This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Aneeqa M. Karu IX A 1
The founder of Islam Prophet Mohammed was born in Mecca (Arabia) in 570 A.D. His father died before his birth so was brought up by his uncle. Occupation of tradesman brought him in contact with both Christians & Jews.
Though considering Abraham & Jesus as Prophets of God, did not adopt either of the religion It is a place inhabited by many tribes which was mostly a desert no forest, very little vegetation.
ARABIA: THE LAND, ITS PEOPLE AND THEIR RELIGIOUS BELIEFS.
Sparsely populated & thinly cultivated. People led a life of constant struggle with nature. They had never bowed to a foreign conqueror.
Jawaharlal Nehru says “mountains and deserts breed hard people who love their freedom and are not easily subdued.” They had no central government; each tribe has its own rules & system of government.
living in clans and families often quarreled with other clans and tribes. two important towns - Mecca and Medina. the rise of Islam people used to follow the faiths Jewish, Christians, nature worship, star worship, etc.
were filled with many superstitions & believed in magic & ghosts. - tribes used to assemble during certain months & worshipped a huge black cube - Kaaba which was supposed to have been given by the angel Gabriel to Abraham.
People praying at Mecca during Hajj
BIRTH OF ISLAM
Mohammed used to spend a lot of time in prayer and meditation. proclaimed a new religion when he was 40 years old.
announced that his new religion called Islam had been revealed to him by God & this God had chosen him to be the last & the greatest of all his prophet.
The King standing inside the cube
called upon people to give up their idols & accept that “there is but one God Allah.” first to accept his teachings were his wife, his cousins, his uncle & a few of others who knew him very well. converted some 14 people in 3 years.
he preached against the idols there was a loud protest against him.
became enraged, so he left Mecca & went to Medina to expound his religion. His journey from Mecca to Medina is called Hijira which took place in the year 622 AD.
Muslim Calendar begins from here.
the death of the Prophet in 632 AD. , Islam had taken firm root in Arabia. the people of Mecca also embraced Islam.
Mohammed won thousands of converts at Medina.
The dome of Medina
TEACHINGS OF ISLAM
to the Arabic language Islam means “submission to the will of Allah (the God)” Quran is the book in which are found the teachings of Islam.
Quran is the holy book of Muslims in which Allah by sending Gabriel had made Prophet to write.
SOME OF THE CHIEF BELIEFS OF ISLAM ARE AS FOLLOWS :
1. There is but one God & Mohammed is his Prophet.
3.The followers of Islam should give alms to poor esp. during Ramazan. 4.They should make the pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once in their lifetime. 5.They should fast from sunrise to sunset.
2. A true Mohammedan is expected to pray five times a day - just before sunrise, just after noon, before sunset, just after sunset, & when the day has closed.
The king & Musharr af exiting the Kaaba
Muslim is required to abstain from strong drink altogether, should respect his parents & do justice to all. should also follow rules laid down regarding marriage, divorce & sharing-out the family property.
speaks of the Day of Last Judgement, when all persons shall receive the reward of their earthly deeds.
The Holy Kaaba
CONSOLIDATION OF ISLAM
Mohammed’s successors were known as Caliphs or Khalifas. he died, he was succeeded by Abu Bekr, who had high organizing abilities & a high character.
Arabs became united into a nation for the first time under his leadership. overran Syria & Palestine.
Bekr died in 634 AD. & his work was carried out by his successor , Omar, the brother-in-law of Prophet Mohammed. he died in 643 AD. Jerusalem, Mesopotamia, Babylon & Assyria (modern Iraq), Persia (Iran) & Egypt had been conquered.
636 the Arab army had won a famous victory over a much larger Persian force. the successors of Khalifa Omar the Arabs went on advancing both in the East and the West. - Herat & Kabul (Afghanistan) & reached the river Indus & Sindh.
- whole Africa.
in the 8 century they crossed into Spain. Tariq landed near Gibralter, opening the whole country to Arabs. This frightened the people of W. Europe.
great Coalition was formed to fight the Arabs. Martel, a German king, was the leader of this Coalition & he defeated Arabs in the Battle of Tours in 732 AD.
“the Arabs lost the empire of the world when almost in their grasp.” they invaded Italy also, but were finally expelled from there.
REASONS FOR CALIPHS’ VICTORIES & CONSOLIDATION OF ISLAM
notable successes & the Consolidation of Islam can be attributed to many factors. Islam was a much simpler religion than the Christians faith of those times.
In Islam there was no priesthood, no images, no elaborate rituals. Its simplicity attracted the simple desert folk.
Islam had filled the Arab race with selfconfidence & energy. It woke up the Arabs who for long ages had lived a sleepy existence. The dynasty had ruled Persia & the neighbouring countries was weakened.
empire they had build up was tottering. The old Roman-Greco civilization had also ended. Thus both the empires - Roman Empire in the West & Persian empire in the East were in the bad shape. They could not face the fury of the advancing Arabs.
the death of Khalifa Omar a Meccan named Othman was appointed as his successor. was murdered by Ali’s supporters in 656 AD.
then became a Khalifa (Caliph) for a short while. too was murdered & some time later his son Hessian, along with other persons in his family, were massacred on the plain of Karbala.
