with two unchannelized STM-1/OC-3C ports.
Type Number of ports Number of VPs Number of VCs Max value 2 48 1800 (of which a maximum 750 can be of UBR+ service category) 128 128 per board

Number of AAL2 paths Number of F4 PM flows (see MO VpcTp for details)

ET-MC1
For NodeB E1 The unit is a line terminal board with 8 E1/DS1/J1 interfaces

for ATM and TDM transport.


Type Number of E1/DS1/J1 ports Number of IMA groups Number of VPs Max value 8 (2 per port) 4 per per board 2 per E1/DS1 port 3 per IMA Group (assuming at least two links in the group) Number of VCs Number of AAL2 paths 28 per E1/DS1 port 16 per board

Number of F4/F5 PM flows


Number of Aal1TpVccTp MOs Number of DS0 Bundles

1 per E1/DS1 port


4 per E1/DS1 port 248 per board, if it is used for TDM switching (attribute tdmMode = enabled). 4 per E1/DS1 port, if it is used for Circuit Emulation (that is, connected to an Aal1TpVccTp MO) 1 per E1/DS1 port, if it is used for fractional ATM (that is, connected to an AtmPort MO)

GPB for RNC


General purpose Processor Board (GPB)

The unit functions as a main processor in a processor cluster with various tasks, such as SS7 signalling and O&M termination. The unit is equipped with Ethernet and serial access for management purposes. The flash disk on the board stores the software for all units on the node.
The board occupies one slot (15mm).

TUB for RNC


Timing Unit Board TUB is a Timing Unit with dedicated synchronization reference input ports that can be a 1 544kHz, 2 048kHz or 10MHz reference. The unit senses the frequency of the dedicated references and automatically adapts to it. TUB2 can additionally have a GPS antenna giving a 1PPS signal as synchronization reference. The unit has a system and radio clock that filters the selected reference. The system clock is distributed to all Plug-In Units in the node. The radio clock is used only in RBS nodes. TUB1 does not support GPS synchronization references.

ET-PSW
The ET-PSW board is a Third Party Product (3PP) by Axerra Networks and the board implements the conversion between ATM and IP/Ethernet The ET-PSW board has separate SW and does not use the RBS SW. Consequently, the board is not visible in the normal RBS or RAN management interfaces, such as, OSS-RC. No alarms are issued from the board. ET-PSW must be used in combination with CBU or ET-MC1 and cannot be used independently. Iub encapsulated in IP and transported over an IP, MPLS or Ethernet network. A Pseudo Wire card (ET-PSW) is used in the RBS. At the RNC site a Pseudo Wire Gateway is required (AXN1600 or AXN800). The ET-PSW card and PWG uses Ethernet Interfaces towards the network transport. From the ET-PSW towards the RBS, E1/T1 interfaces are used. From the PWG towards RNC, STM1 or E1/T1 interfaces are used.

ET-MFX11
Native IP Ethernet interface in RBS Need CBU It provides six 10/100/1000BASE-T electrical ports on Emily connectors and one connector which can connect an SFP module. One of the 8 ports on the switch is internally connected to the IP transport part of the board. The board supports both NTP server and client mode The board supports UDP terminations but not RTP terminations. No IPsec supported
ET-MFX11 For NodeB ET-MFX12/13 RNC ET-MFX13 RNC

RJ 45 10/100/1000Base-T
SFP for 1000 Base-X Number of simultaneous UDP sessions Number of session setup and releases per second Maximum board throughput Number of possible VLAN per port on the switch Number of possible VLAN terminations per IP interface

6
1 5 000 200 100 256 8

6
1 9 000 430 500 256 8

1
6 9 000 430 500 256 8

Number of MAC addresses on the switch

4K

4K

4K

ET-MFX11 board in the RBS

3206

Ethernet/IP Backhaul (port 6 for electric and port 7 for optical cable) O&M from CBU (port 3) O&M from ETMFX port 2

ET-MFX11 board in the RBS

Connect the Ethernet transport cable in the System port cable, the O&M cable must be connected from the CBU board to the ET-MFX11 board. Add jumper cable for O&M from ET-MFX (System port 2) to CBU.

