Tango meets Charlie

Tango
Marketing Research Overview Session 1

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Friends, Meet Mr. Tango!!

Tango

Hi! I am Tango. My family owns one of the largest beverage businesses of the country… We have traditionally been into making and marketing aerated drinks.. Now I want to start my own business… The rule of the game is that it has to be a business related to our family’s beverage expertise..

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Mr. Tango needs help!!

Tango

I love oranges…. and therefore I have more or less decided to make and market an “Orange Juice” with a difference..
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

But….how do I go about it???

Mr. Tango is confused…..!! ???? ?
Different?? ? But what difference? Who should be my TG? How do I know if my TG is aware of my product? And is liking it?

Tango
Where should I promote it and how oft? How should I promote it?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

What should be the name of the product? What should be the looks of the pack?

What should be the price? And pack
Devbrat Kumar

Decisions required at every stage of PLC..

Tango

Introduction
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Growth

Maturity
Devbrat Kumar

Decline

Mr. Tango needs to take decisions…
rma Info tion

Tango
ee ut f G l…

“Inf ormat io n is Power ”

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Tango meets Charlie
Hello, I am the CEO of a MR firm called “Chaplin consultancy”!

Charlie

Tango

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Welcome to the world of Marketing Research Mr. Tango…

Charlie

Tango

Mark etin g Resea rch… “the pr oces s of s ystema tica ll y gath erin g, an aly zi ng an d i nt erpr eting dat a p ertai ni ng to the co mpa ny 's mar ket, cu stom ers a nd co mp etit ors, with the go al of i mpr ovi ng mar ket ing de ci sion s”
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

MR = Market Research ……… or MR = Marketing Research????

Charlie

• Market research and marketing research are often confused. • 'Market' research is simply research into a specific market. It is a very narrow concept. • 'Marketing' research is much broader. It not only includes 'market' research, but also areas such as research into new products, or modes of distribution such as via the Internet

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

PLC and MR
Tango
Session 2

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Scope of Marketing Research:
•Need assessment through U&A: Usage and Attitude Study •Concept testing: Product, Name, Packaging, Price, Ad… •Actual Product testing •Ad testing •Test marketing •Market segmentation •Demand Estimation

Charlie

Introduction
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Growth

Maturity
Devbrat Kumar

Decline

Scope of Marketing Research:
•ATU (Awareness, Trial and Usage) •Brand Health Monitor, Brand Track • Ad effectiveness, Ad track • Sales Forecasting • Customer Satisfaction Measurement • Other Stakeholders relationship assessment

Charlie

Introduction
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Growth

Maturity
Devbrat Kumar

Decline

Scope of Marketing Research:

Charlie

• ATU

• Brand Health Monitor, Brand Track • Ad effectiveness, Ad track • Customer Satisfaction Measurement • Other Stakeholders relationship assessment…

• Fresh rounds of U&A to identify new concepts • New concept testing (Variants)….

+

Introduction
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Growth

Maturity
Devbrat Kumar

Decline

Types of MR:
• • •

Charlie

Concept testing - to test the acceptance of a concept by target consumers Brand name testing - what do consumers feel about the names of the products? Segmentation research - to determine the demographic, psychographic, and behavioural characteristics of potential buyers Usage and Attitude study: When and how a product is consumed? What other products are in the consider set (Competing products)? What does a consumer feel about the product? Consumer decision process research - to determine what motivates people to buy and what decision-making process they use Test marketing - a small-scale product launch used to determine the likely acceptance of the product when it is introduced into a wider market
Devbrat Kumar

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Types of MR:

Charlie

Demand estimation - to determine the approximate level of demand for the product Pricing Research: To determine the optimum price level for a product / service Price elasticity testing - to determine how sensitive customers are to price changes Sales forecasting - to determine the expected level of sales given the level of demand. With respect to other factors like Advertising expenditure, sales promotion etc.

• • •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of MR:

Charlie

Positioning research - how does the target market see the brand relative to competitors? - what does the brand stand for? Brand equity research - how favorably do consumers view the brand? Advertising Effectiveness research - how effective are ads - do potential customers recall the ad, understand the message, and does the ad influence consumer purchasing behaviour? Customer satisfaction studies - exit interviews or surveys that determine a customer's level of satisfaction with the quality of the transaction

• •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of MR:

Charlie

• Mystery shopping - An employee or representative of the market research firm anonymously contacts a salesperson and indicates he or she is shopping for a product. The shopper then records the entire experience. This method is often used for quality control or for researching competitors' products.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of MR
Tango
Session 3

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Types of MR:

Charlie

• All of these forms of marketing research can be classified as either problem-identification research or as problem-solving research.

• A similar distinction exists between exploratory research and conclusive research.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of Research • • • • • By By By By By

Charlie

objective tenure user group design (output/ analysis) data source

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of research:
• By objective:
• Exploratory

Charlie

• As the term suggests, exploratory research is often conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined as yet, or its real scope is as yet unclear. It allows the researcher to familiarize him/herself with the problem or concept to be studied, and perhaps generate hypotheses (definition of hypothesis) to be tested

• Conclusive

• Conclusive research is meant to provide information that is useful in reaching conclusions or decision-making
− Descriptive − Causal

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

So if I do a research to understand what is the perception about “Orange Juice” in the minds of different user groups…. Will it be “Exploratory” in nature?

Tango

… and if I do a research to confirm my hunch that children like orange juice more than any other health drink… will it be “conclusive” in nature?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of research:
• By Tenure:
• Ad Hoc

Charlie

• Focuses on specific marketing problems. They collect data at one point in time from one sample of respondents.

• Continuous/ Tracks
• Interview the same sample of respondents, repeatedly.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

I See… so if I do a research now to understand the usage and attitude of my Target group… it will be “ad hoc”…. Right?

Tango

… and if later on (when my product is launched) I form a panel of households/ individuals that would continue to give feedback to me about my product and competition products at regular intervals…. It will be a “continuous” research?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of research:
• By User Group:
• Custom

Charlie

• Custom research is work commissioned for a specific organisation/ user. • The commissioning organization holds the intellectual property rights on reports and other materials generated by the project. • The research design is often “tailored” to meet specific requirements of the commissioning organisation

• Syndicated
• Syndicated research studies are developed by research firms, which sell subscriptions to the studies to private and public sector clients. • These off-the-shelf products often contain trend information on a variety of topics. Copyright and management of the studies’ content rest entirely with the market research firms. • Subscribers are prohibited from distributing the information to any other non-subscribing parties
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Mr. Tango has understood…
If I commission a research for my exclusive use it would be a custom research

Tango

But if I subscribe to the report of “retail audit” survey conducted by ORG MARG that projects the sales/ shelf off-take volume of all major retail commodities (Brand wise) across country… I will be subscribing to a “syndicated” study… Even my competition would be having access to this report if he pays for it…!!!

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Mr. Tango has a question…

Why do we need “syndicated” stuff? It is after all “open” information….?????