Muslims, esp. the Shiahs, mourn the killings year after year in the month of Moharram. Caliphate then went to Omayyand dynasty to which Othman belonged. Capital was shifted to Damascus in Syria.
749 AD. the Caliph belonging to the above mentioned dynasty was removed by force & a new dynasty (belonging to the Prophet’s uncle Abbas) came to power. the Capital was again shifted from Damascus to Baghdad (Iraq).
Caliphate of Baghdad reached its climax under Harul-alRashid(786-809 AD.)
a separate Caliph (Khalifa) & for some time the Egyptian Caliph ruled over North Africa also. Turks made themselves masters of the eastern provinces. 1058 AD. the Khalifa of Baghdad surrendered all his political powers.
these countries went out of the fold of Arab empire. Egypt there was not only an independent government.
he was only the Religious Head of the Faithfuls.
political power passed entirely into the hands of the rulers of respective states.
IMPACT OF ISLAM ON ART, ARCHITECTURE AND LITERATURE
The Arabs were “fanatical warriors,” but the should not be regarded as mere conquerors. In the words of H.A. Davies, “during the 5 centuries following the death of Mohammed his followers evolved a civilization much superior to anything which existed in Europe at that time.”
The Arabs developed their own architecture which, though simple, was imposing indeed. The Great Mosque at Cordoba (Spain), the Alhambra at Granada (Spain) & a few other mosques & palaces are remarkable examples of the skill of Arab architects.
The Mosque at Cordoba
The Mosque at Cordoba
architecture was characterized by bulbous domes, the arches and beautiful minars and minarets.
TRADE, COMMERCE & CRAFTS The Arabs carried on an extensive trade in cotton, silk and woolen fabrics.
caravans of camels went to India and China and their ships went to the Persian Gulf and even to the countries around the Baltic Sea.
LEARNING & LITERATURE They were patrons of learning.
Mosque in Kairouan (N. Africa)
founded universities at Baghdad (Iraq), Cairo (Egypt), & Cordoba (Spain). literature was made known to us through the Rubaiyat composed by Omar Khayyam and the ‘Arabian Nights.’
is as collection of 1001 famous stories such as Ali Baba & 40 thieves, Sinbad the Sailor and Aladdin’s Wonderful Lamp. significant achievements were made in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics & medicine.
is indebt to Arabs for the Arabic numerals. a time when people in Europe believed that the Earth was the center of Universe, the Arabs thought it possible that the Earth revolves around the Sun.
SPREAD OF ISLAM TO INDIA
new Islamic culture was introduced in India by the Arabs, who entered India as traders. made their settlements on the western coast of India.
Gujarat they received liberal protection from the Hindu rulers and the Zamorin of Calicut patronized the Arab traders. trade began to flourish & they acquired landed property & followed their religion freely
Their early conquests
the beginning of the 8th century AD., the Arabs under Mohammed-binQasim conquered the Indian territories of Sindh & Multan. was conquered in 712 AD. & early in 713 AD. fell the ancient town of Multan.
was no central authority in India during those days & the rulers of frontier town failed to cooperate with one another when they were in danger .
victories were short-lived because of the death of Mohammed-binQasim in 716 AD. the Arabs could have a really intimate knowledge of Indian astronomy, numericals & other branches of knowledge which, according to Havell, they carried to Europe.
MAHMUD OF GHAZNI’S EXPEDITION
the close of the 10th century AD. The Turks under Sabuktigin, who was a slave & now a king of Ghazni, invaded the frontier of India.
Although he suffered severe military reverses, in the end he was successful in capturing Peshawar. Sabuktigin died in 997 AD. & was succeeded by his son Mahmud. Mahmud of Ghazni made 17 expeditions & penetrated into the very heart of India.
He raided many temples cities : Kangra in 1009, Mathura in 1018, Kanauj in 1019, Gwalior in 1022 & Somnath in 1025. He carried away India’s rich treasures to his country. He exposed to the Muslim world the political & military weaknesses of the Indian kingdoms & opened the way to further Muslim conquest.
FOUNDATION OF THE MUSLIM EMPIRE IN INDIA
In fact, the foundation of the of the Muslims empire in India was led by Mohammed Ghori. His first invasion was direct against Multan in 1175 AD. In 1192 he defeated Prithviraj Chauhan, the ruler of vast territories from Ajmer to Delhi.
He then went back to Ghazni, leaving Qutubud-din Aibak in charge of his territories in India. In 1194 he led an army to fight Jai Chand, the ruler of Kannauj & the neighbouring regions. He returned to Ghazni.
During his absence Qutub-ud-din had to quell many revolts & disturbances in India. He also under took a number of petty expeditions. He captured Aligarh, Badayun, Bundelkhand, & Khajuraho & one of his generals, Md.-bin -Bakhtiyar Khilji, conquered Bihar & parts of Bengal.
He thus justified the confidence which his master had placed in him. Mohammed Ghori was stabbed to death in 1206 AD. He had no son. In India, he was succeeded by Qutub-uddin Aibak, the founder of the so-called Slave Dynasty.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.