ET-MFX12 for RNC & RXI


RNC is Hardware R4 or higher, RAN in P6 The unit is a multiport Ethernet switch blade with IP termination and interworking functionality. It provides six 10/100/1000BASET electrical ports on Emily connectors and one connector which can connect an SFP module. An 8-port Ethernet switch. The switch is non-blocking and

supports the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP). One of the ports on the switch is internally connected to the IP transport part of the board. This part provides termination of IP traffic and conversion to node-internal formats, as well as distribution of IP traffic using node-internal formats to other boards. The board supports both NTP server and client mode. The board supports UDP terminations but not RTP terminations. Not support IPsec. Auto-negotiation on the physical layer is supported. For the electrical links, it is possible to negotiate the bandwidth in the range of 10 to 1000 Mbps, including half-rate, but it is also possible to set the bandwidth to a fixed value. For the optical link, it is only possible to negotiate between full duplex and half duplex connections. The board supports automatic MDI/MDI-X crossover detection links.

ET-MFX12 boards in RNC 3810

Ethernet/IP Backhaul (port 6 for electric and port 7 for optical cable)

Iub
Redundancy Jumper from other ET-MFX (Port 1)

RNC model C

ET-MFX13 for RNC & RXI


The unit is a multiport Ethernet switch blade with IP termination and interworking functionality. It provides one 10/100/1000BASE-T electrical port on Emily connector and six connectors which can connect SFP modules. An 8-port Ethernet switch. The switch is non-blocking and supports the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP). One of the ports on the switch is internally connected to the IP transport part of the board. This part provides termination of IP traffic and conversion to node-internal formats, as well as distribution of IP traffic using node-internal formats to other boards. The board supports both NTP server and client mode. The board supports UDP terminations but not RTP terminations. Auto-negotiation on the physical layer is supported. For the electrical link, it is possible to negotiate the bandwidth in the range of 10 to 1000 Mbps, including half-rate, but it is also possible to set the bandwidth to a fixed value. For the optical links, it is only possible to negotiate between full duplex and half duplex

connections. The board supports automatic MDI/MDI-X crossover detection links.

Migrate ATM/IP Over Pseudo-Wire to IP


ATM RBS using IP for transport over Pseudo-Wire, is migrated to IP. Iub control plane and user plane are migrated at the same time. prerequisites:

All involved nodes are upgraded to P6 software There is a slot available in the RBS for the introduction of ET-MFX IP addresses are allocated IP backbone network is prepared O&M network is prepared for the migration of Mub from IP over ATM to IP over Ethernet Configuration and re-configuration files are prepared RNC is prepared for IP-based Iub Configure ET-MFX, network synchronization and Mub in the RBS From this point starts downtime for the RBS: lock IubLink In the RBS site, move Ethernet cable from ET-PSW to ET-MFX Verify O&M connectivity and network synchronization Create Planned Area in OSS-RC and import configuration file Activate configuration files containing data for IP-based Iub in RBS and RNC Create CV in all involved nodes Unlock IubLink in RNC. From this point, downtime ceases for the RBS node. Create CV in all involved nodes Verify traffic on migrated RBS Activate configuration files to remove ATM configuration using OSS-RC Create CV Remove ATM boards and cables

Migration procedure:

Migrate ATM RBS to IP

prerequisites: All involved nodes are upgraded to P6 software There is a slot available in the RBS for the introduction of ET-MFX IP addresses are allocated IP backbone network is prepared O&M network is prepared for the migration of Mub from IP over ATM to IP over Ethernet, including configuration in the O&M router for IP over Ethernet Configuration and reconfiguration files are prepared OSS planned areas are prepared RNC is prepared for IP-based Iub Network synchronization server is configured procedure: Configure ET-MFX, network synchronization and Mub in the RBS. Verify O&M over Ethernet connectivity and synchronization over Ethernet. Create Planned Area in OSS-RC and import configuration file. Activate configuration files containing data for IP-based Iub in RBS and RNC, using OSS-RC Create CV in all involved nodes From this point, starts downtime for this RBS: lock IubLink For the MOC IubLink in the RNC, set: userPlaneTransportOption.ipv4=TRUE and userPlaneTransportOption.atm=FALSE controlPlaneTransportOption.ipv4=TRUE and controlPlaneTransportOption.atm=FALSE For the MOC Iub in the RBS, set: userPlaneTransportOption.ipv4=TRUE and userPlaneTransportOption.atm=FALSE controlPlaneTransportOption.ipv4=TRUE and controlPlaneTransportOption.atm=FALSE Unlock IubLink in RNC. From this point, downtime ceases for the RBS node Create CV in all involved nodes Verify traffic on migrated RBS Activate configuration files to remove ATM configuration using OSS-RC Create CV in all involved nodes Remove ATM boards and cables

