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EMBEDDED OS FOR REAL TIME APPLICATIONS

By Kodali saikrishna 09R81A0444 IV-II ECE-A.

History : One of the first recognizably modern embedded

systems was the Apollo Guidance Computer, developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. An early mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961.

WHAT IS AN EMBEDDED OS?


An embedded system is generally a system

within a larger system. All embedded systems contain a processor and software . Even the general-purpose , personal computer itself is made up of numerous embedded systems. Keyboard, mouse, video card, modem, hard drive, floppy drive and sound card each of them is an EMBEDDED SYSTEM.

EXAMPLES OF AN EMBEDDED OS
WATCH - It is a time display SYSTEM . PARTS : Hardware, Needles, Battery, Dial, Chassis and Strap.

RULES :
1. All needles move clockwise only. 2. 3. A thin needle rotates every second. A long needle rotates every minute.

4.
5.

A short needle rotates every hour.


All needles return to the original position after 12 hours.

COMPONENTS OF EMBEDDED OS
It has Hardware

Processors, Timers, Interrupt Controller, I/O Devices, Memories, Ports, etc.


It has main Application Software

Which may perform concurrently the series of tasks or multiple tasks.


It has Real Time Operating System (RTOS)

RTOS defines the way the system work. Which supervise the application software. It sets the rules during the execution of the application program. A small scale embedded system may not need an RTOS.

REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM

Real-time Operating System allows real-time applications to be designed and expanded easily. Functions can be added without major changes to the software. The use of an RTOS further simplifies the design process by splitting the application code Real-time computing is where system correctness not only depends on the correctness of logical result but also on the result delivery time.

For example there will be many embedded operating systems in computer.

keyboard
Video card mouse

PC
Floppy drive Hard drive

modem

Classification of embedded systems


Small Scale Embedded System Medium Scale Embedded System Sophisticated Embedded System

Small Scale Embedded OS


Single 8 bit or 16 bit Microcontroller. Little Hardware and Software complexity.

They may even be battery operated.

Medium Scale Embedded OS


Single or few 16 or 32 bit microcontrollers or

Digital Signal Processors (DSP) or Reduced Instructions Set Computers (RICS).


Both hardware and software complexity.

Sophisticated Embedded OS
Enormous hardware and software complexity. Which may need scalable processor or

configurable processor and programming logic arrays.

Characteristics of Embedded OS
Embedded systems are not always standalone

devices. Many embedded systems consist of small, computerized parts within a larger device that serves a more general purpose.

Advantages of Embedded OS
Its main advantages are
Design and Efficiency

Cost
Maintenance

Basic Difference between : General Computer and Embedded OS


A PC is designed to be a general purpose computing environment. Many of todays embedded systems are looking more like PCs with user interfaces, touch-screen, display, keypads and more.

Still, these are not general function systems but are designed to perform very specific function.

APPLICATIONS OF EMBEDDED OS
In Aerospace In Military In Telecom In Electronics In Industries.

CONCLUSION
Real time Operating systems play a major role in

the field of embedded systems especially for mission critical applications are involved.
Every RTOS is associated with a finite set of

microprocessors and a suite of development tools. Hence the first step in choosing an RTOS must be to make the processor, real-time performance and the budget requirements clear.

REFERENCES
1. Operating System Support for Embedded

Real-Time Applications, Alfons Crespo, Ismael Ripoll, Michael Gonzalez Harbour, and Giuseppe Lipari, 2008
2. Dedicated Systems Experts, What makes a

good RTOS. Brussels, Belgium: Dedicated Systems Experts, 2001.

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