Hydrogen Fuel Cell

•Benjamin Bach •Shaun Abraham •Elizabeth Arnold Fisher •Jared Dupree
H2 Fuel Cell

AGENDA
• Background • Industry Drivers • Application Types & Potential
– Transportation – Portable – Stationary

• Product Application Timeline • Current Developments in Columbia • Questions
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What is a Fuel Cell?
• Hydrogen In • Electricity Out • Byproducts – Water, Heat

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How do Fuel Cells work?

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Sources of Hydrogen

www.minihydrogen.dk

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Hydrogen Production Today

Coal, 18%

Natural Gas, 48%
US Department of Energy

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Components of a Fuel Cell System
OXYGEN (AIR)

Fuel Reformer
FUEL INPUT

Converts to Hydrogen

HYDROGEN RICH GAS

FUEL CELL

DC POWER OUTPUT

INVERTER

AC POWER OUTPUT

WATER

Heat used for Fuel Reforming
National Institute of Standards

HEAT RECOVERY

Additional Heat

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Examples of Fuel Cell Applications

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• Low or No dangerous emissions • Higher efficiencies • Constant and consistent power • No Moving Parts

Benefits of Fuel Cells

• Portable fuel cell systems much lighter than batteries • Smaller than regular batteries

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Limitations of Fuel Cells
• Transportation and storage of fuels (Hydrogen gas) • Lack of Infrastructure • Energy needed to produce Hydrogen from Water • Large amounts of hydrogen needed to meet energy needs • Consumer mistrust • High Cost • Currently do not have hydrogen production capacity
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Who is involved?

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Based on 2006 data

PWC Survey 2006 H2 Fuel Cell

PWC Survey 2006 H2 Fuel Cell

PWC Survey 2007 H2 Fuel Cell

U.S. Census Bureau 2002 & PWC 2007 H2 Fuel Cell

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

INFRASTRUCTURE & STORAGE

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

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EN N G O TIO DR UC Y D H O R P
US/South Korea Nuclear Hydrogen Program Example
Nuclear Hydrogen Joint Development Center in Daejeon & San Diego Heat electrolysis at 800ºC (today 150ºC) Heat

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Water H2 Fuel Cell

- E& RA UR E F T G IN C A U R TR TO S S

Research Leaders Japan Germany USA H2 Economy Case Study: Iceland HYTHANE Fuel (20% H2, 80% Gas)

Hydro

Linde

Aral

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R

&

D

Types of Application

Global private sector research

Transportatio 25%
Fuel Cell Industry Research – SC Export Consortium

nary
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Portabl

Transportation
• 400 fuel cell powered vehicle prototypes worldwide

(BMW, Daihatsu, DaimlerChrysler, Fiat, Ford, GM, Honda, Hyundai, MAN/Neoplan, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan/Renault, PSA, Suzuki, Toyota, VW/Audi) • US H2 daily production capacity fuels 20 million cars (243 million passenger vehicles registered in US)
SolarToday.org/H2Mobility.org

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Cost Analysis
• Cost of producing Hydrogen: $1.5 to $3.5 per kg
– Without compression, storage or delivery costs – Highly dependent on natural gas, electricity prices and economies of scale

• Estimated cost at pump: $20 per kg • 1kg of Hydrogen = Energy content of 1gal gasoline (at 2x efficiency) Effective cost at pump: $10 per kg Price of average hydrogen powered car (internal combustion): Sticker + $50,000 50,000 miles cost of H2 car above regular car: $61,667 SolarToday.org/MSN.com
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Where to fill up your hydrogen car?

299 H2 stations worldwide

117,000 petroleum stations in US H2 Fuel Cell

Future Outlook
Average Annual Expected Sales of PEMFC/SPFC for Light-Duty Vehicles
@ $10,000 per fuel cell = 730,000 vehicles

Fuel Cell Industry Research – SC Export Consortium

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Current Products: •Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Current Status: •26 models in current use Future Market: •DoD investing 1.9 billion in (UAS) next 5 years Benefits: •Low noise, Low heat •Run time double compared to alternatives Source: Millenium Cell (2007) H2 Fuel Cell

Current Products: •Soldier Power (72-hour, 30-50 watt power source) Current Status: •ProPack C-50 Future Market: •Estimated 200 million dollar annual market. Benefits: •Lighter in weight •Less expensive compared to alternatives.
Source: Millenium Cell (2007) H2 Fuel Cell

Current Products: •Extended Runtime Adapter Current Status: •XRT (Jadoo Power) •In commercialization. Future Market: •Hurricane Katrina pushed demands for more reliable energy sources for first responders. Benefits: •Lightweight, extended runtime.
Source: Jadoo Power (2007) H2 Fuel Cell

Future Products: •Laptops, cell phones, mobile devices. Current Status: •In developmental, R&D Stages •Numerous prototypes. Future Market: •Dependent upon fuel cell technology growth compared to battery technology. Benefits: •Lightweight, extended runtime.
Source: Jadoo Power (2007) H2 Fuel Cell

Current Products: •Back-up generators (industrial, small-business) •Distributed Power Current Status: •98 million dollar market (2006) Future Market: •Expected to reach 16.9 billion by 2012. Benefits: •Reliability, low-maintenance, longer operating life.
Source: Ballard Power (2007), Winter Green Research (2006) H2 Fuel Cell

Product Application Timeline

2007

Stationary Portable Transportation

2010 2015 2010 2015 2010 2015 2020 2030

2007 2007

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Current Projects • Innovista • Fuel Cell South • Palmetto Fuel Cell Technologies • USC Fuel Cell Research Group • USC Fuel Cell Bus Project (liquid hydrogen refueling station 20082009)
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H2 Fuel Cells in Columbia, SC

QUESTIONS?
"Water will be the coal of the future," Jules Pennsylvania State University Verne (1874)

H2 Fuel Cell

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