SCB3 ETB
26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27

ETB

Main Subrack layout in HW R5

ETB

Fan Unit

ETB SPB21 SPB21 SPB21

SPB21 SPB21 GPB53 - RNC Ranap+Rnsap MP


GPB53 - RNC Ranap+RNsap MP GPB53 - RNC Module MP - Active GPB53 - RNC Module MP - Standby GPB53 - RNC Module MP - Active GPB53 - RNC O&M MP - Active GPB53 - RNC O&M MP - Active GPB53 - RNC Central MP - Standby GPB53 - RNC Central MP - Active GPB53 - RNC SCCP MP - Standby GPB53 - RNC SCCP MP - Active ETB ETB TUB2 TUB2 SXB3 SXB3 SCB3

28

Extension Subrack layout in HW R5

SCB3

DB or ETB
DB or ETB DB or ETB DB or ETB SPB21 SPB21 SPB21 SPB21 SPB21 DB GPB53 - RNC Module MP - Active GPB53 - RNC Module MP Standby GPB53 - RNC Module MP - Active GPB53 - RNC Module MP - Active GPB53 - RNC Module MP Active GPB53 - RNC Module MP - Active DB SPB21 SPB21 SPB21 SPB21 SPB21 DB or ETB DB or ETB DB or ETB DB or ETB SCB3
17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Fan Unit

27

28

RXI - 860
The RXI 860 is a larger version of the RXI 820.

Its first introduction is in WCDMA P5. Some features of the RXI 860 are as follows: 3 Subracks 84 board positions 11 reserved for system boards 3 for either system or ET boards 70-73 positions available for ET-boards Prepared for Iub IP Transport introduction in WCDMA RAN P6
ET-MC41: channelized STM-1 line interface board. One port per board ET-MF41: channelized STM-1 line interface board. Four ports per board ET-M4: 155 Mbps STM-1 (VC-4) SDH interface. Two ports on each board ET-MF4:155 Mbps STM-1 (VC-4) SDH interface. Four ports on each board

RNC
Each RNC IP extension subrack (ES) is equipped with 2 or 3 ET-MFX boards for capacity and redundancy purposes. The RNC IP main subrack (MS) will be equipped with 2 ETMFX boards. It is expected that during P6 timeframe 2 ET-MFX boards (for redundancy) will be enough to cope with the total traffic handled by one subrack.
In case a third ET-MFX board is needed, the complete RNC physical connectivity is presented here:

RNC
Symmetricom Time Servers
S200

Juniper Firewalls
ISG/SSG550

Extreme Networks Switches


Summit X450 and 400

NodeB
Since ET-MFX board does not support IPsec VPNs, a standalone SEGw beside the RBS is suggested for IPsec tunnel termination and firewalling. SSG5 SEGws from Juniper have been selected in this solution as RBS SEGws. SSG5 does not offer optical interfaces. If optical interfaces are mandatory then a more advanced SEGw such as SSG20 should be selected instead.

Contents
Theory HW Connectivity Security Synchronization QOS Demo Case

ATM IP

IP-RAN - Clearly defined network set-up


1 RNC Only STP usage!
RBS 3206 CBU ET-MFX11

RNC 2 * ET-MFX12

IP-LAN Routers

Max. 2 RBSs

OSS RC 5.3 EMAS


MO Shell

Access Network

P6

RBS 3206 CBU ET-MFX11

RNC Physical connectivity

RNC connectivity

Each ET-MFX board in the RNC Main Subrack is connected to one RAN switch with one GE link. Iub traffic is carried over these links. RNC O&M traffic is delivered directly from the GPB boards to the site switches. The RAN SEGws are connected to the RAN switches and site switches with GE links. Communication through the RAN switches is mandatory to enable VRRP and High Availability in the RAN SEGws, where IPsec tunnels towards the RBSs sites are started/terminated. The RAN SEGws are connected to the Transport Provider PEs with GE links. In case multiple aggregated GE interfaces are required (total site traffic) the RAN SEGws must support link aggregation (Juniper/Netscreen ISG family). The RAN SEGws are also directly connected through two High Availability links. The RAN switches are connected to a site switch through one GE link only for

its O&M traffic to be delivered through the O&M network. The inter RAN switch links must be protected with 1+1 redundancy (link/board) since it is crucial for the solution to keep the inter RAN switch links operational continuously (provided both RAN switches are working too).

