Skeletal System 2 | Vertebra | Pelvis

The Skeletal System

by: Jasper C. Pilongo, M.D.

What is the purpose of a skeleton?
    

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SUPPORTS the body and gives it shape. PROTECTION of internal organs. MOVEMENT of the body. STORAGE of calcium and phosphorus. PRODUCTION of red blood cells in the bone

marrow. 6. SOUND TRANSDUCTION Mechanical aspect of overshadowed hearing

TYPES OF SKELETONS

Animals can have…

NO SKELETON EXOSKELETON (external skeleton)

ENDOSKELTON (internal skeleton)

Subdivisions of the Skeletal System:

Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal axis Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the limbs and girdles

The Skeletal System
 Bones  Joints  Cartilages  Ligaments  Tendons

Bones
Bones are rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They function to move, support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue

Joints
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.

Cartilages
is a type of dense connective tissue existing within many joints. It is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers, abundant ground substance rich in proteoglycan, and elastin fibers.

Ligaments
Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. They are sometimes called "articular ligaments", "fibrous ligaments", or "true ligaments“.

Tendons
is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone

Classification of Bones
 206

bones  2 basic types bone tissue Compact bones Spongy bones

Classification of Bones
 According ii. iii. iv. v.

to Shape

long short flat irregular

Must Know!!!

Sesamoid bone

Structure of long bones

Microscopic Anatomy
 Osteocytes  Lacunae  Lamella  Haversian  Canaliculi  Volkmann’s

Canal Canal

Microscopic Anatomy

Microscopic Anatomy

Bone Formation, Growth and Remodeling

Embryo – hyaline cartilage > bone Young child – hyaline cartilage < bone Adult – hyaline cartilage << bone

Bone Formation, Growth and Remodeling
Hyaline Cartilage covered with bone matrix by osteoblasts. Digestion of hyaline cartilage Formation of medullary cavity

Bone Formation, Growth and Remodeling
Spared regions involves the articular and epiphyseal plates Osteoblasts acts on the outside Osteoclasts in the inside Appositional growth

Bone Formation, Growth and Remodeling

Bone Formation, Growth and Remodeling

Axial Skeleton
80 bones

Axial Skeleton
Cranial Bones Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Frontal (1) Occipital (1) Ethmoid (1) Sphenoid (1)

Axial Skeleton

Skull – cranium + facial bones

Mandible – freely movable joint, the rest are immovable joined by sutures
All are single except for parietal and temporal bones

Cranium – made up of 8 large flat bones; Facial Bones – holds the eyes, attachment for facial muscles

Frontal bone
Forms the:  forehead  bony projections under the eyebrows  superior part of the eye’s orbit

Parietal bone
  

Paired Sagittal suture Coronal suture

Temporal bone

Inferior to parietal bone Squamous suture

Temporal bone
External auditory meatus  Styloid process  Zygomatic process  Mastoid  Jugular foramen

Occipital bone
 Lambdoid

suture  Foramen magnum  Occipital condyles

Sphenoid bone
   

Sella turcica Foramen ovale Optic canal Superior orbital fissure Sphenoid sinuses

Sutures

Axial Skeleton
Facial Bones Maxilla (2) Zygomatic (2) Mandible (1) Nasal (2) Platine (2) Inferior nasal concha (2) Lacrimal (2) Vomer (1)

Axial Skeleton (skull)
Auditory Ossicles Malleus (2) Incus (2) Stapes (2)

Axial Skeleton (skull)
 Hyoid

Axial Skeleton ( vertebral column )
Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacrum (1) 5 fused Coccyx (1) 4 fused

vertebral column
 Primary

curvature

Thoracic  Sacral
 Secondary

curvature
Cervical  Lumbar

vertebral column
 Common
1. 2.

features
4 6 2b

5 2a

2

3. 4. 5. 6.

Body Vertebral arch a. Pedicle b. Laminae Vertebral foramen Transverse process Spinous process Superior articular process

3 1

vertebral column

Superior and Inferior articular processes

Cervical Vertebrae

C1 – C7 ( atypical )
 

C1 no body C2 w/ odontoid process Smallest lightest vertebrae Short / Divided spinous process With vertebral foramina

C3 – C7 ( typical )
 

Thoracic vertebrae
    

T1 – T12 all typical Larger Heart-shaped body Has 2 costal facets Long hooked spinous process

Lumbar vertebrae
 L1

– L5 massive blocklike bodies hatchet spinous process vertebrae

 Short

 Sturdiest

Sacrum
     

Fusion of 5 vertebrae Alae Median sacral crest Fused spinal process Sacral canal Sacral meatus

Coccyx
 Fusion

of 3 – 5 tiny irregular vertebrae “tail bone”

 Human

Axial Skeleton (Thoracic Cage)
Sternum (1) Ribs (24)

Sternum
 Breast

bone

Manubrium  Body  Xiphoid process
 Jugular

notch  Sternal notch  Xiphisternal joint

Ribs

12 pairs
 

Articulate posteriorly Curve downward and toward the anterior body surface 1st 7 pairs has direct anterior attachment Next 5 pairs indirectly attach or no attachment at all

True Ribs

False Ribs

Ribs
1 - Manubrium 2 - Sternum 3 - True Ribs 4 - False Ribs 5 - Floating Ribs 6 - Xiphoid process 7 - Vertebrae

Surface landmarks

Clavicle

Lung apices arch of the aorta Bifurcation of the trachea Apex of the heart LV

Sternal notch T4 & T5
 

Nipple

Surface landmarks

Surface landmarks

Surface landmarks

Surface landmarks

Appendicular Skeleton
126 bones

Appendicular Skeleton

Clavicle (2) Pectoral girdles Scapula (2)

Clavicle “Collar bone”

Attachments :
  

