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The 13 English

Colonies

Chapter 4
Section 1
New England
Colonies
• Puritans leave England for
Massachusetts
– Wanted to separate from Roman Catholic
Church
– Mainly well educated
– Persecuted by Charles I
– Given the charter to form Mass. Bay
Company
– Non-first sons wanted to go in hopes of a
• Governing a Colony
– 1629 John Winthrop and 1000
colonists arrive
– Winthrop chosen as first
governor
– Originally only stockholders
had the right to vote
– Colonists resented taxes and
laws passed without their
input
– Eventually any male church
– General Court formed and
used elected officials
– 1629-1640 colony grew to
15,000

– This movement of people


became known as the Great
migration

– Boston grew into the colony’s


Problems in
Massachusetts Bay
The questioning of authority was frowned
upon
• Unhappy colonists were forced to leave

• This lead to the formation of new


colonies in New England
• Thomas Hooker Founds Connecticut
– 1636- Hooker a minister leaves M.Bay
– Settled along the Connecticut River
– Believed officials in Mass. Bay had too
much power
– Wanted a colony with strict limits on
govt.
– Gets its own charter in 1662
• Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
– All men had the right to vote
– Limited governments powers
• Roger Williams Settles Rhode
Island
– Also left Mass. Bay due to
disagreements
– Minister
– Good ideas but alarming to Puritan
leaders
– Church had too much power in Mass.
Bay
– Believed in separation of church and
state
– Religious Tolerance- willingness to
allow the practice of one’s own beliefs
– 1635 ordered to leave Mass. Bay
• Anne Hutchinson Speaks Out
– Devout Puritan
– Began to question Puritan authority
privately
– Women should not have the power to
explain God’s Laws
– 1637 brought before Mass. General
Court
– Held her own until she claimed God
spoke to her
– 1638 left for Rhode Island with family
& friends
– Became a symbol for religious freedom
Puritans at War with
Native Americans
• Originally contact between colonists and
Native Americans was good
• As more settlers arrived, fighting broke out
over land.
• 1670- 45,000 settlers in New England, on
Native American land
• 1675- largest conflict- Metacom’s(King Phillip)
tribe attacked settlers. Destroyed 12 towns
and killed 600+ settlers
– After more than a year of fighting,
Metacom captured and killed, his
family and about 1000 Indians were
sold into slavery
– For years this pattern of expansion
and fighting would continue
Life in New England
Towns and Villages

• Tightly knit religious towns and villages


• Sabbath- religious holy day- taken very
serious
• All day church activities were the only
thing allowed
• Women and men separated at church
• Blacks and Indians sat in the balcony
• Children had a separate section as well
• Government
– Town Meetings- discussed and voted
on issues
– Gave settlers a chance to speak their
minds
– Encouraged growth of democratic
ideas
• Economy
– Poor soil
– Good forests for lumber and hunting
– Sawmills were built
– Fishing- cod for food, whales for oil
and other products
• Decline of the Puritans
– 1700’S decline of Puritan traditions
– Fewer people leaving England for
religious reasons
– Ministers loosing influence