The RAN SEGws O&M traffic can be delivered to the site switches on the OM_STN VLAN. The RAN switches O&M traffic can be delivered to the site switches on the OM_GRAN VLAN. Hence, this VLAN should be also enabled in the site switches on those ports connected to the RAN switches.

Iub over IP user/control plane traffic and synchronization traffic is carried over the Iub_Traffic VLAN, defined in the RAN switches and ET-MFX boards. This VLAN is extended across the RAN switches to provide redundancy. RNC O&M traffic is carried over a new OM_WRAN VLAN, configured in the site switches (extended across them). As described in section 7.1.2.2, Mobile-PBN O&M solution provides a VRF routing instance in the site routers where O&M traffic from all site nodes is routed to the OSS site through a VPN in the backbone. This configuration enables High Availability in the RAN SEGws and VRRP in the L3 routing instance in the site switches. If WCDMA RBS O&M traffic is also tunneled to the RAN SEGws, this traffic is also transported over the OM_WRAN VLAN The RAN SEGws can also use this VLAN for their own O&M traffic. The RAN switches can be partitioned into multiple virtual bridges. Each virtual bridge can run an independent Spanning Tree instance, called a Spanning Tree domain. Each STP domain has its own root bridge and active path. After an STP domain is created, one or more VLANs can be assigned to it. In our case, all the RNC VLANS will belong to the same RSTP domain. When adding a VLAN to the RSTP domain, that VLAN becomes a member of the STP domain. There are two types of member VLANs in an STP domain:
Carrier VLAN: defines the scope of the RSTP domain, which includes the physical and logical ports that belong to this RSTP domain and the associated topology. Only one Carrier VLAN can exist per STPD. Iub_Traffic VLAN is the carrier VLAN in this design. Protected VLANs: are merely users of the calculated topology. The rest of VLANs defined between the RAN switches are protected VLANs

NodeB connectivity
In order to provide the desired traffic separation at the RBS site, two

VLANs are defined at the RBS and RBS SEGw: Iub_Traffic VLAN carries all user/control and synchronization traffic, whereas RBS_OM VLAN carries all O&M traffic.

TN L2 VPN
Different L2 VLAN/VPNs for different traffic types (Iub

user/control plane and O&M). Each IPsec tunnel from the RBS site can be mapped to one VLAN/VPN

TN L3 VPN
Different L3 VLANs/VPNs for different traffic

types (Iub user/control plane and O&M). Each IPsec tunnel from the RBS site can be mapped to one VLAN/VPN

Contents
Theory

HW
Connectivity Security

Synchronization
QOS Demo Case

Why
To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. This can be interpreted to mean in the RAN case that user data, user identity and call related information like encryption keys, dialed numbers, and location data are

protected. To ensure that the resources and services provided by serving networks and home environments are adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. This can be interpreted to mean in the RAN case that data related to the proper operation of RNCs/BSCs and RBSs are protected. For example, manipulation These security problems come about for three main reasons:
More connectivity. The IP network gives the RBS connectivity, not only to the

BSC/RNC but also to OSS and, when needed, the Time Server. If an IP network that is common with other systems is used even wider connectivity may result depending on the configuration of the network. Use of insecure transmission. One of the cost reduction drivers of IP services is the use of public or semi-public networks. These networks are typically under less operator control than todays TDM/ATM networks and provide a possibility for external agents to wiretap, insert or modify IP traffic. IP in itself does not contain any secure parts, it is a pure packet distribution system without any means to decide if the packet is valid or not. Therefore protection means has been necessary to devise on top of IP and there are today very few entities using IP that does not provide optional protections means.

