Orogenic Gold Deposits

PEMBROOK RESOURCES

• Definitions • Geological Environment • Age • Host Rocks • Related Deposits • Mineralization, Veins & Alteration • Structural Settings • Mode of Formation • Favorable Exploration Characteristics • World & Latin America Examples

Orogenic Gold Deposits
PEMBROOK RESOURCES

PLACERS

EPITHERMALS

OROGENIC GOLD

INTRUSION-RELATED

Orogenic Gold Deposits
PEMBROOK RESOURCES

Definition
• Orogenic Gold deposits are gold deposits formed in regionally metamorphosed terranes during compressional to transpressional defomation processes at convergent plate margins in accretionary and collisional orogens (Groves et al., 1998)
• Mesothermal, mother-lode type, metamorphic rock-hosted, shear-zone hosted, greenstone-hosted, turbidite-hosted, lode-gold, low-sulfide quartz-vein and slate-belt gold • World Average: 100,000’s to 100Mt @ 2 to 15 g/t Au • Grade – Variable 1.1 (Las Cristinas) to 21.3 g/t Au (Red Lake) • 25% of world’s gold is sourced from orogenic gold deposits

Orogenic Gold Deposits
PEMBROOK RESOURCES

Geological Environment
• Mineralization associated with accretionary to collisional tectonics at convergent plate boundaries

55 Ga) • Early Proterozoic (2.7 to 2.Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Age Dominantly Archean to Phanerozoic • Late Archean (2.1 to 1.8 Ga) • Late Proterozoic (700 to 600 Ma) • Late Paleozoic (455 to 340 Ma) • Mesozoic-Cenozoic (285 to 70 Ma) Coincide with periods of crustal growth and global thermal events .

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES .

Canada (70M oz) Kalgoorlie. Australia (40M oz) .Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Timmins.

US (27M oz) Telfer.Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Tanami. Ghana (30M oz) Homestake. Australia (21M oz) . Australia (10M oz) Obuasi.

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Linglong. China (16M oz) Murunta. Uzbekistan (170M oz) .

serpentinites. lamprophyric dykes Not so Common Hosts • Carbonates and platform sequences • Conglomerates. evaporites .Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Host Rocks • Epigenetic • Host lithology is deformed and metamorphosed – gold deposition late during the deformationmetamorphic history • Can be any host rock Common Hosts • Mafic to intermediate metavolcanic sequences (or greenstones) • Slate and low-grade metamorphic sediments (especially greywacke) • Ultramafics.

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Related Deposits • Ultramafic-intrusion hosted Ni-Cu-PGM deposits • Epithermal vein Hg and Sb mineralization • Polymetallic vein deposits • Placer and alluvial gold deposits • Intrusion-related Au deposits (Las Haquillas) .

carbonate (as calcite. sericite and chlorite • Others – Fuschite.coarser-grained quartz. dolomite. and siderite) • Accessory Minerals . ankerite. lesser albite.Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Vein Mineralogy • Principle Minerals . scheelite.tourmaline. mariposite. roscoelite • Poorly-developed mineral zonations both laterally and vertically .

laminated fault-fill quartz-carbonate veins in brittle-ductile shear zones and faults. with or without fringing shallow-dipping extensional veins and breccias • Individual veins are 10 cm to 10 meters in width and typically have 100’s meters of strike extent • Larger systems have multiple vein zones and may be depth persistent (Calle +2 km depth) • Stockworks and hydrothermal breccias may represent the main mineralization styles when developed in competent units .Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Systen & Vein Geometry • Dominantly a complex (discordant) array of anastomizing moderately to steeply dipping.

fibres are subparallel to the vein walls • Vein as open space infill and altered wall rock as replacements .Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Vein Textures • Textures represent the local deformation process and vary according to the nature of the host structure (extensional vs. fine-grained quartz. compressional). • Extensional veins typically display quartz and carbonate fibres at a high angle to the vein walls and with multiple stages of mineral growth • Compressional laminated veins are composed of massive. When present in laminated veins.