Tango Syndicated research is sometimes the most cost-efficient option for meeting research needs, because the costs of research are shared by the subscribers…

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of research:
• By Design:
• Qualitative

Charlie

• Qualitative research involves analysis of data such as words (e.g., from interviews), pictures (e.g., video), or objects (e.g., an artifact). • The aim of qualitative analysis is a complete, detailed description • Qualitative data is more 'rich', time consuming, and less able to be generalized • Less Sample size

• Quantitative
• Data is in the form of numbers and statistics • In quantitative research we classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed • Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail • Often large sample sizes
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

If I just want to understand what my TG feels about the benefits of an “Orange juice” and if want a descriptive report… I want a qualitative research.... Right?

Tango

….and if I want to do a research where I want results in terms of numbers such as what % of my TG is … and what % of my TG is aware of “Tango”…and what % is likely to purchase the new orange juice… Then it has to be Quantitative in nature…

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of research:
• By Data Source:
• Primary

Charlie

• This type of research is based on information gathered by the research agency first hand… • The data collected is specific to the research need…

• Secondary
• This type of research is based on information gleaned from studies previously performed by government agencies, chambers of commerce, trade associations and other organizations. • Secondary research occurs when a project requires a summary or collection of existing data

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Mr. Tango has understood…
If I commission a study where 200 children are interviewed to give me insights about their liking towards Tango… it is a primary research

But if I go to the internet and do a research on the Juice market in India and also do a research on “Child psychology”…. It is a secondary research…

Tango

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step in MR
Tango
Session 4

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Let’s now understand how do we go about designing and executing a research project…

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

MR Agencies in India
• IMRB International • AC Nielsen ORG MARG • TNS • • • • Indica Research Hansa Research Market Probe ……
Three Biggies !

Others

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step 1: Research Objective
• • • • Why are we doing the research? Sets the boundaries… defines the scope The foundation of research.. Clear understanding of “What is expected out of the research?” • Unambiguously worded…

Research Brief

Tango

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step 2: Research Design

Charlie

• Research design provides the framework/ skeleton that holds the research project together. • A design is used to structure the research,………… • Determination of the type of research that needs to be done..
• Qualitative or Quantitative or a mix….? • What kind of experiment design?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step 3: Sampling
• Sampling is required because we cannot do a census every time… • Sample should be adequate in size… Statistical accuracy at a decent confidence level is the key to sample size • Sample should “represent” the universe..
•Sample Size Determination •Sampling techniques

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step 4: Data Collection method/ Instrument
• Data collection methods:
• Observation • Questionnaire Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step 5: Data Collection
Charlie • Time for action.. The real thing. • The “input” to the whole mechanism.. • Always remember the concept: GIGO!!!

•Telephonic •Web •Face to Face •Self Administered •Mailers •CATI •CAPI

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Issues in Data collection
• Be careful of:
Charlie

• Errors in selection of respondents • Non-response errors (i.e. failure to get data from selected respondents) • Errors created by the method of seeking data/ Error in stimulating the responses • Interviewer’s bias • Cheating!!!

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Some quality checks:
• Scrutiny • Accompaniments • Random Back-checks
Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step 6: Data Analysis
• The “Throughput”…. • Let’s make best use of the “precious” data..

•Frequency counts •Cross tabs •Multivariate •Content analysis •Case studies

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step 7: Reporting
• • • • • The “Output”…. Ultimate test Should meet all our research objectives Meaningful… Precise… Interesting…

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Sampling
Tango
Session 5

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Experiment Designs
• • • • • After only Before and after Before after with control group After only with control group Continuous Panel

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Designing and executing a research project • Seven steps:
1. Specifying research objectives 2. Research Design 3. Sampling 4. Data collection method/ Instrument 5. Data Collection 6. Data Analysis 7. Presentation/ Reporting
Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Step 3: Sampling
• Sampling is required because we cannot do a census every time… • Sample should be adequate in size… Statistical accuracy at a decent confidence level is the key to sample size • Sample should “represent” the universe..
•Sample Size Determination •Sampling techniques

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Sampling requires:
• A universe for sampling… (Sample of what?) • A suitable sampling method … (How?) • An appropriate sample size…. (How much?)

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Sampling methods
• Probability method:
• Every item in the universe has a known chance, or probability of being chosen for sample…

• Non – Probability method
• … are those that do not provide every item in the universe with a known chance of being included in the sample. The selection process is, at least partially, subjective.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Probability methods
• Simple random sampling • Stratified (random) sampling • Cluster sampling/ Area Sampling • Systematic sampling

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Non Probability methods
• Convenience Sampling • Judgment Sampling • Quota Sampling • Special forms:
• Group interview Sample • Shopping mall intercepts • Controlled panel

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Sample Size Estimation
• Confidence interval /Margin of error:
• The measurement that I have taken falls within what % of “actual” figure

• Confidence levels:
• Out of 100 times that I measure how many times my measurement will fall within the permissible error margin.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Instrument and Scale
Tango
Session 6

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

What is an Instrument in MR?
• Measurement tool.. • Doctor’s stethoscope, BP machine, Thermometer… so to speak.. • If the measurement instrument is faulty… ???? • Use of right scale is the key…

•Structured, Semi Structured, •Open ended, Close ended •Funnel, Inverted funnel •Types of Scale

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Introduction to Measurement Scales
• Why do we need a “Scale”?
• Simple!…..To “m eas ure”

• But remember to use the right scale….
• You cannot use a thermometer to measure BP….. Can you?

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of scale
• Data comes in various sizes and shapes and it is important to know about these so that the proper analysis can be used on the data. There are usually 4 scales of measurement that must be considered
• Nominal Scale • Ordinal Scale • Interval Scale • Ratio Scale Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Nominal Scale
Charlie

• Nominal Data
• classification data, e.g. m/f • no ordering, e.g. it makes no sense to state that M > F • arbitrary labels, e.g., m/f, 0/1, etc

• You are only allowed to examine if a nominal scale datum is equal to some particular value or to count the number of occurrences of each value. For example, gender is a nominal scale variable. You can examine if the gender of a person is F or to count the number of males in a sample

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Ordinal Scale
Charlie • Ordinal Data
• ordered but differences between values are not important • e.g., rank on a scale of 1..5 your degree of satisfaction

• • •

You are also allowed to examine if an ordinal scale datum is less than or greater than another value. Hence, you can 'rank' ordinal data, but you cannot 'quantify' differences between two ordinal values. For example, ratings of eating establishments where 10=good, 1=poor, but the difference between an establishment with a 10 ranking and an 8 ranking can't be quantified

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Interval Scale
Charlie • Interval Data

• ordered, constant scale, but no natural zero • differences make sense, but ratios do not (e.g., 30°-20°=20°10°, but 20°/10° is not twice as hot! • e.g., temperature (C,F), dates

• •

You are also allowed to quantify the difference between two interval scale values but there is no natural zero. For example, temperature scales are interval data with 25C warmer than 20C and a 5C difference has some physical meaning. Note that 0C is arbitrary, so that it does not make sense to say that 20C is twice as hot as 10C

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Ratio Scale
Charlie

• Ratio Data
• ordered, constant scale, natural zero • e.g., height, weight, age, length

• You are also allowed to take ratios among ratio scaled variables. Physical measurements of height, weight, length are typically ratio variables. It is now meaningful to say that 10 m is twice as long as 5 m. This ratio hold true regardless of which scale the object is being measured in (e.g. meters or yards). This is because there is a natural zero

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Mr. Tango has a question:
What is a “Natural Zero”???
Some scales of measurement have a natural zero and some do not. For example, height, weight etc have a natural 0 at no height or no weight. Consequently, it makes sense to say that 2m is twice as large as 1m. Both of these variables are ratio scale. On the other hand, year and temperature (C) do not have a natural zero. The year 0 is arbitrary and it is not sensible to say that the year 2000 is twice as old as the year 1000. Similarly, 0 Degree Centigrade is arbitary (why pick the freezing point of water?) and it again does not make sense to say that 20 degree C is twice as hot as 10C. Both of these variables are interval scale

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Types of Ordinal Scales commonly used in MR
• Graphic rating scale
Charlie

On an overall basis ,how are you feeling about this course? (Put a tick mark)

or
ng Disgusti OK

Superb!