Medial – manubrium Laterally – scapula Acromial end – shoulder joint

 

Strut bar Prevents shoulder dislocation

Scapula “Shoulder blade or wings”
Acromion process  Coracoid process  Acromioclavicular joint  Suprascapular notch  Glenoid cavity

Free movement factors of the shoulder joint:
 Attaches  Loose

to axial skeleton at only ONE point

attachment for back and forth movement and poorly ligament enforced Glenoid cavity

 Shallow

Appendicular Skeleton
Humerus (2) Radius (2) Ulna (2) Upper Extremity Carpals (16) Metacarpals (10) Phalanges (28)

Upper Extremities

Arm or Humerus
      

Greater and lesser tubercles Deltoid tuberosity Radial groove Trochlea Capitulum Coronoid fossa Medial / lateral epicondyle

Forearm radius / ulna

Radius – lateral
 

 

Radioulnar joint Interosseous membrane Styloid process Radial tuberosity

Forearm radius / ulna

Ulna – medial
  

Coronoid process Olecranon process Trochlear notch

Hand

Carpal
 

Proximal Distal

SLTP TTCH

Metacarpal

knuckles

Analogy
 

Scared Lovers Tried Positions That They Cannot Handle Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate

 

Appendicular Skeleton

Pelvic Girdle

Coxal, innominate or hip bones (2)

Pelvic girdle
     

Formed by two coxal bones Fusion of Sacrum & Coccyx = Bony Pelvis Ilium + Ischium + Pubis = Hip Bones Attached securely to the Axial Skeleton Weight bearing bone – pelvis Houses and Protects:

Reproductive organ, bladder, urinary bladder and part of large intestines

Ilium

 

Large flat flarring bone Alae Sacroiliac joint

Posterior attachment

Ischium
 

Sit-down bone Forms the inferior part of coxal bone
  

Ischial tuberosity Ischial spine Greater sciatic notch

Pubis

Most anterior part of the coxal bone Obturator foramen

Fusion of rami of the pubis anteriorly and the ischium posteriorly

Symphysis pubis

Acetabulum

Socket formed by the fusion of ilium, ischium, and pubis Receives the head of the femur

Appendicular Skeleton
Femur (2) Tibia (2) Fibula (2) Lower Extremity Patella (2) Tarsals (14) Metatarsals (10) Phalanges (28)

True Pelvis vs False Pelvis
False pelvis- is superior to the true pelvis; the area medial to the flaring portion of the ilia True pelvis – lies inferior to the flaring part of the ilia and the pelvic brim.

True pelvis

Obstetric conjugate

Obstetrics

Birth passage – 3 sections of “true pelvis” – inlet, pelvic cavity (midpelvis), & outlet. Four classifications :

gynecoid , android, anthropoid, & platypelloid.

Birth Passage

Dimensions of the cavity
  

Inlet Midpelvis Outlet

Lower Extremities

Femur
  

Heaviest & strongest bone of the body Head articulates with the acetabulum Brings the knees inline with the center of gravity

Femur
       

Greater trochanter Lesser trochanter Intertrochanteric line Intertrochanteric crest Gluteal tuberosity Lateral / medial condyles Intercondylar fossa Pattelar surface

Leg

Tibia
 

  

Larger & Medial Medial / Lateral condyles Tibial tuberosity Medial malleolus Anterior border

Leg

Fibula
  

Smaller Lateral Lateral malleolus

Foot

Tarsals
  

7 tarsal bones Calcaneus Talus 5 metatarsal bones 14 bones

Metatarsals

Phallanges

Foot

3 Arches
  

Medial longitudinal a Lateral longitudinal a Transverse arch

Arches of the foot

Joints

JOINTS – Areas of the body where two or more bones meet.
BONE CARTILAGE – Strong, flexible tissue found in joints. LIGAMENTS – Tissue connecting bone to bone. MUSCLE TENDON – Tissue connecting muscle to bone.

TYPES OF JOINTS

Ball and Socket Joint: Joint with the widest range of motion.
EXAMPLES: Hip and Shoulder

Ball and socket joint

  

The spherical end of a bone fits to a round socket of another bone Multiaxial joint movement with rotation Most freely moving synovial joint Ex: Hips and shoulder

TYPES OF JOINTS

Pivot Joint: Joint with a wide range of motion (the rotation of one bone around another).

Pivot joint

 

The Rounded end fits into a sleeve or ring of a bone Uniaxial joint – movement on its axis Ex: Radioulnar joint, neck

TYPES OF JOINTS

Gliding Joint: Joint with a large range of motion (up/down and side/side).
EXAMPLES: Ankle and Wrist

Gliding Joint
    

Plane joint Flat articular surface Gliding movement Nonaxial Ex: intercarpal joints wrist and intertarsal joints of the foot and ankle

TYPES OF JOINTS

Hinge Joint: Joint with limited motion (up/down).
EXAMPLES: Knee and Elbow

Hinge

  

Cylindrical end fits to a trough-shaped surface Angular movement Uniaxial Ex: Elbow, ankle, interphallangeal joint

TYPES OF JOINTS

Condyloid: biaxial joints

Condyloid
  

Knuckle egg shaped articular surface Cannot rotate on its own axis Movement :
 

Side to side Back and forth

TYPES OF JOINTS

Fuse or Immoveable Joint: Joint with no range of motion.
EXAMPLE: Cranium

Fused Joints

Developmental Aspects

 

Fontanels  brain growth  Ease of passage C-shaped vertebral column at birth  Primary curvature Thoracic and Sacral  Secondary curvature Cervical and Lumbar Growth of long bones continues until late adolescent Fractures and osteoporosis

Pathology

Arthritis

Osteoarthritis OA Rheumatoidarthritis RA Gouty Arthritis GA

Complete fracture Mandible

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