Use IPsec
Although IPsec VPN is not strictly mandatory for the RAN

applications and protocols to work, its use is recommended to securely transport all traffic between RAN sites and is described as part of the PRAN security solution. In addition to the usage of IPsec VPNs, a number of additional measures can be taken to limit the connectivity in the GSM/WCDMA IP RAN network:
Implement Access Control Lists in site routers (SEGw) (RBS,

BSC/RNC and OSS sites). Implement firewall policies (SEGw) in front of sensitive nodes such as BSC/RNC and OSS

SEGw
Security architecture for RAN IP traffic can be implemented in two different ways based on whether RAN traffic is carried over one or several IPsec VPNs. We will denote them as:
Common virtual network (common virtual private network) Independent virtual networks (independent virtual private networks)

Both approaches use two SEGws (two for redundancy reasons) at the BSC/RNC, Time Server or OSS sites. In the RBS site only one SEGw is needed since

redundancy is not expected to be required. As we will see later, in the RBS site the SEGw functionality can be provided by the SIU, PicoSTN or a standalone RBS SEGw. At the BSC/RNC, Time Server and OSS sites the IPsec tunnel is terminated in the SEGws (depending on which of both is active at the time). At the RBS site the IPsec tunnel can be terminated in a standalone SEGw, SIU or PicoSTN devices. ET-MFX variants for RNC and RBS do not support IPsec in WCDMA RAN P6. Hence, an external SEGw is needed to provide the IPsec termination functionality.

Common virtual network (common virtual private network)


In this scenario all RAN IP traffic (user/control plane, synchronization and O&M) is encapsulated over the same IPsec tunnel across the transport network from the RBS site to the BSC/RNC site. The impact of introducing IP/Ethernet is minimized since O&M infrastructure in the BSC/RNC site can be reused, perhaps only increasing the O&M capacity towards the OSS site to cope with additional O&M traffic (from/to the STN device, RBS SEGw, Time Servers, etc.).

This option may be adopted by operators with self built networks based on traditional point to point links from the RBS site to the BSC/RNC site that do not wish to modify the existing architecture when introducing IP in RAN.

RAN SEGw 1

Transport network
SEGw

RBS RBS SIte

RAN SEGw 2

BSC SIte

IPsec tunnel

Independent virtual networks (independent virtual private networks)


In an IP RAN deployment, traffic separation can be implemented by means of three different virtual networks: O&M network, Synchronization network

and Traffic network. In terms of security, this is translated into the configuration of three IPsec tunnels in the RBS site. One IPsec tunnel will be used to carry O&M traffic from the RBS site (STN, SEGw, etc) and will be terminated in the SEGws deployed at the OSS Site. The second IPsec tunnel will be used to transport synchronization packets between the RBS site and the site containing the Time Servers. The third IPsec tunnel is used to carry user/control plane traffic between the RBS site and the BSC/RNC site. In terms of WCDMA RNC using ET-MFX, only 2 IPsec are need:
OSS SoIP & Traffic

RAN SEGw 1

RAN SEGw 2

BSC SIte

RAN SEGw 1 SEGw

RBS

Transport network
RAN SEGw 2

RBS SIte

NOC SIte

RAN SEGw 1

IPsec tunnel
RAN SEGw 2

NOC SIte

Redundancy
SEGw redundancy is recommended at the BSC/RNC, OSS and Time Server sites (in cases where the operator decides to implement the common network approach all RBS traffic is sent to the BSC/RNC sites). In this way single points of failure in the SEGw and the connected links can be eliminated. SEGws must provide a HA (High Availability) solution for redundancy purposes. The recommended setup consists of two SEGws working in active/passive mode. The state of the active gateway, such as the connection

table and other vital information, is continuously copied to the inactive gateway. When the active SEGw fails over to the inactive SEGw, this already knows which connections are active, and communication traffic can continue to flow uninterrupted. In order to accomplish this, both SEGws share a number of VIPs and VMAC addresses which are seized by the active SEGw and provide single tunnel endpoint addresses to SEGws/SIU/PicoSTN in RBS sites. SEGw redundancy is not assumed at the RBS site because of the additional cost.