•Three point •Five point •Seven point •Ten point
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Types of Ordinal Scales commonly used in MR
• Semantic Differential Scale
Charlie

How do you feel about the various aspects of this course? (Put a tick mark)
High Quality content High utility

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

Low Quality content Low utility

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

Extremely interesting

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

Extremely boring

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Other scales
• Likert Scale
Charlie

• A typical test item in a Likert scale is a statement, the respondent is asked to indicate their degree of agreement with the statement. • Traditionally a five-point scale is used, however many researchers advocate using a seven or nine point scale Ice cream is good for breakfast
• • • • • Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Instrument Design

Charlie

• What a typical “MR” Questionnaire must have…. (in addition to the questions..) • Introduction: Self/ Survey Organisation • Purpose: Why is the survey being conducted and who are the respondents • How does it benefit you? ,…. The “Hook”/ (Incentive..) • How did we find you? Where did we get your details from? (If reqd.) • We will keep everything secret….. All responses will be aggregated • How long this questionnaire will take to complete? • May I proceed?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Instrument Design
• • • Determine what information is wanted Determine the type of questionnaire to use Determine the content of individual questions
• Is the question necessary? • Does the respondent have the information requested? Can the respondent remember? • Will the respondent have to do a lot of work to get the information? • Will the respondent give the information? • Are several questions needed instead of one?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Instrument Design
• Determine the type of question to use
• Open ended
What do you like in “Tango?

• Dichotomous questions

Do you like the taste of “Tango”? 1. Yes 2. No

• Multiple choice questions

• Determine the scale

How do you find the flavor of “Tango”” 2. Too sweet 3. Just the right amount of sweetness 4. Less sweet

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Instrument Design
• Decide on the wording of the questions
• • • • Define the issue… for respondent’s clarity Use simple words Avoid ambiguous questions / Double barreled Avoid leading questions

Charlie
When was the last time someone asked you what you really thought, cared about what you said, and LISTENED to the answer? Would you vote for John Smith, a man who has been known to break campaign promises?
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Instrument Design
• Decide on the question sequence
• Opening questions must win respondent’s interest • Arrange questions in logical order.
• Funnel • Inverted funnel

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Instrument Design
• Always pretest the questionnaire….
Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

NPD
Tango
Session 7

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

NPD Research
• Concept development/ Positioning research • Concept testing/ Product testing • Product development

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Research at the Concept development Stage:
Creativity.. Lateral Thinking …..
t tpu Ou
Identify Motivation, Brand Claim/Positioning, Creative Strategy Develop Alternative Concepts for Product positioning / Advertising How to Best Express Key Claim/Idea

R

ht earc es

ec

us ques hni

ed:

Grou

p

ns ssio u Disc iq echn ng t
ast her p d ot from age an uts G s d inp s like U ng the T n … a arche amo ese Studies r e ttitud A
Devbrat Kumar

ue

La

i dder

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Laddering technique…

Illust

ratio n

Spend the saved money on something you wanted for long You feel more energetic You can therefore go that extra mile Save money It refreshes you when you are tired Special pack to keep it fresh No need to go to Doctors

Good for Health

Let’s develop these chains??

Tastes Good

TangO
Orange Juice

Natural Juice/ No artificial flavoring

Better performance

Pure/ No Contamination Orange

Successful

Choice of those who are pure at heart/ Make you pure

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Research at the Concept test/ pretest stage:

How do I decide which of a number of creative ideas to develop?

Tango

Concept A

Concept B Concept C

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Research at the Product development/ pretest stage:

I say my orange juice is “Tangier” (Sweet with a hint of sourness) than others…. It has a taste that is stronger than others….

Tango

TangO
Orange Juice

Real
Orange Juice

Tropicana
Orange Juice

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Research at the Product development/ pretest stage:

But how do I know if my product is really perceived as “different” from others…

Tango

TangO
Orange Juice

Real
Orange Juice

Tropicana
Orange Juice

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Research Designs For Product/ Concept Testing
• Monadic tests • Paired Comparison tests • Sequential Monadic tests

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Research Designs For Product/ Concept Testing
• Monadic Tests.
• In monadic testing, a respondent tests a single product and provides an evaluation of that product. Data collected typically includes variables such as purchase interest and ratings on attributes. If there is more than one product to be tested, matched groups of respondents would test each product, with the data collected from each group being compared to each other

Product A

Product B

Evaluation
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Evaluation

Research Designs For Product/ Concept Testing
• Paired Comparison Tests.
• In a paired comparison test, respondents use two products in sequence, with no questioning in between. After both products have been used, they are asked to rate each and state a preference. Because questions are not asked until both products have been tried, the evaluation of a product is always in the context of a comparison to the other.

Product A

Product B

Product A

Product B

Evaluation
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Evaluation

Research Designs For Product/ Concept Testing
• Sequential monadic:
• In this design, each respondent evaluates two products/concepts (he or she sees one concept and evaluates it, then the second concept… and evaluates it).

Concept A

Evaluation

Concept A

Evaluation

Concept B
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Evaluation
Devbrat Kumar

Concept B

Evaluation

Test Locations and Blind vs. Branded?...1

• Regardless of the design, several additional decisions must be made when outlining the test methodology. • One question is should the test product or products be placed with respondents to be used at home or in the workplace or other relevant location, or should the product(s) be tested at a central location (often abbreviated as "CLT" for "central location test")? • The in-home or in-office/workplace usage is certainly more realistic, and provides greater face validity. But the CLT allows for much superior control of the testing process, which hopefully results in a reduction of non-sampling error

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Test Locations and Blind vs. Branded?....2
• Another is should the product(s) be tested blind, meaning without respondent knowledge of the brand name, or should the brand name be obvious? Blind or unbranded tests will allow for measurement of the true physical performance of the product, unencumbered by the equity associated with brand name. A familiar and well regarded brand name can produce a favorable "halo effect" on the evaluation of the product. In a sense, product performance can become more a function of the brand image, than the product itself. For this reason, claims tests of product superiority over the competition are almost always blind. However, branded testing is more realistic, and offers increased predictive validity vis-a-vis a blind test.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

A typical product testing exercise…

1. 2. 3. 4.