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Alteration • Proximal to distal assemblages • Scale and intensity of alteration function of system depth and wall rock composition • Best developed in ultramafic and greenstone hosts • In sediment-hosted systems. diopside. alteration is narrow and discrete enveloping the mineralization • Proximal alteration – sulphide minerals (py-po-aspy) and alkali-rick silicates (sericite. plagioclase and garnet present with lesser carbonate in +amphibolite-grade hosts . albite. fuschite. biotite) -white clay alteration • Distal alteration – carbonate minerals (lower temperature varieties) with quartz • Amphibolite.

with local amphibolite and granulte facies conditions • Mineralization preferentially developed in metamorphic gradients (with greenschist or greenschist to amphibolite) • Ore forming alteration products typically overprinted on regional metamorphic mineralogy .Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Regional Metamorphism • Host rocks are typically metamorphosed to greenschist faces.

minor silver sulposalts and tetrahedrites • Ore-grade mineralization also occurs as disseminated sulphides in altered (carbonatized) rocks along vein selvages . scheelite and tellurides arsenopyrite > stibnite. chalcopyrite. molybdenite. vein margins and in wall rock associated with iron sulphides and on the margins of rock-fragments • Au can also contain 15 to 20% weight silver.Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Economic & Sulphide Mineralogy Sulphide mineralogy • Pyrite. • Present in veins but more likely as wall rock alteration (especially po-py) • Comprise less than 5 (in veins) to 10% (in wall rock) of the volume of the orebody • No significant vertical mineral zoning or change in gold grade Precious Metals • Gold occurs as free gold and with sulphide in veins (generally in small fractures in quartz). galena. pyrrhotite. sphalerite.

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Geochemistry • Metallic association: Au. Hg • Presence of placers and alluvials suggest nugget gold . cerrusite • Surface geochemistry – Au-As-Ag-Sb >> Pb-Sn-Sc-Fe-Al-Ga • Drainage geochemistry – Au. Ni. Bi. Se. As. As. Te. Ag. PGM. Mo >> Cu. Co. Mo. jarosite. Ag. V. W. Zn • Au-Ag ratios range 10:1 to 5:1 • Minor Cr. B. Pb. Sb. Sc. Sb. B • No vertical metal zoning – case specific • Secondary minerals – scorodite.

morphologies and geological settings . Key .Pembrook Mining Corp.Santa Structural Helena Control • Proximity to regional. crustal structures • Protracted deformation history • Deposits hosted in second and thirdorder structures • Complex deformation history provides many structural trap site geometries.

Structural Santa Control Helena .Anticlinal Closures & Saddle Reefs Bendigo – 24 Mt @ 14.Pembrook Mining Corp.5 g/t Au (for 11 Moz Au) Koolhoven & Rosebel deposits at Rosebel .

Structural Santa Control Helena – Fault Dilatency • Present in normal.7 Moz) Akyem (+5 Moz Au) .Pembrook Mining Corp. reverse strike-slip and thrust faults • Slight warps in the fault plane • Oblique movement sense • Lithological heterogeneities Thrust fault setting Omai (3.

4% Cu .1 g/t Au. 0.Pembrook Mining Corp.Regional Domal Features Telfer Dome: 1 Bt @ 1. Structural Santa Control Helena .

Pembrook Mining Corp. Cumuru (0. more competent and rigid lithologies) • Sadiola (+10 Moz Au).5 Moz Au). Rigid Structures Santa Helena Pressure Shadows • Structurally-controlled zones of dilation in “pressure shadow” settings adjacent ridge bodies (passive intrusions. Subika & Omai? .

manganiferous units) boundaries (Sierra Pelada Au-Pd-Pt) • Fault zone splays in carbonate-saprolite and an intrusive-buttress (?) Sadiola (+11 Moz Au) Sadiola . Stratigraphy Rheological Santa Helena – Contrasts Reactivity Contrasts Serra Pelada • Structurally-controlled in faults and fold closures.Pembrook Mining Corp. with precious minerals at redox (carbonates.

Suriname (+4 Moz).Pembrook Mining Corp. Essakane (+3.Rheological Contrasts Contrasts (& Fault) • Fault propagation along fold axial plane and bedding parallel planes of weakness • Lithological heterogeneity • Zones of dilation. Stratigraphy Rheological Santa Helena .1 Moz) . extension & pressure shadows • Maraba.

