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Refactoring and Coding Standard

Milan Vukoje

 Is

code important?  Code Refactoring  Coding Standard  Code Review  Tools

Importance of code
 Is

construction relatively mechanical process?  Only activity that’s guaranteed to be done  50-65% of overall effort  50-75% of overall errors  managing software complexity

Technical Debt
 Ward

Cunningham  When software organization chooses a design or construction approach that's expedient in the short term but that increases complexity and is more costly in the long term.  Unintentional and intentional debt  Scrum - make up issues

Coding Horror
   

Fear Stress Cargo cult programming/Just in case coding Heisenbug - bug that disappears or alters its characteristics when an attempt is made to study it. Mandelbug - bug whose causes are so complex that its behavior appears chaotic. Schroedinbug - bug that manifests only after someone reading source code or using the program in an unusual way notices that it never should have worked in the first place.


 

Refactoring (noun): a change made to the internal structure of software to make it easier to understand and cheaper to modify without changing its observable behavior. Refactor (verb): to restructure software by applying a series of refactorings without changing its observable behavior. Set of rules and techniques for simplifying process and reducing chances for error

The Book
 Refactoring:

Improving the Design of Existing Code --Martin Fowler

Need for refactoring
Micro design Code evolution Embracing change Clear API with expected behavior Avoiding coding horror Why change something that works? We want programs that are easy to read, that have all logic specified in one and only one place, that do not allow changes to endanger existing behavior, and that allow conditional logic to be expressed as simply as possible. Kent Beck

      

Agile methodologies and Refactoring
 XP

– no upfront design  TDD – red, green, refactor  Scrum – make up user stories, educating management about refactoring

Code smells [1]
      

Duplicated Code Long Method Large Class Long Parameter List Feature Envy Data Clumps Primitive Obsession

Code smells[2]
        

Switch Statements Lazy Class Speculative Generality Temporary Field Message Chains Middle Man Data Class Refused Bequest Shotgun Surgery

Refactorings: Composing Methods
        

Extract Method Inline Method Inline Temp Replace Temp with Query Introduce Explaining Variable Split Temporary Variable Remove Assignments to Parameters Replace Method with Method Object Substitute Algorithm

Extract Method
 

You have a code fragment that can be grouped together. Turn the fragment into a method whose name explains the purpose of the method.

void printOwing(double amount) { printBanner(); //print details System.out.println ("name:" + _name); System.out.println ("amount" + amount); }

void printOwing(double amount) { printBanner(); printDetails(amount); } void printDetails (double amount) { System.out.println ("name:" + _name); System.out.println ("amount" + amount); }

Inline Method
 

A method's body is just as clear as its name. Put the method's body into the body of its callers and remove the method.

int getRating() { return (moreThanFiveLateDeliveries()) ? 2 : 1; } boolean moreThanFiveLateDeliveries() { return _numberOfLateDeliveries > 5; }

int getRating() { return (_numberOfLateDeliveries > 5) ? 2 : 1; }

Inline Temp
 

You have a temp that is assigned to once with a simple expression, and the temp is getting in the way of other refactorings. Replace all references to that temp with the expression.

double basePrice = anOrder.basePrice(); return (basePrice > 1000)

return (anOrder.basePrice() > 1000)

Replace Temp with Query
 

You are using a temporary variable to hold the result of an expression. Extract the expression into a method. Replace all references to the temp with the expression. The new method can then be used in other methods. double basePrice = _quantity * _itemPrice; if (basePrice > 1000) return basePrice * 0.95; else return basePrice * 0.98;

if (basePrice() > 1000) return basePrice() * 0.95; else return basePrice() * 0.98; ... double basePrice() { return _quantity * _itemPrice; }

Temp variable problem

The problem with temps is that they are temporary and local. Because they can be seen only in the context of the method in which they are used, temps tend to encourage longer methods, because that's the only way you can reach the temp. By replacing the temp with a query method, any method in the class can get at the information. That helps a lot in coming up with cleaner code for the class.

Introduce Explaining Variable
 

You have a complicated expression. Put the result of the expression, or parts of the expression, in a temporary variable with a name that explains the purpose.

if ( (platform.toUpperCase().indexOf("MAC") > -1) && (browser.toUpperCase().indexOf("IE") > -1) && wasInitialized() && resize > 0 ) { // do something }

final boolean isMacOs = platform.toUpperCase().indexOf("MAC") > -1; final boolean isIEBrowser = browser.toUpperCase().indexOf("IE") > -1; final boolean wasResized = resize > 0; if (isMacOs && isIEBrowser && wasInitialized() && wasResized) { // do something }

Split Temporary Variable
 

You have a temporary variable assigned to more than once, but is not a loop variable nor a collecting temporary variable. Make a separate temporary variable for each assignment. double temp = 2 * (_height + _width); System.out.println (temp); temp = _height * _width; System.out.println (temp);

final double perimeter = 2 * (_height + _width); System.out.println (perimeter); final double area = _height * _width; System.out.println (area);

Remove Assignments to Parameters
 

The code assigns to a parameter. Use a temporary variable instead.

int discount (int inputVal, int quantity, int yearToDate) { if (inputVal > 50) inputVal -= 2;

int discount (int inputVal, int quantity, int yearToDate) { int result = inputVal; if (inputVal > 50) result -= 2;

Enforces clarity between pass by value and pass by reference parameters.

