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Components of DBMS Environment

• There are five major components in the DBMS


environment
2. Hardware
3. Software
4. Data
5. Procedures
6. People

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Components of DBMS Environment

• Hardware : The DBMS and the application require


hardware to run. The hardware can range from a single
personal computer, to a single mainframe, to a network
of computers.
• The particular hardware depends on the organization’s
requirements and the DBMS used.

• Software: The software component consist the DBMS


software itself and the application programs, together
with the operating system, including network software if
DBMS is being used over a network.

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Components of DBMS Environment

• Typically, application programs are written in a third-


generation programming language(3GL) such as ‘C’,
C++,java, visual Basic, COBOL, Fortran, or Pascal or
using a fourth-generation language (4GL) such as SQL.

• Data: The most important component of the DBMS


environment is the data. As we observe that the data acts
as a bridge between the machine components and the
human components. The database contains both the
operational data and the meta-data.

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Components of DBMS Environment

• Procedures: procedures refer to the instructions and


rules that govern the design and use of the database. The
user of the system that manage the database require
documented procedures on how to use or run the system.
These may consist of instructions on how to:
• log on to the DBMS
• Use a particular facility
• Start and stop the DBMS
• Make backup copies of the database
• Handle H/W and S/W failures

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Components of DBMS Environment

• People: The final component is the people involved with


the system.

• H/w---S/w Data Procedures---People

Machine Bridge Human

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Database Administrator

• The database and the DBMS are corporate resources that


must be managed like any other resource and that resource
body is the Database Administrator.

• Database Administrator is responsible for the physical


realization of the database application, including physical
database design, implementation,security and integrity
control, maintenance of the operational system and
ensuring satisfactory performance of the applications for
users.

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Database Administrator
• MAJOR TASKS OF THE DBA
• Evaluating and selecting DBMS products
• Undertaking physical database design
• Defining security and integrity constraints
• To work closely with database developers
• Developing test strategies
• Training to users
• Responsible for “signing off ”the implemented database
application.

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Database Administrator
• Monitoring system performance and tuning the database as
appropriate

• Performing backups routinely

• Ensuring recovery mechanism and procedures

• Keeping up to date with software and hardware


developments and costs, installing updates as necessary

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Database System

• “Shared collection of logically related data and a


description of this data ,design to meet the information
needs of an organization”

• “An Organized collection of logically related data, usually


designed to meet the information needs of multiple users in
an organization”.

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Database System

• The database holds not only the organization’s operational


data but also a description of this data.

• If a database is developed for Students, it will contain data


about the Student i.e. Roll no, Name ,Father Name , Class,
Department , Session, Address, Contact# etc

• All data are stored in form of tables in Database.

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Database System

• Tables/Relations.
• Tables is the fundamental object the database
structure.The basic aim of tables is to stored data
• Tables consists Rows and columns(Fig shows)

Roll no Name Class Address Cntct


1 Ali Bcs pesh 12345
2 Zain Bcs kohat 67654

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Database System

• Rows / Records / Tuple


• Row is the horizontal part of the table, It is the collection
of related fields

1 Ali Bcs pesh 12345

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Database System

• Column / Field.
• Columns are the vertical part of the table.

Name

Ali

zain

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Database System
Components of the Database Environment

• CASE Tools – computer-aided software engineering


• Repository – centralized storehouse of metadata
• Database Management System (DBMS) – software for
managing the database
• Database – storehouse of the data
• Application Programs – software using the data

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Database System

• User Interface – text and graphical displays to users


• Data Administrators – personnel responsible for
maintaining the database
• System Developers – personnel responsible for designing
databases and software
• End Users – people who use the applications and
databases

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Components of the database environment

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DBMS

• “ A software system that enables users to define , create,


maintain and control access to the database”

• The DBMS is the s/w that interacts with the users ,


application programs and the database.

• DBMS is the general purpose s/w system that provides the


following facilities

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DBMS
1. DBMS provides the facility to define the structure of
database. The user can specify data types, formats and
constraints.

3. DBMS provide the facility to contain data( operational


data, metadata) on some storage device controlled by
DBMS.

5. That s/w provide the facility to insert, delete, update and


retrieve specific data, to generate reports etc.

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DBMS

Application
#1

Application
#2
DBMS Database
containing
centralized
shared data
Application
#3 DBMS manages data
resources like an operating
system manages hardware
resources
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Application Programmer

• Once the database has been implemented the application


programs that provide the required functionality for the
end-user’s must be implemented and this is the
responsibility of the application programmer.

• So we can say that the application programmer is a


professional who writes computer programs in high level
languages such as 3GL and 4GL.
• Typically the application programmer work from a
specification produced by system analysts.

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Application Programmer

• Each program contain statements that requests the DBMS


to perform some operation on the database include
retrieving data, inserting, updating and deleting data.

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User

• The end-users are the ‘clients’ for the database, which has
been designed and implemented, and is being maintained
to serve their information needs.

• End-users can be classified according to the way they use


the system.
 Naïve users: are typically unaware of the DBMS.
• They access the database trough specially written
application programs which attempt to make the operation
as simple as possible.

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User

• They invoke database operations by entering simple


commands or choosing options from a menu .

 Sophisticated users: this type of end-user is familiar with


the structure of the database and the facilities offered by
the DBMS. Sophisticated end-users may use a high-level
query language such as SQL to perform the required
operations

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

Data Dictionary: “a repository of information


about a database that documents data elements of
a database”

It is an integral part of the relational DBMS’s,


which stores metadata or information about the
database.
Including attributes names & definitions for each
tables in database

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

• Data dictionary is the part of the system catalog.

Where system catalog describes all database objects including


tables related data,

such as tables names, column names, data types, foreign keys


& primary keys, authorized users, users access privileges
& so on.

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

• System catalog is created by DBMS & the information


stored in system tables.

• Data dictionaries may either active or passive.

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories
• Active & Passive Dictionaries.
• Active Dictionary
• Active data dictionary automatically managed by the BDMS.

• Active system are always related with the current structure and
definition of the database.

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

• Most of RDBMS contain active dictionary that can be


derived from their system catalog.

• Passive Dictionary.
• This type of dictionary is managed by the user’s of the
system, & modified whenever structured of the database is
changed.

• However the passive data dictionary may be maintained as


a separate database.
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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

• Passive data dictionary are not limited to information that


can be discerned by the DBMS.

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

• Information Repository

“a component that stores metadata which describes an


organization’s data and data processing resources,
manages the total information environment, and combines
information about an organization’s business information
and its application portfolio”

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

• Information repositories are used by data administrators


and other specialists to manage the total information
processing environment.

• The information repositories are the essential components


of both the development and production environment.

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

• Information Repository Dictionary System (IRDS)


“ a computer software tool that is used to manage and
control access to the information repository”

• It provide facilities for recording , storing, and processing


descriptions of an organization’s significant data and data
processing resources

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Data Dictionary & Directory/Repositories

• Repository engine supports five major functions.

3. Object management
4. Relationship management
5. Dynamic extensibility
6. Version management
7. Configuration management

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