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IMPORTANT CONCEPTS in

PHYSIOLOGY
Importance of
Physiology & Anatomy
WHY WE NEED TO STUDY?
 HUMAN ANATOMY
To be able to know what a normal structure in the body looks like
(with naked eye and under the microscope)

 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
To be able to know and understand the normal function of the
structures (gross, tissue and cellular level ) in the body .

 DISEASES------
If we will be able to identify and understand what “normal” is like
than we will be able to recognize and understand abnormal (i.e.
diseases) states (structure and function) of the body.
IMPORTANT CONCEPTS IN
PHYSIOLOGY

1. Levels of organization
2. Homeostasis
3. Homeostasis control mechanisms
IMPORTANT CONCEPTS IN
PHYSIOLOGY
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY

4. Chemical level
5. Cellular level
6. Tissue level
7. Organ level
8. System level
9. Organism
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY
• CHEMICAL LEVEL
- Atoms and molecules
- Atoms essential for maintaining life are; Carbon (C), hydrogen (H),
oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) and calcium (Ca)

2. CELLULAR LEVEL
- CELL is a basic structural and functional unit of human body
- Membrane bound (plasma membrane)
- Contains fluid and organelles
- All cells have basic common features.
(E.g. O2 combines with nutrients to release energy for cell function)
- - they specialize or differentiate to perform a unique function
(E.g. muscle cell – function is contraction
; intestinal cells – function is absorption)
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY

3. TISSUE LEVEL
- TISSUE is a group of similar cells that perform a particular function.
- 4 basic types of tissue;
1. EPITHEAL
2. MUSCLE TISSUE
3. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
4. NERVOUS TISSUE

4. ORGAN LEVEL
- ORGAN structure composed of two or more tissues with recognizable
shape and specialized function.
- Example of organs - heart, liver, lungs, brain, stomach
- Specific e.g. – STOMACH
- outer covering is called the serosa – it has epithelial and
connective tissue.
- the serosa protects the stomach and reduces friction
when the stomach moves and rubs against other body
structures
Stomach – note the serosa of stomach
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY

5. SYSTEM LEVEL – consists of related organs with a common function.


- Human body has 11 major systems.

(e.g. Digestive system)

6. ORGANISM – all the parts of body functioning with one another comprises
the total organism (one living organism)
MAJOR SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
 The 11 body systems are;
1. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
2. SKELTAL SYSTEM
3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
4. NERVOUS SYSTEM
5. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
6. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
7. LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM
8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
9. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
10. URINARY SYSTEM
11. REPRODUCTION
MAJOR SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

1. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS - Skin and structures derived from it (e.g.
hair and nails, sweat glands, and oil glands)
 FUNCTION -
• Helps regulate body temperature
• Eliminates some wastes,
• Helps produce vitamin D
• Monitors certain stimuli (e.g. temperature).
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
2. SKELETAL SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS – all bones of the body, associated cartilages
and joints of the body.
 FUNCTIONS -
1. Supports and protects body
2. Assists in body movements
3.Origin of cells that give rise to blood cells.
4. Stores minerals
SKELETAL SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS - skeletal muscle (muscle attached to bones),

smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.


 FUNCTIONS –

1. Powers the movement of the body (e.g. walking)


2. Stabilized body posture
3. Generates heat
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
4. NERVOUS SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS - Brain, spinal cord, nerves and special sense

organs (E.g. eye and ears).


 FUNCTIONS:

1. Regulates body activities through action potential (nerve


impulses) by detecting changes in internal and external
environments, interpreting the changes, responding to the changes by
inducing muscular contractions or glandular secretions.
NERVOUS
SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
5. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS - All hormone-producing glands and cells such

as the pituitary glands, thyroid gland and pancreas.


 FUNCTION

1. Regulates body activities through hormones, chemical transported


in the blood to various target organs of the body
ENDOCRINE
SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
6. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS - Hearts, blood vessels and blood.

 FUNCTION

1. Distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells,


2. Carries CO2 and wastes away from cells
3. Helps maintain the acid-base balance of the body
4. Protects against disease, prevents hemorrhage by forming blood
clots.
5. Regulates body temperature
CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
7. LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS - Lymphatic vessels, lymph, structures or organs

containing lymphatic tissue (large numbers of white blood cells called


lymphocytes), such as spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes and tonsils.
 FUNCTIONS -

1. Returns proteins and plasma (liquid portion of blood) to the


cardiovascular system,
2. Transport fats from the gastrointestinal tract to the cardiovascular
system,
3. Serves as a site or maturation and proliferation of certain white
blood cells
4. Helps protect against disease through the production of proteins
called antibodies as well as responses.
LYMPHATIC
AND
IMMUNE
SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS – Lungs and series of associated passage

ways leading into and out of them.


 FUNCTIONS:

1. Regulate the acid-base balance of the body


2. Supplies O2, eliminates CO2
3. Helps produce sounds.
BODY SYSTEMS
9. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS - a long tube called the gastrointestinal tract and

associated organs (includes salivary glands, liver, gall-bladder and


pancreas).
 FUNCTION -

1. Performs physical and chemical breakdown of food and absorption


of nutrients for use by cells
2. Helps eliminates solid and other wastes
DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
10. URINARY SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS - Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and

urethra
 FUNCTION -

1. Produces, stores and eliminates urine


2. Regulates volume and chemical composition of blood
3. Eliminates wastes
4. Regulates fluid and electrolyte balance
5. Helps maintain acid-base and calcium balance of the body
6. Secretes a hormone (erythropoietin) that regulates red blood cell
production.
FEMALE
URINARY
SYSTEM
MALE
URINARY
SYSTEM
BODY SYSTEMS
11. REPRODUCTION SYSTEM
 PRINCIPAL ORGANS -

- Organs (testes and ovaries) that produce reproductive cells or


gametes (ova and sperm)
- Other organs such as the uterine (fallopian) tubes and uterus in
females; the epididymis, ductus(vas) deferens and penis in males
that transport and store reproductive cells.
 FUNCTION -

1. Produce gametes, which can unite to form a new organism,


2. Produces hormones that help regulate metabolism.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Now SMILE…
And smile again…
Now that’s better…keep
smiling! 

Thank you All……….