Stimulus development: Make proototypes/ test products that can be given to the evaluator Decide on the research method: Qualitative or Quantitative Approach the “sampled” TG representatives (either in groups or one to one) and show them the products. Show the products (Monadic, Sequential monadic Design or Paired comparison..)
Rotate the order of giving the products to avoid “order bias”

5.

Record feedback: Statements or Ratings/ Ranking

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Product Development: Conjoint technique
• Conj oi nt analys is, also called multiattribute compositional models.. • The objective of conjoint analysis is to determine what combination of a limited number of attributes is most preferred by respondents. It is used frequently in testing customer acceptance of new product designs

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Product Development: Conjoint technique
• • Process The basic steps are:
1. 2. 3. 4. select features to be tested show product feature combinations to potential customers respondents rank, rate, or choose between the combinations input the data from a representative sample of potential customers into a statistical software program and choose the conjoint analysis procedure. The software will produce utility functions for each of the features. 5. incorporate the most preferred features into a new product or advertisement

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

A typical MR agency set up:
… and last but not the least… let me introduce you to my team… Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

CEO Client

Survey Programming team Questionnaire set up/ design

Researchers Client interface Research Design Questionnaire finalisation Research Proposal (Time/ cost etc.) Analysis plan Report writing Presentation

Field Team Identification of the respondents (Panels etc) Quality and Quantity of the sample/ data collection

Analytics Team Charting Team Charting of the tabs as per requirement
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Data cleaning Tabulation Advanced Analytics on the data

Pricing Research
Tango
Session 8

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

SEC Grid
Il li te -rate ED UC AT ION  OCC UP AT ION 1 Unski lled W or ke r Unski lled Sk ill ed W orker Pe tty tr ad er Sh op ow ner Bu si nessm en/I nd ustr ial is t (No. of em pl oy ees) - Non e - 1- 10 . 10+ Se lf em pl oye d pr ofess io nal Cle ric al /Sal esm an Su per vi so ry lev el Off ice rs /Exec utive s - Juni or - M id dle /Seni or
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Sc hool up to 4 yea rs

Sc hool 5- 9 yea rs

SS C/ HSC

So me col lege bu t not gr aduate

Gradua te/P ost gr aduate Gener al Pr ofessi onal 7 D B2 B2 A2

2 E2 E1 D D

3 E1 D D C

4 D C C B2

5 D C C B1

6 D B2 B2 A2

1 2 3 4

E2 E2 E2 D

5 6 7 8 9 A

D C B1 D D D

C B2 B1 D D D

B2 B2 A2 D D C

B1 B1 A2 B2 C C

A2 A2 A1 B1 B2 B2

A2 A1 A1 A2 B1 B1

A1 A1 A1 A1 B1 A2

B C

C B1

C B1

C B1
Devbrat Kumar

B2 B1

B1 A2

A2 A1

A2 A1

Pricing Research
TangO
Orange Juice

How do I decide on the pricing for my orange juice? Should I make it a cheap one… or should I charge a premium?... and then by how much? Is it again based on “gut feel”?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Pricing Research Techniques
• Modeling historical data • Experimentation/ Simulation

Non Survey methods

• • • •

PSM/ Van Westendorp method WTP/ Gabor - Granger method BPTO/ Brand - Price Trade Off Conjoint Analysis (..already covered in the course)

Survey Methods

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Modeling historical data
• • It becomes a good option as categories mature and longer period of historical data become available This approach is potentially very useful – the idea is to bypass research procedures that use consumer’s answers to questions to predict behaviour. Instead, we look at what people have actually done in the past. It is particularly helpful in resolving questions on category elasticity - it may be difficult for consumers to tell us how much more salt, toothpaste, or airtime they will use if the price has reduced. ….a technique that attempts to model sales as a function of advertising expenditure, price, and other variables.

• •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Experimentation/ Simulation
• Yet another approach that is possible: to carry out experiments in a setting that is as close to real life as possible – to get consumers to part with money.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

PSM (Price Sensitivity Meter)
• The PSM was developed by a Dutch Economist, Van Westendorp, in the mid 1970s. It is actually a refinement of a technique proposed by Stotzel in the early 1950s. • Typically, the respondent is shown a card with a wide price range (from the absurdly low to the outrageously expensive. • Some researchers recommend 31 price points, with the current/ proposed price right in the middle, and intervals at about 5% of the proposed price.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

PSM (Price Sensitivity Meter): Questions asked
• The four questions asked are :
• at which of these prices does the product become cheap (or ‘is a good bargain’) • at which price does it become expensive • at which price does it become so expensive that you will no longer consider buying • below what price does it become so cheap that you would be concerned about its quality

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

PSM (Price Sensitivity Meter): Graphs

• We can cumulate the answers that we get – because if someone finds a product to be too expensive at Rs.15, she will also find it expensive at Rs.16.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

PSM : Examining the results…1
• • We can examine the graphs in conjunction. The intersection of ‘cumulative too expensive’ with ‘cumulative too cheap’ yields the optimal price point for the consumer. At this point, the proportion that find the product ‘neither too cheap nor too expensive’ is maximized.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

PSM : Examining the results…2
• The intersection of ‘cumulative expensive’ with ‘cumulative cheap/ good bargain’ is something like a manufacturers’ optimum’ At this price point, we are maximizing the proportion of those who consider the product to be neither expensive nor a bargain – i.e. the goal is to be thought of as ‘not expensive’ without giving anything away.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

PSM : Examining the results…3
• It is customary to treat the range marked out in the diagram as the ‘acceptable price range’. The justification for the ‘lower threshold’: below this price, the proportion who consider it to be too cheap begins to exceed the proportion who consider it expensive. Similarly, the justification for the “upper threshold” : beyond this price point, the proportion who consider it to be ‘too expensive’ exceeds those who consider it to be cheap/ a good bargain.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

PSM : Examining the results…4
• You can create a kind of ‘demand’ curve from the PSM by subtracting ‘cumulative too cheap’ plus ‘cumulative too expensive’ from 100% (i.e. “ proportion finding price acceptable”). 100- (Too exp + Too Cheap)
100 80 60 40 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Gabor-Granger method/ WTP
• … a series of prices is read out in a random order, and the respondent asked whether she would buy at this price.
How likely is it that you will buy a 200 ml pack of Orange juice for Rs. 10? How likely is it that you will buy a 200 ml pack of Orange juice for Rs. 13? How likely is it that you will buy a 200 ml pack of Orange juice for Rs. 12? How likely is it that you will buy a 200 ml pack of Orange juice for Rs. 8? How likely is it that you will buy a 200 ml pack of Orange juice for Rs. 11? How likely is it that you will buy a 200 ml pack of Orange juice for Rs. 9?

