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Electrical Substation

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions

A substation include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages

Examples of Electric Substation

A 50 Hz electrical substation in Melbourne. This is showing three of the five 220 kV/66 kV transformers, each with a capacity of 150 MVA. This substation is constructed using steel lattice structures to support strain bus wires and apparatus

A 115 kV to 41.6/12.47 kV 5 MVA 60 Hz substation with circuit switcher, regulators, reclosers and control building at Warren, Minnesota. This substation shows elements of lowprofile construction; apparatus is mounted on individual columns.

A:Primary power lines' side

B:Secondary power lines' side

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Primary power lines Ground wire Overhead lines Transformer for measurement of electric voltage Disconnect switch Circuit breaker Current transformer Lightning arrester Main transformer Control building Security fence Secondary power lines

1. Primary power lines

Primary lines have voltages ranging from 2,300 to 39,000 volts. Common primary line voltages are 2,300, 4,160, 12,470, 13,800, 25,000 and 34,500 volts depending on which distribution voltages a utility uses

2. Ground Wire

The use of the term ground (or earth) is so common in electrical.

In electrical engineering, ground or earth can refer to the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth

Overhead Power Line

Overhead power line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances. Tubular steel poles are typically used in urban areas. High-voltage lines are often carried on latticetype steel towers or pylons. Concrete poles have also been used.Poles made of reinforced plastics are also available, but their high cost restricts application Structures may be as simple as wood poles directly set in the earth Structures for lines take a variety of shapes depending on the type of line In some cases the lines are buried to avoid this, but this "undergrounding" is more expensive and therefore not common.

A Single-Circuit Line
An overhead power line, also known as a "pylon" in some areas, is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances. It consists of one or more conductors suspended by towers or utility poles

A Double-Circuit Line

A double-circuit transmission line has two circuits. For three-phase systems, each tower supports and insulates six conductors. Single phase AC-power lines as used for traction current have four conductors for two circuits. Usually both circuits operate at the same voltage

Potential Transformer (PT)

Potential transformers (PT) (also called voltage transformers (VT)) are a parallel connected type of instrument transformer WORKING The potential transformer works along the same principle of other transformers. It converts voltages from high to low. It will take the thousands of volts behind power transmission systems and step the voltage down to something that meters can handle. These transformers work for single and three phase systems, and are attached at a point where it is convenient to measure the voltage

Types of PT:
There are three primary types of potential transformers (PT): 1: Electromagnetic Voltage Transformer

Working of Electromagnetic Voltage Transformer

A magnetic core is a piece of magnetic material with a high permeability used to confine and guide magnetic fields in electrical, electromechanical and magnetic devices such as electromagnets, transformers, electric motors, inductors and magnetic assemblies. It is made of ferromagnetic metal such as iron, or ferrimagnetic compounds such as ferrites. The high permeability, relative to the surrounding air, causes the magnetic field lines to be concentrated in the core material. The magnetic field is often created by a coil of wire around the core that carries a current. The presence of the core can increase the magnetic field of a coil by a factor of several thousand over what it would be without the core

The transformer is based on two principles: first, that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism), and, second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil.

Capacitor Voltage Transformer

A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), or capacitance coupled voltage transformer (CCVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for measurement or to operate a protective relay

The CVT is also useful in communication systems.

5.Disconnect Switch
A disconnector, disconnect switch or isolator switch is used to ensure that an electrical circuit is completely de-energized for service or maintenance.

Such switches are often found in electrical distribution and industrial applications

Unlike load break switches and circuit breakers, disconnectors lack a mechanism for suppression of electric arc, which occurs when conductors carrying high currents are electrically interrupted. Thus, they are off-load devices

6. Circuit Breaker Def: A circuit breaker is a manually or automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit Functionality of Circuit Breaker: Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt current flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced A circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgeardesigned to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city

Bus Bar Arrangement