Contents
Theory HW Connectivity Security Synchronization QOS Demo Case

Synchronization
Traditional GSM/WCDMA access networks based on PDH/SDH transport provide a valid synchronization reference for clock regeneration in the RBSs. When the transport network has an asynchronous physical layer such as Ethernet, the RBS cannot be synchronized by the layer 1 transmission interfaces as in traditional PDH/SDH links. Therefore new synchronization sources and methodologies need to be implemented in order to have alternatives to the GPS based synchronization. Ericssons technical solution to overcome this challenge consists in synchronizing the RBSs by exchanging time stamped NTP packets with a Time Server, which could be standalone equipment deployed in the network (GSM) or an embedded functionality in RAN nodes (WCDMA). An algorithm in the SoIP client in the RBS filters out the time stamps with the least delay variation and calculates a target frequency for the RBS. The algorithm is based on an Ericsson patent. A client-server approach is used between the RBSs and the Time Servers. The SoIP client of an IP connected RBS sets up an association with a Time Server and aligns its frequency to the associated Time Server. If the selected Time Server is deemed unusable by the SoIP client, the SoIP can select a backup Time Server.

WCDMA Synchronization Solution


In WCDMA RAN P6, RNC/RXI is equipped with Time Server functionality in the ET-MFX boards. This document only addresses the case where the SoIP server is running in an ET-MFX board in the RNC. The ET-MFX in the RBS only implements the SoIP client. The Time Server in the ET-MFX board in the RNC and the SoIP client in the RBS communicate using NTP over UDP, running on the same IP subnet/VLAN as the Iub user/control plane traffic. From that point of view, the same connectivity design for Iub user/control plane traffic can be used for synchronization traffic. One ET-MFX can handle all NTP traffic for all RBSs in the largest RNC type

(up to 768 RBSs). It is recommended though to enable the Time Server functionality in all ET-MFX boards in the RNC so that load is evenly distributed. One possible way to distribute RBSs across the SoIP servers on ET-MFX boards in the RNC is as follows:

Network Synchronization Implementation


RNC Site
RNC Server
RBS Client
NTP request
19.44MHz

RBS Site

TUB_B

CBU

ET-MFX
NTP term HW based timestamp
IP connectivit y Network

ET-MFX
48.6MHz

19.44MHz

Ethernet
NTP response

NTP Server HW based timestamp

SoIP Client SW

TUB_A

Ext sync

External Time Servers


ET-MFX board is equipped with the Time Server functionality to provide WCDMA RBSs with accurate time stamps. However ET-MFX board cannot be

used as Time Server for GSM RBSs in WCDMA P6/BSS 07B releases. This will be possible for SIU and PicoRBSs in BSS 08A. Symmetricom Time Servers can also be used as a backup alternative to ETMFX boards for WCDMA RBS synchronization. Each SoIP client in the ET-MFX generates between 1-10 NTP requests per second, depending on the synchronization state (1 NTP packet in locked mode and 10 NTP packets in unlocked mode). In average, we will assume 5 NTP requests per second per RBS. Hence, the formula to be used to calculate the number of Symmetricom servers is:

Network (frequency) synchronization overview

Synchronisation of RBSs based

RNC

on timing over IP packets


Possibility to use multiple SoIP

servers Variable rate of timing packets as required by the different RBSs.

IP Transport Service

Integrated SoIP server

Common solution for WCDMA

and GSM

Local SoIP server Remote area

Network synchronization Configuration (RNC)


IP Address ntpServerMode IpAccessHostEt IpInterface defaultRouter0 networkPrefixLeng th vid vLan
Ethernet switch Packet distributor

TUB
TU

ET-MFX
Host NTP Server

Configure as NW Synch Server Typically activated on all ET-MFX boards in RNC Share IP Host with Iub UP

Network synchronization Configuration (RBS)


ipAddress ntpServerMode IpAccessHostEt IpSyncRef ntpServerIpAddress synchReference synchPriority IpInterface defaultRouter0 networkPrefixLength vid vLan

Synchronization

CBU
TU

ET-MFX
IP Host NTP Client Packet distributo r Ethernet switch

Configure as NW Synch Client in RBS Share IP Host with Iub UP

Contents
Theory HW Connectivity Security Synchronization QOS Demo Case

Requirements on IP TN SLA
Requirements on native IP Iub performance
RT part

Max delay, RT part: 30ms, recommendation: 5ms Max delay variation RT part: 10ms Max packet loss, RT part: 10-6 HS BE and R99 BE data part Max delay, HS BE data part: 100ms, recommendation: 10ms, including delay variation Max delay, R99 BE data part: 50ms, recommendation: 10ms Max delay variation, R99 BE data part: 12ms

Max packet loss, HS+R99 BE part:10-4, recommendation: 10-6

Requirements on Transport Solution


Synchronization
At least 1% of the NTP packets arrive at the STN device within a time

window of 20 s from the minimum delay At least 10% of the NTP packets arrive at the STN device within a time window of 100 s from the minimum delay.