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Gabor-Granger method/ WTP
• … analysing the result….
WTP

Tolerance Zone

100

98

94

85

45 20

Rs. 8
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Rs. 9

Rs. 10
Devbrat Kumar

Rs. 11

Rs. 12

Rs. 13

BPTO:
• The respondent is shown an array of brands (or models). She is asked to make a choice. The chosen product’s price is raised, and then a choice made again. The choice tasks continue till some criteria is met:
• • till the respondent says ‘I will not purchase any of these items’ till a minimum number of choice tasks is completed (eg. ‘twice the number of price level in the BPTO problem’)

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

BPTO:
• The brands could be a fixed set of major brands, or based on the respondents’ evoked set. • It is essential, however, that a minimum number of brands should be part of the array even if the respondent has not tried/ does not know about many brands – because you could end up with a low price elasticity simply because there is nothing else to turn to. • Conventionally the initial array preserves relative price differences, and begins at price levels below the market price.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Brand Health Measurement
Tango
Session 9

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Brand Tracks: Brand Health Monitoring
• • ... is a periodical survey of brand health and brand image THE GOAL IS TO HELP THE MARKETER TO:
• get feedback on the effect of current marketing activities on brand image, purchase intentions etc.; • obtain information about consumers reactions to competitors' marketing activities; • direct the marketing efforts towards more precise target groups; • take effective counter actions to competitors marketing activities; • to keep the price and quality equilibrium; • make further marketing plans based on the information above

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Brand Tracks: Brand Health Monitoring
• COMPREHENSIVE BRAND TRACKING STUDY COULD INCLUDE • Consumption and purchase habits of the product category • Awareness and trial of the brand under consideration • Motivators for the trial and Satisfaction with the brand • Purchase Intent of the brand • Advertising awareness and impact of ads • Image of the brand

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Brand Health Measurement Model
Input Process
Communication Ad & Brand Saliency Media TV / Radio / Print / Outdoors / PoP

Output
Sales Revenue

Brand Positioning

Market Share

Intention to Purchase / Consideration

Dealer Reco Schemes / Promos

Word of Mouth / Advocacy

Brand Loyalty / Equity

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Brand Tracks: Brand Health Monitoring
There are so many brands available in the market across product categories… think of a brand…. Any brand….. Name of which brand comes to your mind first?

Brand Salience
• • • Brand salience refers to the 'share of mind' your brand has, or how big/prominent it is in the mind of customers. The more salient it is the higher the probability that your brand will be thought of at any point in time. Brand salience differs from brand image in that it is independent of what consumers specifically think about your brand. For example, two customers may associate your brand with totally different attributes but they still can have the same level of salience.
Devbrat Kumar

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Brand Tracks: Brand Health Monitoring
When you think of refrigerators… name of which brand comes to your mind first?

• Brand Recall: (Unaided and Aided)
• Brand Recall is the extent to which a brand name is recalled as a member of a brand, product or service class • Common market research usage is that pure brand recall requires "unaided recall". For example a respondent may be asked to recall the names of any cars he may know, or any whisky brands he may know.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Recall
• We can divide recall into both "unaided" and "aided" recall. • "Aided recall" measures the extent to which a brand name is remembered when the actual brand name is prompted. An example of such a question is "Do you know of the "Honda" brand?" • In terms of brand exposure, companies want to look for high levels of unaided recall in relation to their competitors. The first recalled brand name (often called "top of mind") has a distinct competitive advantage in brand space, as it has the first chance of evaluation for purchase

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

TOM Brand Awareness
Rolling - 8 Weekly Data
J J A
TOMA

Tracking TOMA and ITP….
Patna
J F M A M J

S

O

N

D

43 30 24 23 1.9
ITP

42 41 19 4

40 34 33 21 5 5
3196

41 37 17 3

47 43 35 17 13 1.32

46 36 14 2

45 37 15 2
6194

45% Airtel 37% Reliance 15% BSNL 2% Tata

GRPs
Airtel

3859

1099

Reliance
1773 1220

Tata J J A S O N D J F 2007 M A M J
ABC PAT200

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

*mq2a

Correlation between Salience ui = SoV Based on ecnt = Any of (Bhuwaneshwar) and andAny of (Intend Rolling 8 weekly data
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 100 80 60 40 20 0 500 0 1000 0 1000 0 1000
33 19 12 17 13

TOMA

49 26

51 46 26

47 26

52 20

54 54 20 19
7583

50 24

50% Airtel 24% Reliance

SOV

High spends did not affect Airtel’s mindshare positively

GRPs
A_AG.GRP
Reliance’s TOMA has increased only when the A_BHU.GRP brand sufficiently 38 GRPs raised spends

9390 58

GRPs

51 41 36

45 35
9111

41

27

33

24 18 9 2 4
9111

13

A_BANG.GRP

5

GRPs
A_BANG.GRP
ABC O100

0 A'06 S'06 O'06 N'06 D'06 J'07 F'07 M'07 A'07 M'07 J'07 Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 2006 2007

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

It is not just SOV… it is also about being effective…

The tw o b roa d com ponents

Media Weights

Advertising Copy

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

…. what drives TOMA movements …

1. High share of voice 4. Creating Buzz in the Market

TOMA

2. Good creative

3. Support from other media

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

..Tracking reasons for intending a *mq2g4e brand…
J 100 80 60 40 20 19 11 0.0 24 20 2 18 3 35 26 3 68 77 72 48 18 16 16
11458

Based on ecnt = Any of (Patna) and ui = Any of (Intender) And Rolling 8 weekly data
J A S O N D J F M A M J

62 50 18

62% Network Strength 50% Price/Scheme/VFM 18% Recommendation

0 1000

GRPs
A_AH.GRP

0 1000

9390

GRPs
A_BHU.GRP

0 1000

9390

GRPs
A_BHU.GRP

0 1000 0
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

9390

GRPs
A_BHU.GRP J

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F M A Devbrat Kumar

M

…and some more insights….
ITP

*mq2f_all

Based on ecnt = Any of (Patna) and ui = Any of (Intender) and m Rolling 8 weekly data
J 100 80 60 40 20
Brand intended for both network and Price/VFM..

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

65 60 47 23 13 7 0.0

64 56 17 17 14 5 14 6

61 45 37 22 15 14 4 12 5 48 35 13
11458

43 43 12 0.3

43% Reliance 41% Airtel 12% BSNL 4% ANY TATA 0.3% Aircel

0 1000 0
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

3

3

GRPs
A_AH.GRP

Devbrat Kumar

8646

GRPs

gery

D'05

Imagery

IMAGE PROFILES - mq7x_1_bm
Airtel Hutch 0
51

BSNL

Reliance

Tata Indi com Airtel H Diff. -2 0
-4 -1

Market leader 2 Becoming popular 1 For someone like me -1 Recommended by friends 0 Brand I can trust -1 Charges accurately -3 Cares for the customer 0 Responds immd to comp -1 Largest network coverage -2 Wide roaming coverage -5 Easy to get through 2 Ads that I like 6 Is innovative 0 Offers the latest tech 0 Good range of VAS 4 New schemes frequently 1 Good value for money -4 Base: of (`Apr'07 (9056) ase: brk1 = Any Intenders to Jun'07`) and ui

4 0 Market leader 61 0 -4 Becoming popular 0 52 0 3 -1 For someone like me 54 1 1 -2 Recommended by friends 0 51 2 -1 Brand I can trust 48 -1 -1 Charges5accurately 52 0 Cares for the customer 1 1 1 52 1 Responds immd to comp 0 56 -1 Largest network coverage 0 12 48 -2 Wide roaming 13 coverage 2 0 Easy to 1 59 get through 2 4 -17 Ads that I-8 64 like 3 51 -5 Is innovative 0 1 Offers the latest tech 2 53 -6 1 -5 57 Good range of VAS 3 -3 New schemes 58 -9 frequently 3 -2 49 Good value 5 money 0 for (8790) (7347) (8947) = Any of (`Intender`)

