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Introduction

BIOLOGY
SEMESTER 1
Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson the students should
be able to:
1. Define biodiversity, cells, tissue and organ.
2. State 3 types of diversity.
3. Describe life on its different levels of
biological organisation.
Levels of biological
Film: Biological sciences (0:47 seconds)

1- cells
Different levels of 2- tissues
biological organisation
3- organs
4- systems
3 types of diversity.
5- organisms
6- population
7- community
1- Ecological diversity
8- ecosystem
2- Species diversity
3- Genetic diversity 9- biosphere
CH APTER 1

Cell As A Unit Of Life


5 Hours

1.1: Cell Theory


1.2: Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
OBJECTIVES
 At the end of this lesson, student should
be able:
1)Describe cell as the smallest
independent unit of life and form the
basis of living organism
2)Describe and compare the structure of
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
1.1: Cell Theory

M. Schleiden T. Schwann R. Virchow Robert Hooke


Cell Theory
1.Cell are the
basic living
units of
organization
and function in
all organisms

Learning objective:
Describe cell as the smallest independent unit of life and form the basis of living
organism
Cell Theory

2. New cell is
derived from
other cells by
division

Learning objective:
Describe cell as the smallest independent unit of life and form the basis of living
organism
1.2: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell

Learning objective:
Describe and compare the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
1.2.1: Prokaryotic cell
Cyanobacteria
Vibrio cholerae Pseudomonas
Escherichia coli
• Pili: attachment, reproduction

5.
6.
4.
3.
2.Capsule: jelly-like outer
coating of many prokaryotes
7.
1. Pili

5.
6.
4.
3.Cell wall: made of peptidoglycan

2.Capsule
7.
1. Pili

5.
6.
4.Plasma membrane: phospholipid
3.Cell wall bilayer

2.Capsule
7.
1. Pili

5.Nucleoid: Region where the cell’s


DNA is located
6.
4.Plasma membrane
3.Cell wall

2.Capsule
7.
1. Pili

5.Nucleoid
6.Ribosomes: synthesize proteins
4.Plasma membrane
3.Cell wall

2.Capsule
7.
1. Pili

5.Necleoid
6.Ribosomes
4.Plasma membrane
3.Cell wall
2.Capsule

7. Flagella- locomotion
1.2.2 :Eukaryotic cell

Eu: True
Karyo: Nucleus

Eg: Animal cell


Plant cell
Plasma membrane
1.2.3:Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Difference between Prokaryote and Eukaryote

Feature Prokaryote Eukaryote


Cell 0.5-10 μm 10-100 μm
size
Genetic DNA is DNA is linear and contain in
material circular,lies nucleus.
free in DNA is assosiates with
cytoplasm. histon protein to form
DNA is naked chromosomes
Plasmid Small circular absent
DNA
Difference between Prokaryote and Eukaryote

Feature Prokaryote Eukaryote


Organelles Only ribosome Many organelles,
envelope-bound
organelles present
Cell walls Peptidoglycan Plant: Cellulose
Fungi: chitin
Flagella Simple, Complex, with 9+2
lacking arrangement of
microtubules microtubules
Difference between Prokaryote and Eukaryote

Feature Prokaryote Eukaryote


Mesosomes Present. Absent.
Contain Mitochondria
respiratory function as sites
enzymes. No for respiration.
mitochondria.
Photosynthesi No Chloroplast
s chloroplasts,
Question
1. Describe how a prokaryotic cell would
differ from a eukaryotic cell in the location
of its DNA
2. What is a mesosome?
3. List the similarities of prokaryote and
eukaryote.
NEXT LECTURE:

1.3: Microscopic structures of plant


and animal cells