Replace Method with Method Object

You have a long method that uses local variables in such a way that you cannot apply Extract Method. Turn the method into its own object so that all the local variables become fields on that object. You can then decompose the method into other methods on the same object.

Substitute Algorithm
 

You want to replace an algorithm with one that is clearer. Replace the body of the method with the new algorithm.

Refactorings: Simplifying Conditional Expressions
       

Decompose Conditional Consolidate Conditional Expression Consolidate Duplicate Conditional Fragments Remove Control Flag Replace Nested Conditional with Guard Clauses Replace Conditional with Polymorphism Introduce Null Object Introduce Assertion

Decompose Conditional
 

You have a complicated conditional (if-then-else) statement. Extract methods from the condition, then part, and else parts.

if (date.before (SUMMER_START) || date.after(SUMMER_END)) charge = quantity * _winterRate + _winterServiceCharge; else charge = quantity * _summerRate;

if (notSummer(date)) charge = winterCharge(quantity); else charge = summerCharge (quantity);

Consolidate Conditional Expression
 

You have a sequence of conditional tests with the same result. Combine them into a single conditional expression and extract it.

double disabilityAmount() { if (_seniority < 2) return 0; if (_monthsDisabled > 12) return 0; if (_isPartTime) return 0; // compute the disability amount

double disabilityAmount() { if (isNotEligableForDisability()) return 0; // compute the disability amount

Consolidate Duplicate Conditional Fragments
 

The same fragment of code is in all branches of a conditional expression. Move it outside of the expression. if (isSpecialDeal()) { total = price * 0.95; send(); } else { total = price * 0.98; send(); }

if (isSpecialDeal()) total = price * 0.95; else total = price * 0.98; send();

Refactorings: Making Method Calls Simpler
      

Rename Method Separate Query from Modifier Parameterize Method Preserve Whole Object Hide Method Replace Error Code with Exception Replace Exception with Test

Refactorings: Moving Features between objects
 Move

Method  Move Field  Extract Class  Inline Class  Hide Delegate  Remove Middle Man

Refactorings: Dealing with Generalization
         

Pull Up Field Pull Up Method Push Down Method Push Down Field Extract Subclass Extract Superclass Extract Interface Collapse Hierarchy Replace Inheritance with Delegation Replace Delegation with Inheritance

Refactoring: Organizing Data
 Encapsulate

Field  Replace Data Value with Object  Replace Magic Number with Symbolic Constant  Encapsulate Collection  Replace Type Code with Subclasses  Replace Type Code with State/Strategy  Replace Subclass with Fields

Refactoring and Software Design
        

Design for today vs. Design for tomorrow Upfront design Do a minimum that works Refactoring to patterns vs. Patternitis/Overengineering Cohesion and Coupling Eliminate duplicate code Without refactoring, the design of the program will decay XP – no upfront design Flexible vs. simple design

Code Readability

    

Makes software easier to understand, leading to faster modifications and faster adding of new features Optimizing code for human rather than computers Reducing the amount of code Make the code better communicate its purpose Code like lazy programmer Use refactoring to help understand unfamiliar code

When Should You Refactor?
    

Refactoring is something you do all the time in little bursts. Refactor when you add function Refactor when you need to fix a bug Refactor as you do a code review If you can get today's work done today, but you do it in such a way that you can't possibly get tomorrow's work done tomorrow, then you lose. – Kent Beck Refactoring and Unit Tests?

What Do I Tell My Manager?

If the manager is quality oriented, then the thing to stress is the quality aspects. Tons of studies show that technical reviews are an important way to reduce bugs and thus speed up development. Don't tell!?

When you shouldn’t refactor?
       

Databases – data migration, reused structures across applications Changing published interfaces Rewriting from scratch instead Code is so full of bugs that you cannot stabilize it Code has to work mostly correctly before you refactor. When you are very close to a deadline Not having enough time usually is a sign that you need to do some refactoring. Don’t overdo it.

Performance and Refactoring
 Refactoring

certainly will make software go more slowly, but it also makes the software more amenable to performance tuning.  Changes that improve performance usually make the program harder to work with.  If you optimize all the code equally, you end up with 90 percent of the optimizations wasted, because you are optimizing code that isn't run much.