-3

2 0 0 0 0

-1 -2 -1 0 -4 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 -1 -4 1 -4 -3 -3 -1 -2 3 -2 12 5 1 1 2 2 -15 5 -1 0 1 -2 -1 (9005) (13 (16810)

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Brand Image
Airtel Brand Image - INTENDERS - PATNA Average endorsements BSNL Reliance

Airtel Market leader Becoming popular For someone like me Recommended by friends Brand I can trust Charges accurately Cares for the customer Responds immd to comp Largest network coverage Wide roaming coverage Easy to get through Ads that I like Is innovative Offers the latest tech Good range of VAS New schemes frequently Good value for money Base: AMJ'07
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

BSNL/MTNL -1 -3 0 -1 3 3

Reliance -3 0 4 1 1 1 4 2

3 3 -5 0 -5 -4 -2 0 0 -5 -2 9 1 2 6 0 -3 (633)

-1 -1 3 9 2 -2 -2 -3 -4 -1 -1 (633) -8 -6 -1 -3

2 1 0 1 4 (632)

Devbrat Kumar

Customer Satisfaction Measurement
Tango
Session 10

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Facts about Customer Satisfaction
Myth We Track Customer Satisfaction Through Our Complaint System

Fact

• Complaints Do Not Track Customer Satisfaction Very Well
• Unrepresentative Set of Customers • Unrepresentative Set of Problems • Most Dissatisfied Customers Don’t Complain, They Walk

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Facts about Customer Satisfaction
Myth Customer Satisfaction Influences Business Performance

Fact

• Loyalty/ Commitment is a stronger predictor of profitability rather than satisfaction

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Why should one worry about customer retention?
• Customer lifetime value.

• Every interaction you have with a customer should be done on the basis that their value to you is the total of all the purchases they will ever make, not that one sale. •For example your most valuable customers are probably not those who make the biggest purchases, they’re the ones who come back again and again. •This way of thinking also allows you to consider marketing approaches that don’t require you to make back the cost of acquiring a customer in a single sale.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Why should one worry about customer retention?
• The cost of acquisition.
•It has been demonstrated that it is up to 20 times more expensive to acquire a new customer than it is to keep an existing one. •A traditional sales approach can be likened to pouring new customers into a bucket with a hole in the bottom •…. the weaker your levels of customer retention the larger the hole.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

..What am I going to do about it?

The Loyalty Measures..
Behavioral Loyalty
BUSINESS SUCCESS

Recommen
d

LOYALTY Continue

Increase

Commitmen
t

Emotional Loyalty

What do I feel about you?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Perception and Attitudes..
BUSINESS SUCCESS

Recommend

LOYALTY Continue

Increase

Commitmen
t

Perceiv ed Price

PERCEPTION ed S& value Related ATTITUDES Images perceiv
ed Quality

Perceiv

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Every interaction is important..

“The mos t competit iv e companie s are th os e tha t rec ogniz e that ev ery inter act ion a cus to mer ha s with the ir pr odu cts and serv ic es is a reflec tion o n t heir q uality ”

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Transactions and Experiences lay the foundation of this relationship..
BUSINESS SUCCESS

Recommen
d

LOYALTY Continue

Increase

Commitme
nt

Perceiv ed Price

Perceiv PERCEPTIO ed NS & value perceiv ATTITUDES ed Quality

Related Images

Customer Experiences
Pre Sales Products Delivery After Sales Service Billing and Accounts Interaction with People

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Loyalty Segmentation:
High

Attitude

“I feel good about this relationship … but I cannot guarantee a sustained relationship… there are others also offering good deals after all…”

Ac ces sible Trul y Loyal
0 61

“I feel good about this relationship and I have every intention to continue…”

25

14

High Risk
Low

Trapped
High

Behavior

“I do not feel any emotional attachment…. I don’t feel like it but I have to continue with this relationship… “
Theoretical model framework is credited to Dick and Basu, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 1994 Matrix classifications are based on a proprietary statistical algorithm developed by Walker Information

“I do not feel any emotional attachment…. And I also do not see myself continuing with this relationship..”
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

SERVQUAL MODEL

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

SERVQUAL:
Quality Dimension Tangibles: Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, printed and visual materials Samples of questions to ask • • • • • Reliability: Ability to perform promised service dependably and accurately • • • • Are facilities attractive? Are staff dressed appropriately? Are written materials easy to understand? Does technology look modern? If a response is promised in a certain time, does it happen? Are exact specifications of client followed? Are statements or reports free of error? Is service performed right the first time? Is level of service same at all times of day and for all members of staff? When there is a problem, does organization respond to it quickly? Are staff willing to answer client questions? Are specific times for service accomplishments given to client? Are public situations treated with care and seriousness?

• Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers to provide prompt service • • •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

SERVQUAL:
Quality Dimension Samples of questions to ask • Competence: Possession of required skill and knowledge to perform servide • • • • • • • Can staff provide service without fumbling around? Are materials provided appropriate and up to date? Can staff use the technology quickly and skillfully? Does staff appear to know what they are doing? Does staff member have a pleasant demeanor? Does staff refrain from acting busy or being rude when clients ask questions? Are those who answer the telephone considerate and polite? Do staff observe consideration of the property and values of clients? Does service organization have a good reputation? Do staff members refrain from pressuring the client? Are responses given accurate and consistent with other reliable sources? Does the organization guarantee its services?

Courtesy: Politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness of contact personnel

• Credibility: Trustworthiness, believability, honesty of the service provider • • •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

SERVQUAL:
Quality Dimension Samples of questions to ask • Security: Freedom from danger, risk, or doubt • • • Is it safe to enter the premises and to use the equipment? Are documents and other information provided for the client held securely? Are use records of clients safe from unauthorized use? Can client be confident that service provided was done correctly? How easy is it to talk to knowledgeable staff member when client has a problem? Is it easy to reach the appropriate staff person • in person? • by telephone? • by email? Are service access points conveniently located? When client contacts service point, will staff person listen to their problem and demonstrate understanding and concern? Can staff explain clearly the various options available to a particular query? Do staff avoid using technical jargon when speaking with clients? Does staff member call if a scheduled appointment will be missed?

• Access: Approachability and ease of contact. •

• • Communication: Listening to customers and acknowledging their comments; Keeping customers informed in a language they can understand. • • •
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

SERVQUAL:
Quality Dimension Samples of questions to ask • Understanding the Customer: Making the effort to know customers and their needs. • • • Does someone on staff recognize each regular client and address them by name? Do staff try to determine what client's specific objectives are? Is level of service and cost of service consistent with what client requires and can afford? Are service providers flexible enough to accommodate to client's schedule?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Kano’s Model:

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Media Research
Tango
Session 11

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

Brief

Here is the ad…. Please place it strategically in electronic and print”…. The ads should reach maximum potential buyers and should improve the recall of my product”..

