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Family Genus Species Serogroup Serovar

Enterobacteriaceae Salmonella S.enterica A Paratyphi A


B Typhimurium
Heidelberg
C1 Choleraesuis
D1 Typhi
Enteritidis
Dublin
Shigella S.desenteriae
S.flexneri
S.boydii
S.sonnei
 Gram-negative
 Short,flagellated
rods
 Facultative
anaerobes
 Ferment glucose
 Do not ferment
lactose
 Catalase-positive
 Oxidase-negative
 Culture on
MacConkey agar
Many facultative anaerobes in Several well-known pathogens
the intestine are lactose are unable to ferment lactose
fermenters. (e.g., Escherichia (e.g., Shigella, Salmonella).
coli)
FIG. 1. LA plate streaked with FIG. 2. LA plate streaked with
Salmonella enterica Serovar Salmonella enterica Serovar
Enteritidis and incubated at Enteritidis and incubated at
37ºC for 24 hours; top view 37ºC for 24 hours; side view
FIG. 1. LA plate streaked with FIG. 2. LA plate streaked with
Salmonella enterica Serovar Salmonella enterica Serovar
Typhimurium and incubated Typhimurium and incubated
at 37ºC for 24 hours ; top at 37ºC for 24 hours; side
view view
Antigens of Salmonella

Division on serotypes based on the cell wall (O), flagellar (H),


and capsular (Vi) antigenes.
Group-specific O receptor – is immunodominant lateral
shugar.
Receptor 2 Serological group A Sugar abequosa

Receptor 4 Serological group B Sugar paratosa

Receptor 9 Serological group D Sugar thyvelosa


Absorbed Group Name Somatic Flagellar Flagellar
O antisera (O) (H) (H)
available Antigen antigen Antigen
for
Phase 1 Phase 2
identifica-
tion
Factor 2 A S.paratyphi A 1,2,12 a -
Factor 4 B S. paratyphi B 1,4,5, b 1,2
12
S. Stanley 4,5,12 d 1,2
S. 4,
Schwarzengrun 12,27 d 1,7
d
S.Saintpaul 1,4,5,12 e,h 1,2
S.reading 4,5,12 e,h 1,5
Absorbed Group Name Somatic Flagellar Flagellar
O (O) (H) (H)
antisera Antigen antigen Antigen
available Phase 1 Phase 2
for
identifica
-tion

Factor 7 C1 S.Paratyphi C 6,7,Vi c 1,5


S.cholerae- 6,7 c 1,5
suis
S.typhi-suis 6,7 c 1,5
S.braenderup 6,7 e,h e,n,z15
S.montevideo 6,7 g,m,s -
S.oranienburg 6,7 m,t -
S.thompson 6,7 k 1,5
S.Infantis 6,7,14 r 1,5
S.Virchov 6,7 r 1,2
S.bareilly 6,7 y 1,5
Absorbed Group Name Somatic Flagellar Flagellar
O (O) (H) (H)
antisera Antigen antigen Antigen
available Phase 1 Phase 2
for
identifica
-tion

Factor 8 C2 S.tennessee 6,8 z -


S.muenchen 6,8 d 1,2
S.newport 6,8 e,h 1,2
S.bovis 6,8 r 1,5
morbificans 6,8
S.hadar 6,8 z10 e,n,z
Factor 9 D S.typhi 9,12,Vi d -
S.enteritidis 1,9,12 g,m -
S.dublin 1,9,12 g,p -
S.panama 1,9,12 iv 1,5
Absorbed Group Name Somatic Flagellar Flagellar
O antisera (O) (H) (H)
available Antigen antigen Antigen
for Phase 1 Phase 2
identifica-
tion

Factors E1 S.anatum 3,10 e,h 1,6


3,10 S.meleagridis 3,10 e,h l,w
S.london 3,10 l,v 1,6
S.give 3,10 l,v 1,7

Factor 19 E4 S.senftenburg 1,3,19 G,s,t -

Factor 11 F S.aberdeen 11 i 1,2

Factors G S.poona 13,22 z 1,6


13,22
 Gram negative rods
 Nonmotile and
nonencapsulated
 Cannot ferment
lactose
 Most strains do not
produce gas in a
mixed acid
fermentation of
glucose
 Culture on selective
medium such as
Hektoen agar
FIG. 1. LA plate streaked with FIG. 2. LA plate streaked with
Shigella flexneri and incubated at Shigella flexneri and incubated at
37ºC for 24 hours; top view 37ºC for 24 hours; side view
Subgroup Species Serotypes
A: mannitol not S. dysenteriae 1-10 all distinct
fermented
B: mannitol S. flexneri 1-6- all related,
fermented 1-4 divided into
subserotypes

C: mannitol S. boydii 1-15 all distinct


fermented
D: mannitol S. sonnei 1 serotype
fermented,
lactose
fermented late
Antigens of Shigella

Somatic O antigen
Fimbrial antigens
Microcapsule antigens for some strains
Types of interaction between
microorganizms and intestinal cells
1) Enterotoxic – typical for cholerae vibrious and
ETEC
2) Temporary invasive, cytotoxic and enterotoxic -
EPEC

3) Highly invasive and cytotoxic – shigella, EIEC

4) Invasive without destruction of epitelial cells -


salmonella
Virulence factors of Salmonella typhi

1) Endotoxin (LPS)

2) Adhesins - fimbria

3) Antiphagocytic factor – Vi antigen


Virulence factors of Shigella

1)Adhesive factors
- O-specific lateral chain of LPS
- proteins of the outer membran of the
cell wall

2) Incvasive factors – membran proteins (contact


hemolyzin). Encoded by plasmid.

3) Exotoxin – Shiga toxin