You are on page 1of 17

Research Methods for Degree Study

Research and Ethics

Prepared by: Ida Lopez First Prepared on: 15-03-07 Last Modified on: 25-05-07

Structure of the lesson


Goal of Ethics in Research Ethics in Research: Subjects Rights

Common types of Academic Fraud Plagiarism


Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides Slide 4 (of 11)

Learning Outcomes
Understand the meaning of ethics. Explain the goal of ethics in research. Know guidelines for ethical treatment of participants in any research work. Explain types of academic fraud. Apply personal self-regulation in academic ethical scenarios.

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides

Slide 3 (of 11)

Goal of Ethics in Research


Ethics are norms or standards of behaviour that guide our behaviour and our relationships with others (Cooper and Schindler 2003) The goal of ethics in research is to ensure that no one is harmed or suffers adverse consequences from research activities.

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides

Ethics in Research
Subjects Rights - To choose whether or not to participate . Awareness of this right . Adequate knowledge of the research in order to make an informed choice / decision . Awareness of opportunity to end participation
Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides

Ethics in Research
Subjects Rights (cont.) - To not receive physical or psychological harm, including stress or deception - To not be denied beneficial treatment - To privacy (anonymity of results) - To be informed of the research results
Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides

Academic Fraud Fabrication - the actual making up of research data and (the intent of) publishing them

Falsification - manipulation of research data - omitting critical data or results

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides

Slide 7 (of 11)

Academic Fraud (cont.) Plagiarism - the act of taking credit (or attempting to take credit) for the work of another

Lets look at plagiarism in-depth

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides

Plagiarism Plagiarism is the use of another persons work (this could be his or her words, products or ideas) for personal advantage, without proper acknowledgement of the original work. Plagiarism may occur deliberately (with the intention to deceive) or accidentally (due to poor referencing).
Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides

Plagiarism (cont.) It encompasses copying material from any published sources Including, copying and pasting information from the World Wide Web Or, receiving help from unauthorized sources on coursework.
Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides

Importance of Research Ethics


Case Study: Go to the hyperlink below:
http://www.unmc.edu/ethics/data/darsee.htm The Darsee Case

After reading this case, please discuss on the implications and importance of research ethics.

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides

Importance of Research Ethics


Code of Ethics for Academia and Research (extracts)
Honesty: Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public. Objectivity: Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research.
Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides

Importance of Research Ethics


Integrity: Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action. Carefulness: Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals. Openness: Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas. Respect for Intellectual Property: Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit is due. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research. Never plagiarize.

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides

Importance of Research Ethics


Confidentiality: Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. Responsible Publication: Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication. Responsible Mentoring: Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own judgments

Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu:8030/~nkriesb/rcr_intro.htm

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides

Review Questions
What is the main goal of ethics in Research? What are the rights of subjects / participants involved in research? Identify some actions which constitute academic fraud.

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides

Question and Answer Session

Q&A
Module Code and Module Title Title of Slides

Next Session

Sources of Research Information

Module Code and Module Title

Title of Slides