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Organ system inter-relationship

Necessary Life Functions

Survival Needs
Homeostasis control Mechanism
Organ Systems Interrelationships
• The integumentary system protects the body
from the external environment
• Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact
with the external environment, take in
nutrients and oxygen.
• Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the
• Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the
urinary and respiratory systems
Necessary Life Functions
• Maintain Boundaries
• The internal environment remains distinct from
the external environment, eg
• Cellular Level – plasma membranes
• Organism Level – skin
• Movement
• Locomotion
• Movement of substances
Necessary Life Functions
• Responsiveness
• Ability to sense changes in the
environment and respond to them.
• Digestion
Break-down and delivery of nutrients

• Metabolism – all the chemical reactions

that occur within the body
• Production of energy
• Making body structures
Necessary Life Functions
• Excretion
• Elimination of waste from metabolic
• Reproduction
• Production of future generation
• Growth
• Increasing of cell size and number
Survival Needs
• Nutrients
• Chemicals for energy and cell building
• Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,
vitamins, and minerals
• Oxygen
• Required for metabolic reactions
Survival Needs
• Water
• 60–80% of body weight
• Provides necessary environment for
metabolic reactions
• Stable body temperature
• Necessary for metabolic reactions to occur
at life sustaining rate
• Atmospheric pressure
• Required for normal breathing and gas
exchange in lungs
• Maintenance of a stable internal environment
in an ever changing out side world
• The internal environment of the body is in a
dynamic state of equilibrium
• Homeostasis must be maintained for normal
body functioning and to sustain life
• Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance in
homeostasis resulting in disease
Maintaining Homeostasis

• The body communicates through neural

and hormonal control systems to maintain
• The three interdependent components of
control mechanism include:
1. Receptor
2. Control Center
3. Effector
Maintaining Homeostasis

1- Receptor – Monitors the environment and

responds to changes (stimuli) 
2- Control center
•Determines set point at which variable is
•Analyzes information
•Determines appropriate response
3- Effector
•Provides a means for response to the stimulus
Maintaining Homeostasis
Feedback Mechanisms
• Negative feedback
• Positive feedback
• Negative feedback
• Includes most homeostatic control
• Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces
its intensity
• Works like a household thermostat
Negative feedback

Most body systems

regulate Via this
mechanism, eg

•Regulation of Blood

•Removal of CO2 from

Feedback Mechanisms

• Positive feedback
• Increases the original stimulus to push the
variable farther
• In the body this only occurs in blood clotting
and birth of a baby
Positive feedback

Blood Clotting Cascade