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Behaviourist Theories

Jaspreet Singh Nandre (20)
Pooja Senapati (30)
Surjya Das (55)

Ravenshaw Management Centre

What is Behaviourism
 Behaviour are acquired as a result of
 Behaviour can be researched scientifically
without recourse to inner mental state
 Association or reinforcement – Primary pre
requisites of Behaviourism
 Only overt observable Behaviour are studied
and inner state of mind is not taken into
 Behaviour focuses on a new Behaviour pattern
being repeated until it becomes automatic.
Purpose of Behaviourism

 Behaviours should be observed in a more

objective manner
 To promote desirable Behaviours and
discourage undesirable Behaviours
 To treat hordes of mental problems present in
adults and children
What is Behaviourist Theory

“Behaviourist theories of
learning are scientific and
demonstrable explanations
for simple Behaviours”
-Lefrancois (1988)
Different Behaviourist Theories
 Ivan Pavlov (Classical Conditioning)
 Edward Thorndike
 B.F. Skinner (Operant Conditioning)
 John B. Watson
Pavlov (1849-1936)
 The Russian physiologist is best known for his
work in classical conditioning or stimulus
 Pavlov’s most famous experiment involved
food, a dog and a bell.
Stimulus and Response Items of
Pavlov's Experiment

 Food Unconditioned Stimulus

 Salivation Unconditioned Response

 Bell Conditioned Stimulus

 Salivation Conditioned Response
Other Observations Made by Pavlov

 Stimulus Generalization.
 Extinction.
 Spontaneous Recovery.
 Discrimination.
 Higher-Order Conditioning.
 Thorndike believed that a neural bond would
be established between the stimulus and
response when the response was positive.

 His theory, connectionism, stated that

“learning was the formation of a connection
between stimulus and response.”
 The ‘law of effect’
When a connection between a stimulus
and a response is positively or negatively
rewarded it will be strengthened
 The ‘law of exercise’
 The more an S-R(stimulus-response) bond is
practiced the stronger it will become
 This law had to be updated when Thorndike found
that practice without feedback does not
necessarily enhance performance.
Behaviourist Theories Of Watson
• Learning is a process for enduring change in the
organism Behaviour.
• John B. Watson was the first American
psychologist, involved in the study of human
• Watson’s emotional reaction of love and rage
and other stimulus response associating with
• Watson experiment on a young child and a white
• And the result shown fear was more powerful
then it was
 This may explain certain fears, phobias and
prejudices that people develop.
 Our attitude and emotions are classical
 Association between a fear-provoking stimulus
and neutral stimulus brings changes in
Behaviour pattern.
 Principle can used in industries and org.
 The positive attitude and emotional are
developed towards the objects and events.
Behaviourist Theories Of Skinner
 Skinner – stimulus response pattern
Behaviour. Of conditioned Behaviour
 Discarded philosophical and mentalist concept
 He experimented on a hungry rat
 His theory dealt with changes in observable
Behaviour, ignoring the possibility of any
processes occurring in the mind.
 observation of Behaviour is formed on the
basic of contingency between response and
 If the Behaviour. Is followed by rewarding
condition, it would be strengthened.
 If the Behaviour. Is followed by annoying, it
would be weakness.
 Lower the latency, stronger is the learning.
 As if the response is well-learned, its
extinction is slow.
Classical Operant Conditioning
Conditioning - Pavlov - Skinner

Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned Response  Stimulus

response (press lever) (reward and food)
(food) (salivation)
Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned
(food) (salivation) Conditioned response  Conditioned
Conditioned Stimulus
(press lever) (reward and
(bell) food)

Conditioned Stimulus  Conditioned

(bell) (salivation)