Budget

$$

Media Planner

Product Manager Brief
“I want an ad for my product that brings forth its true value”.. It should make my product sell”..

Where should I place the ad? Which Channel? Which program? Which time slot? Which magazine? Which News papers? What locations?

Media Researcher Creative
What is the “reach” of our channel/ publication? Which program is viewed most? Who reads what? What are the viewing/ reading habits of working men/ women, kids, housewives etc,.?

Ad Man
January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

“I need to prepare a story board that relates perfectly to the Target group…” “I need to ensure that the ad that I make is effective”
Devbrat Kumar

Print Agencies

TV Channels

Media Researchers’ Kitty:

Media Researcher Ad Man

Creative Research: Ideation for creative Story board testing Ad pre test: Pre launch Ad effectiveness measurement: Post launch Ad track

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Media Researchers’ Kitty:

Print Agencies Media Researcher

TV Channels

Media Planner

Syndicated Readership surveys (IRS, NRS) Syndicated Viewership surveys (TAM) Media habit surveys (Customised) for TG

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Television Audience Measurement
• Television audiences are measured in two main ways:
• • using diaries, and using meters.

With television (unlike radio), the survey unit has usually been the household, not the person.

That's because most households have had only one TV set, and people have usually watched together.

The mainstay of TV diary or meter results is still the "rating" the percentage of all households that viewed a particular program

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Measuring TV audiences with diaries:

• •

A diary survey is done by choosing a random sample of households, and sending interviewers to visit those households. When a household agrees to co-operate in the survey, the interviewer usually leaves one diary for each TV set in the household A diary normally runs for one week or two weeks. Often there are several "practice days" at the beginning that are not used to generate statistics

• •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Measuring TV audiences with diaries:

The idea is that the diary is placed on top of the TV set, stays there for a week, and whoever watches a program on that set fills in the diary to show what channels they watched, at what times

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Measuring TV audiences with diaries:

• • • •

Each double-page opening of the diary usually has a large table. The rows show all the quarter-hours of the day, while there is one column for each TV channel in the survey area. People indicate their viewing by ticking the box for the channel they watched, during each quarter hour. Such a diary doesn't show which people in the household were watching: the tick only means that somebody was watching.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Measuring TV audiences with diaries:

• • •

Another way of doing this is to enter in the box for the channel and quarter-hour not a tick but a number showing how many people were watching. A still more elaborate way is to write the initial of each viewer in the box. On the front page of the diary is recorded the fact that (say) person A is a man aged 35-44, B is a woman aged 25-34, and so on

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Measuring TV audiences with diaries:

Though this sounds simple enough…. The results are often messy and people don't try very hard to co-operate…

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Measuring TV audiences with meters:

Unlike a diary survey, where the respondents are different each week (or each two weeks, for a 2-week diary) meter surveys use panels of people for months at a time - anything from 6 months to 2 years.

That's because of the expense of installing meters. When a household agrees to co-operate (usually for some reward, such as guaranteed maintenance for their TV set), a technician comes to the home and wires a meter to each TV set.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Measuring TV audiences with meters:

In countries where most homes have a connected telephone, the meter is also connected to the phone line. The meter automatically records the channel the TV set is tuned to, minute by minute. In the early hours of the morning, the research company's computer automatically dials the meter, which sends that household's viewing data for the previous night…

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Peoplemeter:
• • Typically, the peoplemeter sits on top of the TV set. A common type of peoplemeter has 8 lights on its front, numbered 1 to 8. The meter has its own remote control, with 8 buttons, one for each person in the household, and the others for their occasional guests. So when button 1 is pressed, that tells the meter that (say) a man aged between 35 and 44 is watching. Guests are prompted to enter their gender and age group.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Peoplemeter:
• • • • • • When the TV set is switched on, all the lights start flashing. It may also flash up the message "Who is present?" As this is annoying for the viewers, they are likely to press their personal buttons to stop the flashing. When the TV set is on, and nobody has pressed a button for about 45 minutes, all the lights start flashing again. If nobody then presses a personal button, the meter assumes they're all out of the room, and doesn't record any viewing. But if at least one person presses a button, the meter keeps recording that viewing

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Measuring TV audiences with meters: Indian scenario

A joint venture company between AC Nielsen & Kantar Media Research/ IMRB, TAM Media Research is the TV Viewership analysis firm of India The viewership cell runs what is one of the largest Peoplemeter TV Panels in the World with more than 20,000 sample individuals representing all the Class-I towns (towns with population more than 100,000) polled every week for their Viewership habits! This division measures television Viewership of audiences for the 250-plus TV stations operating in India 10000+ peoplemeters TAM does not claim to measure TV viewing All India •Covers Metros + 17 Small towns with population of 1 to 10 lacs •The markets covered account for 29 million TV Homes

• • •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Television Audience Measurement: How it works?

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

First Step: The Establishment Survey

• • •

This consists of a large survey and is the baseline study for TAM. Typically consists of a large no. of face to face interviews to collect information on all parameters related to TV viewing. This information is used to understand the universe size e.g. how many C&S homes in a market use it as a framework for panel recruitment and later on to control the panel in terms of ensuring that the panel represents the universe. The TVE is conducted every six months and is concurrent with the National Readership Survey

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Second Step: The Panel

The actual homes that will have the Peoplemeter installed are selected applying the ‘Randomized Panel Selection’ package that looks at matching the profile of a home with that of the universe, apply weights to each of these homes and iterate till a perfect match is found. TAM represents all markets upto the urban agglomeration limits (as defined by Census of India) and not only till the municipal limits to ensure that the panel is spread across the market under scrutiny

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Second Step: The Panel
• • The entire sample is split equally among the 4 SEC’s. (A,B,C and D) Thus a sample of 100 would be split as 25 each in four ‘cells’ representing the four SEC’s. These four cells are then again split by access to C&S thus giving eight cells. This is further split by the four age groups and two sex groups. TAM represents markets as either Metro or ‘Rest of State’. For e.g. Mumbai and Rest of Maharashtra – the latter data coming from five towns; three of these towns are those with a population of 5 lakh+ and two with a population of 1lakh+.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Second Step: The Panel
• • • Panel Control: The Panel is regularly checked for compliance. Essentially the panel has to represent the universe and hence TAM has panel control parameters to ensure that the panel is truly representative. For instance, one of the panel control parameters is whether there is more than one TV set in a home and hence in Delhi where ~11% of homes have more than one TV set, a proportionate no. of Panel Homes are selected with this profile

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Third Step: The Peoplemeter and training

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The homes selected by the above process are revisited and invited to join the panel. Peoplemeters are installed on every TV set in the panel home. Each meter is capable of accurately monitoring, every second, 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, what is being viewed on each TV set, by whom, and of storing this data. One meter in each home is then enabled to transmit all the stored data to the Production Centre, by means of the family's telephone line, or a dedicated cellular (analogue and GSM) telephone line. After agreements such as the confidentiality agreement have been signed between the panel home and TAM, intensive training and counselling is given to the panel homes and data is used post stabilization.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Fourth Step: The Polling
• • Polling is the process of transmitting the data from the peoplemeters to the central production center. In most cases between 02h00 and 06h00 daily, via the fixed telephone line from the home or utilising a GSM modem installed in the meter’s Transmission Unit. Every night, the data stored in the memory of the online peoplemeter is retrieved ("Polled"), via telephone lines, cellular telephone networks or dedicated radio frequencies, using TAM’s production software.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Fifth Step: The Production Software

