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CHAPTER 4

IT CAREER

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Current jobs in IT sectors

Software and Hardware Engineers


 Hardware engineers create, test and supervise
systems that run the computers and enable processes.
They ensure that hardware systems are up and
running at all times without interrupting the flow of
work.
 Software engineers design and develop software
applications that aid businesses run multiple
processes in an automated manner.

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Current jobs in IT sectors (cont.)

 These jobs may also involve:


 Study client processes to determine their needs for software
and hardware
 Manage a team of developers and engineers
 Analyze, design and develop software processes
 Monitor systems, control quality and maintain supplies
 Evaluation of various flows and processes
 Fresh Graduates can start as junior or support
engineers. Candidates with over 3-5 years of
experience can be considered for the role of Project
Leader/Manager. Project Managers generally play a
supervisory role and mange a team of computer
engineers and information technology specialists.

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Current jobs in IT sectors (cont.)

IT Consultants
 Play the role of consultants to various business.
 They study the processes like supply chain, inventory
management etc and recommend information
technology based solutions that will basically make
the process error free, simpler and quicker.
 Required across various industry segments to right up
to government organizations.
 Entrepreneurial information technology consultants
can also set up their own consulting firms and advice
clients independently on how information technology
can help their business and augment profits.

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Current jobs in IT sectors (cont.)

Network Administrator
 Runs a smoothly functioning computer network; free
of bugs, glitches, and interruptions.
 Example of what a network administrator may do
during his day can include computer software; get
computer/network up and running again after it
crashes; set up new devices and solving computer
problems on a consistent basis.
 This job provides hands on experience on working on
networks and administration.

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Current jobs in IT sectors (cont.)

Database Specialist
 Creates, customizes and maintains database
applications for businesses.
 Will incorporate not only programming but also
planning and design with working with popular
database applications such as SQL and Access.
 Database programs may range from reporting POS
transactions, customer details or web-based
applications.
 Database specialization is a growing area of expertise
within IT as well as one very well paid.

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Current jobs in IT sectors (cont.)
Systems Analyst
 Collect information to analyze and evaluate existing
or proposed systems.
 Research, plan, install, configure, troubleshoot,
maintain and upgrade hardware and software
interfaces with the operating system.
 Prepare detailed flow charts and diagrams outlining
systems capabilities and processes.
 Research and recommend hardware and software
development, purchase, and use.
 Conduct technical research on system upgrades to
determine feasibility, cost, time required, and
compatibility with current system.
 Document system problems and resolutions for future
reference.
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Current jobs in IT sectors (cont.)

Webmaster
Programmer
System Administrator
Disaster Recovery Coordinator
Chief Information Officer
Chief Technology Officer
Director Electronic Commerce

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Current jobs in IT sectors (cont.)

HCI Specialist
Computer System and Security Auditor
Computer Engineer
Tasks:
1. List out and elaborate some other jobs in the IT
and engineering fields not listed here.
2. Identify some of the emerging jobs in these two
fields.
3. What job(s) are you aiming for? Why?

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors

Workers enter the IT field from many fields;


only a modest share of IT workers require
computer science degrees; moreover, a very
large share of those working in IT fields move
to other fields frequently.
The three primary census occupational
classifications for IT workers are: computer
systems analysts and scientists, computer
programmers, and operations and systems
researchers.

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
Computer engineers work with the hardware
and software aspects of systems design and
development and often work in teams that
design new computing devices or computer-
related equipment.
Software engineers design and develop both
packaged and systems software.
Database administrators work with database
management systems software, reorganize and
restructure data and are responsible for
maintaining the efficiency of databases and
system security.

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
Computer support analysts provide assistance
and advice to users, interpret problems and
provide technical support for hardware,
software, and systems.
Systems analysts implement computer
technology to meet the individual needs of an
organization.
Computer programmers write and maintain the
detailed instructions that list in a logical order
the steps that computers must execute to
perform their functions.

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
Despite the extravagant claims of a shortage of
IT workers, the indicators are mixed. The
employment trends shown in the chart reveal
rapid growth in the computer systems analysts
and scientists.
In spite of weak employment growth in two of
the three IT occupations, one might still argue
that a shortage of workers prevented employers
from hiring in these fields.

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
The most prevalent trend has been that of
technological innovation. Revolutions in
technology continue to cause rapid, almost un-
predictable changes in career demand.
Changes in technology can obsolete your job
causing you to be laid off, downsized, right
sized, and just plain inconvenienced.
Few examples of jobs which were once in great
demand but are now declining or totally extinct:
Typesetting, IBM punch card operator, Telex
(TWX) Operator, Telephone Operators.

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
Trends are about change and every change has
at its core, a "driver”:
 The need to save time
 The need to reduce cost
 The need to do things faster
 The need to make things easier to use
 The need to improve safety and reliability
 The need to lessen the impact on the environment

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
Top IT Jobs in relatively high demand throughout the
next 10 years:
 Computer Systems Analysts - CAD Operator
 WEB Specialists - Network Support Technicians
 Java Programmer - IT Manager
 Web Developer - Data Base Administrator
 Network Engineer - Computer Engineers

References:
http://www.urban.org/publications/900276.html
http://www.careerplanner.com/Career-Articles/Top_Jobs.htm

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
No field offers more opportunities to a wider variety of
people than computers and information. Advances in
technology have changed the way people contribute in
the workplace, offering jobs to many who would have
been considered unemployable.
Telecommuting offers special opportunities to women,
the disabled, and others who need to work from the
home or a neighborhood center.
The term telecommuting encompasses everything from
occasional work at home to permanent work
arrangements away from the office.
The concept of telecommuting has caught on for a
number of reasons.

