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Simulation of Queuing System

Queuing System
 The analysis of waiting lines, called Queuing
Theory, applies to any situation in which customers
arrive at a system, wait, and receive service.
Queuing Theory was developed by a Danish
engineer, A. K. Erlang in 1908.

 The main objectives of queuing theory are to

improve customer service and reduce operating
Components of the Queuing System
Servicing System
Queue or
Customer Waiting Line
Arrivals Exit
Customer Service Population Sources
(Calling Source)

Population Source

Finite Infinite
Example: Number of Example: The
machines needing number of people
repair when a who could wait in
company only has a line for
three machines. gasoline.
Customer Service Arrival Pattern
(Waiting Line)

Arrival Pattern

Constant Variable
Example: A part Example:
from an automated Customers
machine arrives arriving in a bank.
every 30 seconds.
Waiting Line Attributes
 Input or arrival time.

 Output or service rate.

 Service or queue discipline.

– Priority
– Random
Degree of Patience

No Way! No Way!

Service Pattern or Service Facility

Constant Variable
Example: Each part Example: People
takes exactly 30 spending time
seconds to make. shopping.
Suggestions for Managing Queues

1. Determine an acceptable waiting time for your customers.

3. Try to divert your customer’s attention when waiting.

3. Inform your customers of what to expect.

4. Train your servers to be friendly.

5. Encourage customers to come during the slack periods.

Single Queue Parallel Systems

Customers in a queue

Working … a service
waiting room = completion …

An arrival …

potential customers parallel servers

Parallel Queues Parallel Systems


Customers in parallel queues

Modeling & Simulating Queuing

A queuing model provides measures of

system performance
– The quality of service provided to the customers
– The efficiency of the service operation and the
cost of providing service
Modeling & Simulating Queuing

 The
quality of the service provided can be
measured by
– Waiting time in the queue
– Time in the system (waiting time plus service
– Completion by a deadline
Modeling & Simulating Queuing

 The efficiency of service operation is measured by

– Average queue length
– Average number of customers in the system (queue plus
customers in service)
– Throughput – the rate at which customers are served
– Server utilization – percentage of time servers are busy
– Percentage of customers who balk or renege
Modeling & Simulating Queuing

 The waiting time of any customer is equal to the time

at which the customer begins service minus the time
the customer arrived.
 The server is idle if the time at which customer
arrives is greater than the time at which the previous
customer completed service.
 If a customer arrives at time t, then all prior
customers who have not yet completed service by
time t must still be in the system.
Modeling & Simulating Queuing
 Some observations
– If a customer arrives at time t and the server is not busy,
then that customer can begin service immediately upon
– If a customer arrives at time t and the server is busy, then
that customer will begin service at the time that the previous
customer completes service.
– The time at which a customer completes service is
computed as the time that the customer begins service plus
the time it takes to perform the service.
– Once completion times are known, we may find the length
of the queue.
Kendall’s Notation
 V indicates the arrival pattern.

 W indicates the service pattern.

 B gives the number of servers.

 Y represents the system capacity.

 Z Indicates the queue discipline.

Symbols used for inter arrival time, service
times & the queue disciplines
Queue Characteristic Symbol Meaning

Inter arrival time D Deterministic

Or Service time
M Exponential

Queue Discipline FIFO First in First out

LIFO Last in First out
SIRO Random order
PRI Priority ordering
GD Any other spec-
-ified ordering
 If Y (system capacity) is not specified then set it to infinite.

 If Z (queue discipline) is not specified then set it to FIFO.

 M/D/2/5/FIFO (Mathematical notation) is system having:

– Exponential arrival times.
– Deterministic service times.
– Two servers.
– Capacity of 5 customers.
– FIFO queue discipline.
We welcome your queries!!

Presented by:
Nitin Kapoor
Richa Sharma