• TAM data retrieval and production system, • Extensive and flexible reporting at all phases of data production.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Sixth Step: TV Events
• TAM data is not comprised only of individual television viewing data, but also of a database of TV Events. • While the TAM data produced from the information collected by the peoplemeter, provides individual-byindividual, minute-by-minute audience data, it does not associate this viewing with particular programmes.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Seventh Step: Analysis Software
• Comprehensive analysis software multiplies the value of the TAM data. • At the front end of the TAM system, the analysis software allows clients to use and analyse the TAM database. • The enormous amount of detailed data and its richness exclude the possibility of using printed reports, except in the case of very simple analyses.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Print Media surveys:

• • •

ABC: AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION NRS: NATIONAL READERSHIP SURVEY IRS: INDIAN READERSHIP SURVEY

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION (ABC) :

ABC is one of several organizations of the same name operating in different parts of the world. The ABC is a non-profit, self-disciplining, voluntary organization consisting of Publishers, Advertisers and Advertising Agencies. It has done pioneering work in developing systems to verify the circulation data published by those newspapers and periodicals, which have earned the right to display its emblem.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION (ABC) :

• The Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) was founded in 1948, is an association consisting of publishers, advertisers and advertising agencies. • ABC as it is called and understood by all, is a founder member of the International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations. • The main function of ABC is to evolve, lay down a standard and uniform procedure by which a member publisher shall compute its net paid circulation figure.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION (ABC) :

• A firm of Chartered Accountants approved by the Bureau checks the circulation figures so arrived at. • The Bureau issues ABC certificates every six months to those publishers whose circulation figures confirm to the rules and regulations set out by the Bureau and duly certified by a Chartered Accountant who is from the approved panel of the Bureau.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION (ABC) :

ABC's membership today includes 380 publishers of national and regional importance, 189 advertising agencies, 74 Advertisers & 19 New Agencies and Associations connected with print media and advertising. It covers more than 50 major towns in India.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION (ABC) :

Facts and figures, which are checked and certified by an independent body, are very important in advertising business. It increases confidence and sets high standards. An advertiser would like to know the facts and figures before investing his money in advertising. And before investing the money, the advertiser ought to know how many people buy which publication in which area.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION (ABC) :

The ABC gives all these vital facts every six months. The ABC figures are not the outcome of opinions, claims or guesswork, but they are the result of rigid, in-depth and impartial audits of paid circulations of member publications by independent and leading firms of Chartered Accountants working in accordance with the rules/procedures set by the Bureau. An advertising agency would want to make valid and rational recommendations for the proper distribution of his clients' advertising budget. A publisher gets a Certificate of Circulation, which is a proof to the advertiser of the coverage he is offering.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

NATIONAL READERSHIP SURVEY (NRS)/ INDIAN READERSHIP SURVEY (IRS)

There are the two main sources of obtaining data to determine readership of any publication: 1. National Readership Survey - NRS 2. Indian Readership Survey - IRS

• •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

NATIONAL READERSHIP SURVEY (NRS)/ INDIAN READERSHIP SURVEY (IRS)

National Readership Survey is a survey on all media, but especially the print medium, conducted by the National Readership Studies Council (NRSC) - supported by Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC), Advertising Agencies association of India (AAAI) & Indian Newspapers Society. Research agencies involved are: IMRB, TNS, AC Nielsen Indian Readership Survey is conducted by the Media Research Users Council (MRUC) in association with Hansa Research

• •

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

NATIONAL READERSHIP SURVEY (NRS)/ INDIAN READERSHIP SURVEY (IRS)

• Both NRS & IRS
• Gives media consumption habits, product ownership & consumption, lifestyle indicators information on macro demographic & geographic parameters. • Population coverage: 12 years & above • Sample size: over 200, 000 • Geographic coverage: All India (Urban+Rural) • Sample Frame: Electoral rolls based on 2001 Census definition of Urban Agglomeration

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

RADIO AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

Popularity of Radio as a medium is on the upswing and soon it will create a considerable impact. Advertisers now see FM to be a very vital medium for communicating with their target audience, resulting in a growth in FM listenership. Due to privatisation, radio ad spend is expected to grow over the next 5 years. It is also predicted that Radio would have a growth pattern similar to one observed during the Television boom.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

RADIO AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

There is a need to have a reliable audience research, which would provide continuous measurement of radio audiences so that growth of this reviving medium can be tracked. A dependable study with high quality standards will lend credibility for the medium. MRUC has made an entry into Radio Audience Measurement Study with ACNielsen partnering the research. Indian Listenership Track is the first syndicated study of its kind in India that will enable users to plan for this fast reviving medium.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

RADIO AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

• •

For nearly 40 years the most dominant research techniques used to assess media viewing and listening habits has relied on audience members to manually maintain records via journal entry. However, these personal diaries are fraught with problems, most of it tied to faults in human nature, such as failing to keep accurate records. These problems have led broadcast networks and advertisers to frequently question the effectiveness of manual reporting. In particular, audience measurement for radio has been remarkably ineffective especially when compared to television.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

RADIO AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

• •

The main reason for this lies with the location of the media device. Television viewing is done mostly in the home and on equipment that is nearly always found in a fixed location. This makes it fairly easy for researchers to train selected respondents on how to properly fill out their journals. Radio, on the other hand, is listened to in many locations. In fact, there is significant argument claiming most radio is listened to in locations other than the home, namely at work or, more troubling for researchers, in the car. Attempts to measure which stations are listened to during a car ride have almost exclusively relied on journal entries. In almost all cases these entries are made long after the person left their car so recall may be hazy

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

RADIO AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

The PPM, which is about the size of a pager, is designed to detect specially encoded (though inaudible to listeners) messages emitted by radio stations who have signed on for the service. When the PPM comes into contact with the audio output of a radio station sending the message it records the encoded information. Contained within the message is data that identifies the station and a time stamp indicating when the PPM came into contact with the message. At the end of each day participants in the survey place their PPM in a cradle that not only recharges the unit’s battery but also submits results over telephone lines or Internet hookup to Arbitron’s database.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

RADIO AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT

MobilTrak of Herndon, Virginia, is marketing a research technology that attempts to eavesdrop on cars to find out what motorists are listening to. The science behind MobilTrak’s Radio Monitoring System, is based on the concept that radios, like most electronic devices, emit electronic signals when in use. Radios are further unique in that the signal produced is unique for each station. MobilTrak’s so-called “sniffer” method employs receiving stations installed at intersections in high traffic areas or specific locations, such as shopping malls. These receivers randomly scan the intersection as cars pass by and forward the information over wireless telecommunication networks.

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0)

Devbrat Kumar

Thank You!

Tango

Charlie

January 10, 2007 (Ver 1.0) Devbrat Kumar

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