Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in

Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Early Niche Markets for H2 Installations
• Data Centres (Business Continuity, UPS) • Public / Municipal Buildings
– Hospitals – Concert Venues – Swimming Pools – Office Blocks
Current installations are by “early adopters” and “innovators”

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Hydrogen: The Global Context

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Safety is Critical For Public Acceptancetechnologies at a Safety is critical to protect “nascent
critical time in their emergence into the wider consciousness” (Gammon, 2004) “ …we don’t know much about it at all, other than we used to make bombs out of this stuff.” -Local Hornchurch resident, Mike Dyer Romford Recorder May 2003. “My feelings are rather strong on this, I think it must be dangerous.”
-Local Hornchurch resident, Stephen Kelly, Romford Recorder May
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Primary Data
Collected from PURE Energy Centre Projects

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

PURE Energy Centre, Baltasound, Unst
•The PURE Energy Centre is a venture on the northernost Shetland Island of Unst. Established originally as a community venture, the project has since grown into a world-leading consultancy on clean hydrogen. •Island community •Highest Oil Prices in UK •‘Energy Isolation’ – North Sea Oil currently generates revenue. •Lack of “highly skilled” jobs •Problems retaining young people on the island
Two Proven Wind Turbines Produce Renewable Power This feeds an electrolyser which produces hydrogen. This hydrogen can be stored, for later use. An onsite hydrogen fuel cell provides heat and power. A small fuel cell vehicle can be refuelled using H2

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Shetland, Unst: The Energy Island

Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Shetland, Unst: The Energy Island
•Grid Independent Houses •Hydrogen from Renewables •Fuel Cell provides Combined

Turbine Houses

Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Hydrogen Office, Methil

Energy efficiency
•Increased insulation •Increased efficient glazing to minimise heat loss and unwanted heat gain •Natural ventilation to remove the need for air conditioning •A layout that maximises natural daylight to minimise the need for artificial lighting •Efficient lighting and control systems •A ground source heat pump, also recovering waste heat from a fuel cell and electrolysis unit, to provide most of the heating and hot water for the building

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Environmental Energy Technology Centre

The main criteria for the development of EETC are:
•Iconic building •Use of innovative technology •‘Zero carbon building’ •Iconic Renewable Hydrogen System •Support enterprising and innovation of products •Exploit opportunities arising from low carbon economy

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Environmental Energy Technology Centre

Electrolyser

Compresso r

Storage

Fuel Cell

EETC

National Grid

http://www.hydrogen-yorkshire.co.uk/
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Environmental Energy Technology Centre

Hydrogen Mini Grid can supply: 3 Phase Mains @ 415v Electrical power -From the On-Site Wind Turbine -From the National Grid -From the grid-synchronised fuel cell. Hydrogen Gas @ up to 350bar -For refuelling hydrogen vehicles -For refilling hydrogen bottles
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Secondary Data
Gammon, R., Roy, A., Barton, J., & Little, M., (2006) Hydrogen and Renewables Integration (HARI), Report to the International Energy Agency HIA Task 18, CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Hydrogen & Renewables Integration Project

Gammon, R., (2006) IEA HIA Task 18 Report
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Hydrogen & Renewables Integration Project

H.A.R.I. Home of Prof. Tony Marmont Autonomous Hydrogen Home

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Relevant Safety Information & Legislation

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

There is not yet a standard for hydrogen installations in the same way that there is the GasSafe (Formerly CORGI) quality mark for domestic and commercial gas installations. The United Kingdom Hydrogen Association is working to address this.
Present guidance is taken from the statutory industrial regulations listed below and manufacturers standards, and projects are assessed on a case-by-case basis, this adds significant expense to hydrogen installations due to the extra work of performing due-diligence.

Need to move towards a standard that can

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Companies such as BOC have a long experience of working safely with Hydrogen as an industrial gas. HAZOP Analysis – Hazard and operability studies; are a useful tool in refining process and procedure to ensure safe-working practise. Also consider: Strong alkali which is used in electrolyser systems, its storage and use should be done in accordance with the COSHH regulations. •ATEX (Explosive Atmospheres) Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin•COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Pressure Equipment Directive EU standard
•The pressure equipment directive covers vessels, piping, valves and associated accessories for safety and managing pressure •For installations running at greater than 0.5bar •The Pure Energy® Centre’s HyPod® running at 38-42 bar as an example, whilst nextgeneration hydrogen vehicles will require refuelling at between 300-750bar.
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

ATEX directive
Two directives, from the European Union, one which applies to the manufacture of equipment and their associated protective systems for use in explosive environments, and the other which applies to the operation and use of equipment in explosive environment.
•ATEX 95 equipment directive 94/9/EC, Equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres; •ATEX 137 workplace directive 99/92/EC, Minimum requirements for improving the safety and health
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

The BCGA provide guidance on the use of industrial compressed gases (exclusively for UK installations): •Code of Practice CP8 Safe Storage of gaseous hydrogen in seamless cylinders and similar containers •Code of Practice CP25 Revalidation of bulk liquid oxygen, nitrogen, argon and hydrogen cryogenic storage tanks. •Code of Practice CP33 The bulk storage of gaseous hydrogen at user premises 2005. Whilst currently not relevant, the regulations pertainingofto liquid and cryogenically stored Practical Implementation Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment GavinHydrogen could be important in the future as D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

In addition, the IGC provide the following guidance notes: •6/93 Code of Practice: Safety in storage, handling and distribution of liquid hydrogen. •15/96 Gaseous Hydrogen Stations Whilst the U.S. Compressed Gas Association provide the following: •G-5 Hydrogen •G5-4 Standard for Hydrogen Piping at Consumer Locations •G5-5 Hydrogen vent systems Furthermore, the U.S. National Fire Protection Association provide: •50A Gaseous hydrogen systems at consumer sites •50B Liquefied hydrogen systems at consumer sites
Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Architectural Detailing

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Planning Process •Educate the Client •Educate the Planning Officer •Educate the local Fire Service Need for much improved knowledge transfer.

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Passive Safety Through Architectural Detailing

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Points to Note
• Individual components work well… “Systems Integration” is the challenge for services engineers. • “Packaged” solutions may be an easy route to turn-key adoption (off-site fabrication) • More space for servicing may need to be allowed whilst hydrogen technologies are developing. • In common with other CHP, size fuel cell to Practical meet maximum heatFuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & demand.
Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Points to Note
• Sub 100kW Fuel Cells Accommodated in 19” Racks. • High temperature systems in excess of 200kW will fill a 20’ container with auxiliary devices, safety systems and balance of plant. • Clearance at front and rear for access. • Consider siting: – Electrical cables flowing to and from the fuel cell. – Hydrogen supply pipework supplying the fuel cell. – An exhaust pipe which will be large diameter and take a similar form to a gas boiler flue. – A waste water drain for the exhaust water from

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Points to Note
• Dry hydrogen through pipes can build up static charge (equipotential bonding as with gas) • Consider careful siting of flue to prevent creating an “ATEX Zone” remove sources of ignition. • Waste water (very clean can be recycled) • Fuel cell outputs D.C. power.

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

Conclusions

“The barriers to this are not technical but mindset, regulatory, political interference and vested interest.”
Former Chief Executive Officer London Climate Change Agency Ltd

Allan Jones

Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey (2009)

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