User/Control plane traffic The packet drop rate shall be better than 10-4 (maximum is 10-3).
The sum of Abis delay and delay variation shall be below 15 ms one way

(maximum is 50 ms).

IP / Ethernet QoS
Delay sensitive traffic is prioritised over less sensitive traffic (in times of congestion) The IP RAN transport QoS is implemented by SCTP and Ethernet Pbit RAN nodes tag the egress IP packets with a configured DSCP values. The DSCP values depend on the RAB type. (DSCP is the 6 most significant bits of the IP packet DiffServ field). The ET-MFX will map the DSCP value of the IP packet to a configurable Ethernet Pbit value. Ethernet switch vendors may support different priority mapping in the deviced (IEEE supports up to 8 priority level definitions, /// ET-MFX supports 4 priority queues)

QoS
Due to uncertainties regarding the mechanisms that are

available in this type of IP-based transport networks, and the highly sensitive traffic types existing in the RAN, the following two initial recommendations are made:
The Quality of Service solution should be ensured by over-

provisioning the capacity (for GBR traffic in case sufficient level of QoS differentiation is supported by the network) required from the Transport Service Provider. Well defined SLA parameters regarding packet drop rates, delay and delay variation following the requirements listed in section 7.29 should be agreed with the Service Provider and met by the transport network.

RNC and RBS ET-MFX


The RNC and RBS P6 software release supports a basic Diffserv classification and marking. The default DSCP code in ET-MFX allocation is summarized in the bale below:

This simple classification can be further extended with the optional feature

Configurable Transport Bearer QoS class. This feature allows QoS class allocation for user service transport bearers to be configured to the operator's choice. By activating this feature in the Ericsson WCDMA RAN we can set a different DSCP value to each of the traffic types listed below. In Juniper/Netscreen SEGw, if a packet already contains a DSCP value, and the policy does not specify a different DSCP value to replace it, the SEGw copies-out the inner packets DSCP code to the ESP header and retains marking in the inner packet. In this way the IPsec encapsulation does not modify the nodes DSCP marking.

QoS in RAN Switch


The Extreme networks X450 switches support the following Diffserv features:
Classification of incoming packets into traffic classes according to specified criteria

called traffic groupings (DSCP, etc.) Queuing of all traffic in the respective queues according to traffic classification. Optional DSCP marking

The switches support 8 egress queues per port and thus 8 QoS profiles (named QP1 to QP8). For classification according to incoming DSCP, there is default mapping from DSCP to QoS profile. This mapping can be modified in order to assign a QoS profile to any set of incoming DSCP values.

QoS for Time Server


Symmetricom Time servers have no Diffserv capabilities. Hence, NTP packets originated in the Time Servers must be re-marked with the appropriate DSCP

and P-bit (802.1P) value at the RAN switches.

Contents
Theory HW Connectivity Security Synchronization QOS Demo Case

Native IP introduction in Iub


IP RAN

RNC

Built in Ethernet switch 7 x GBE/FE/Eth

RBS

No back-off in functionality nor capacity!

IP Transmission Interface
RNC
Native Iub IP Transport

3GPP TS25.430 Two variations for ETB on RNC ET-MFX12 6 x RJ45 1 x SFP ET-MFX13 1 x RJ45 6 x SFP Iub termination capacity Up to 500 Mbps QoS VLAN 802.1Q L2 Ethernet priority 802.1p L3 IP Diffserv priority

IP Transmission Interface
RBS
Native Iub IP Transport

3GPP TS25.430 One variation for ETB on RNC ET-MFX11 6 x RJ45 1 x SFP Iub termination capacity Up to 100 Mbps QoS VLAN 802.1Q L2 Ethernet priority 802.1p L3 IP Diffserv priority

Ericsson STP Setup: (Example)

Thank you