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Accuracy: difference from the actual measurement and the meter reading, accuracy is stated in following terms: Repeatability :meter’s ability to reproduce same measurement for a set of constant conditions of flow rate, temperature, viscosity, density, pressure. Repeatability of a custody transfer meter should be within +/-.025% in 3 runs or +/- 0.05% of each other in 5 consecutive prove runs. Linearity :ability to maintain a meter factor through-out the stated turndown. Depending on meter size and application this is typically +/-0.15% or +/-0.25% for custody transfer use.

Resolution. is a measure of the smallest increment of total flow that can be individually recognized by the meter. Turndown. Turndown is the meter’s flow range capability. The flow range of the meter is the ratio of maximum flow to minimum flow over which the specified accuracy or linearity is maintained. a meter with a minimum flow rate of 100 bbl/hr and a maximum flow of 1,000 bbl/hr is said to have a 10:1 turndown.

SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS

• • • • • FLOW RATE PRESSURE TEMPERATURE VISCOSITY ACCURACY

TYPICAL POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METER .

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MEASURING ELEMENT low pressure drop low mechanical friction non jamming rotation high driving torque .

viscosity Mechanically induced : friction.Slippage Hydraulically induced : flow.coating 2.POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS FLOW OUTPUT mechanical counters electrical ACCURACY Factors affecting accuracy: 1.Temperature.Wear.Displacement. wear .Viscosity.

PROS AND CONS • Low cost • Good for viscous liquids • • • • High maintenance cost High pressure drop Not suitable for low flow rates Clean fluid with no solids .

INDIRECT METERS INFERENCE METERS • TURBINE METERS • CORIOLIS METERS PRINCIPLE : INFERS FLOW BY MEASURING SOME DYNAMIC PROPERTY OF THE FLOW STREAM .

TURBINE METERS • Principle: Angular velocity of rotor is proportional to linear velocity of liquid • DESIGN CONSIDERATIOS: Housing • Measuring Element : Rotor with multiple blades on a spindle mounted on a free running bearing assembly FLOW OUTPUT: Voltage pulse .

Velocity Profile.Accuracy based on two assumptions: (1) the flow area remains constant and.Bearing Friction. Rotor Stability . Cavitation . Deposits. Corrosion. Boundary Layer Thickness. Fluid Density . Erosion. Obstructions Rotor velocity Rotor Blade Angle. (2) the rotor velocity accurately represents the stream velocity “K” factor (pulses / unit volume).Swirl.

TYPICAL TURBINE METER .

Typical turbine meter .

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OSCILLATION .

TWIST .

FLOW RATE AND VISCOSITY FACTOR CHOICE OF FLOWMETER FOR LIQUIDS .

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Meter Proving. Meter proving is the physical testing of the performance of a liquid meter in a liquid service. The main purpose of the test is to assure accuracy. Meter factor = prover known volume meter reading .

and density. the process-fluid conditions must be as stable. .While proving a meter. Check for leaks or fluid bypassing around the prover or meter. includes temperature. let the liquid flow through the meter and prover long enough so that the conditions stabilize. pressure. flow rate. The only way to obtain a reliable meter factor is to have all the liquid that is measured by the meter also measured by the prover. Before starting a meter proving.

operating pressure. gravity.LACT Units. . and temperature of the oil determine the LACT design. LACT units are designed for unattended custody transfer of crude oil from a seller to a buyer. Minimum pressure drop through the piping and components is desirable. Flow rate.

TYPICAL LACT SYSTEM .

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TURBINE METER .

CORIOLIS METER .

ORIFICE METER • Principle: differential pressure proportional to squire of flow rate Standards: AGA 3 ISO 5167 .

cfh C ’. psia .BASIC EQUATION: qh =C ’ (hw pf )1/2 where: qh .quantity rate of flow at base conditions. hw differential pressure in inches of water at 600F.orifice flow constant. pf absolute static pressure.

C ’=(Fb)(Fr)(Y)(Fpb)(Ftb)(Ftf)(Fg)(Fpv)(Fm)(Fl)(Fα) Where: (Fb) basic orifice factor. cfh(Fr) Reynolds number factor (Y) expansion factor (Fpb) pressure base factor (Ftb) temperature base factor (Ftf) flowing temperature factor (Fg) specific gravity factor(Fpv) supercompressibility factor(Fm) manometer factor for mercury meter(Fl)gauge location factor.(Fα) orifice thermal expansion factor .

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Typical orifice meter installation details .

GAS TURBINE METERS • Principle: flow rate is proportional to velocity of gas Standards: ISO 9951 OIML R32 .

Turbine meter installation .

ULTRASONIC METERS Principle: Difference in transit time of high frequency sound waves travelling between a pair of fixed sound transducers with the flow and against the flow determines the flow .

TYPICAL ULTRASONIC METER .

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Ultrasonic meter installation .

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This presentation presents various methods to measure oil and gas in petroleum industry.It deals with basics of various types of meters,working principles, various parameters for accuracy etc

This presentation presents various methods to measure oil and gas in petroleum industry.It deals with basics of various types of meters,working principles, various parameters for accuracy etc

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