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
Telecommuting gives companies the flexibility to
accommodate and retain their most productive workers.
Lack of distractions and interruptions is a major
advantage of telecommuting.
Many careers in the information field lend themselves to
independent work outside the office, and everyone has a
chance at them without being subjected to gender, race,
age, and other types of biases.
This is not to say that placement in computer careers is
free from any of this type of discrimination, but because
of a number of factors, this discrimination is less than for
most other career areas.

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New Career Trends in IT Sectors
(cont.)
The demand for skilled personnel in rapidly growing
computer fields. Managers have not been in a position to
overlook the talent of women and minorities.
They have had to focus on getting enough qualified
people to do the job.
The percentage of male workers will decline as the
percentage of female workers increases.
Temporary services offer an alternative to full-time
permanent positions.
Temporary-service firms have expanded from offering
low-skill workers to offering workers with computer
skills. Automation skills make up a large portion of the
business of temporary-service firms.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors

Case study in UK (2004):


The IT workforce is almost 1.2 million strong.
The sector is divided into two parts:
 those working in the IT industry;
 IT professionals working in other areas.

There are almost 580,000 people working in


companies in the UK whose primary function
and business is IT; this accounts for
approximately 2% of UK employment.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

IT professionals typically fill roles in:


 IT services (eg, internet and web design services),
technology development, systems analysis and
testing, programming.
Just under a third of those working inside the
industry are employed in other, less technical
occupations, for example in:
 sales and marketing, consultancy, customer support,
management.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

There are almost 590,000 IT professionals


working in other sectors in the UK. These are
people whose primary role is IT orientated –
they often work in IT departments or as IT
support staff within organisations.
Outside the IT industry, the largest numbers of
IT professionals can be found in manufacturing,
financial services, retail and the public sector,
although there are opportunities in just about
every sector.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)
Areas of work include:
 development (ie, creating systems, networks and
applications), operations (ie, running and improving
the speed of access to systems, networks and
applications), and user support.
Four out of ten UK businesses employ IT
professionals. Levels of employment in specific IT
roles can be distributed as follows:
IT/Telecoms managers (32%), Technical support staff
(28%), PC support staff (9%), Systems designers (7%),
Systems developers (6%), Programmers (5%), Software
engineers (5%), Operations staff (3%), Networking staff
(3%), Internet professionals (2%), Database staff (1%).

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

The most common roles for all new graduates


are:
 software engineer; computer/IT
consultant; computer programmer;
systems analyst; computer
analyst/programmer; computer
operations manager.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

Comments from graduates about what they


enjoy most about working in IT reinforce
perceptions of a dynamic industry that is often
informal, but always focused on achievement.
Highlights include:
 constant challenges and changes; enormous variety of
work; relaxed work environment; culture of delivery
and getting things done; part of a forever evolving
and fast-moving industry; enthusiasm and
intelligence of colleagues; good work/life balance.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)
Women form less than 20% (one in five) of the
IT workforce, which is significantly low in
comparison with the 45% of the UK workforce
overall. Women do, however, have a higher
presence in operations and user support
technician roles.
The IT industry invests significantly more in
training than the average invested by all other
industries. This often includes training in new
technology. The type of training offered will
depend on the business priority of the
organisation.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)
The industry tends to favour proven experience and
ability over education and qualifications. In some
roles, non-IT graduates compete with IT graduates
based on the skills they have to offer, including
technical and analytical skills, and not necessarily
degree subject studied.
Perhaps the most significant influences on the
industry at the moment are:
 outsourcing - the concept of taking internal company
functions and paying an outside firm to handle them;
 off shoring - the relocation of IT services to a lower cost
location, usually overseas.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

Four skill sets that will be needed for an IT


company of any size to thrive:
- Business - IT Leader / Advisor
- Industry IT Specialist
- Advanced Computational Technologist
- Same Time / Same Place Technologist

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

IDC research estimates that overall IT spending


in Malaysia for 2007 will hit RM16.7 billion
with a growth forecast of 9.1% between now till
2011.
This reflects the growth potential of the local IT
industry, which points towards the increasing
demand for IT professionals.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

Global mobile phone use surpassed 3.25 billion


by end of 2007 (source: www.zdnet.com)
Billions of portable electronic mobile devices
such as mp3 players, mp4 players, digital
cameras, portable game consoles, PDAs, etc.
Computers can be found everywhere – home,
schools, offices, shops, banks, factories, boats,
planes, International Space Station, stadiums, F1
circuit, just name it..

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

Most household and office equipments are


controlled by electronic parts and software –
TVs, radios, washing machines, air conditioners,
refrigerators, security alarms, photocopiers,
ATMs, etc..
Large contraptions such as cars, trucks, planes,
space shuttles, cranes, trains, buses, etc are
somehow connected to some kind of computers
to control some of the advance and complicated
functions.

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)
The Department of Statistic, Malaysia carries out
annual/biennial survey for selected services sector for
the whole country. For reference year 2007, this survey
covers 18  types of services as listed below:
1) Telecommunication Services
2) Computer and Related Activities
3) Accommodation(annual)
4) Education
5) Clinic
6) Hospital/Healthcare services
7) Legal services
8) Accounting services
9) Architectural, engineering, surveying and other
related technical consultancy services
10) Real estate agents

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Future Directions of IT Sectors (cont.)

11) Motion picture projection


12) Advertising agencies
13) Stock, Share, Commodity & foreign
exchange brokers
14) Consultancy
15) Sea transport
16) Train services (includes suburban, LRT,
commuter and monorail)
17) Air transport
18) Highway, bridge and tunnel operation
services
Reference: http://www.statistics.gov.my

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