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Mode of Formation .

.Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Mode of Formation • Deposits are related to metamorphic fluids from accretionary processes and generated by prograde metamorphism and thermal re-equilibration of subducted volcano-sedimentary terranes • The deep-seated.notably gold .from the volcanosedimentary packages. the fluid has dissolved various components . including a potential gold-rich precursor. pH and other physico-chemical variations. •The fluid then precipitated as vein material or wall-rock replacement in second and third order structures at higher crustal levels through fluid-pressure cycling processes and temperature. Au-transporting metamorphic fluid has been channelled to higher crustal levels through major crustal faults or deformation zones • Along its pathway.

Subjacent to major. Reactivation of earlier structures especially thrusts by strike-slip movement. Complex lithostratigraphy with competency contrasts 2. either late in the orogenic cycle or as a later overprinting event . Lamprophyre and porphyry dikes 6. Greenschist to greenschist-amphibolite transition facies metamorphism 4. Isolation of competent units within incompetent units 3. Anticlines and domal structures 8.Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Favorable Regional & District Targeting Criteria 1. Flexures (dilational jogs) in major structural trends 9. Fe-rich host-rocks and-or early magnetite alteration 7. crustal-scale structure 5.

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Favorable Regional & District Targeting Criteria .

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Favorable Orogenic Gold Terranes .

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Latin American Orogenic Provinces • • • • Las Cristinas-Las Brisas (20 Moz Au) Rosebel-Nassau Trend (20 Moz Au) Aurora-Omai Trend (10 Moz Au) Pataz District (+6 Moz Au) • • • Santa Helena (+5 Moz Au) Crixas (+3 Moz Au) Morro Velho (+ 15 Moz Au) .

Orogenic Gold Deposits PEMBROOK RESOURCES Guyana Shield .

Santa Helena Orogenic Gold Deposits Eastern Andean Cordillera • Late Paleozoic orogenic sediment-hosted gold belt in the Central Andes of South America • Extends for over 3. from Northern Peru through Bolivia to Central Argentina • Several historical and recent +1 Moz discoveries within the established mineral districts • Orogenic belt is the source for the large auriferous placer deposits – Remi.500 km x 80 km. Madre de Dios & Maranon Basins • Structurally-controlled gold deposits hosted in Ordovician to Carboniferous granites and Early Paleozoic turbiditic sequences • Potential for large-scale (+1 Moz Au) vein and disseminated gold deposits .Pembrook Mining Corp.

Pembrook Mining Corp. Santa Helena Orogenic Gold Deposits Eastern Andean Cordillera .

Santa Helena Orogenic Gold Deposits Eastern Andean Cordillera • Active back-arc rift-basin formed as a rift-basin between the Brazilian Shield and the Arequipa Massif during the Early Paleozoic. Antana. Alumbrera. Miocene stocks in south-central Peru . Post-orogenic Permo-Triassic.Pembrook Mining Corp. Huachon & Amapares intrusions) • Unexplored potential for intrusion-related mineralization during the Permo-Triassic and Miocene (San Rafael. Late Triassic plutons. infilled by turbiditic sedimentation until the Late Devonian • Orogenic gold mineralization related to Late Devonian “Eoherciniana” compression (Early Devonian in Central Argentina) and Late Carboniferous (Pataz. Agua Rica) • Four distinct magmatic events – Subduction-related Carboniferous granitoids in north-central Peru.

Santa Helena Orogenic Gold Deposits Mineral Occurrences in Carboniferous Granitoids .Pembrook Mining Corp.

04g/t Au for 3. . slates. .Host unit is the San Jose Group. .Granitic dikes spatially coincident with mineralization.5Mt @ 2.Au with quartz + sulfides (py+pyrh+asp+gn+cp). shears and thrusts . . . mudstones.Sequence tightly folded with NW-trending axial planes and thrusts. . SANTA HELENA CAPAC ORCO Inventory 48. .Mineralization within sequence of Ordovician sedimentary rocks.Occurs as series of mantos.Pembrook Mining Corp. .Four mantos over a 500m vertical range.Control – fold noses.10M ounces . also free Au.Can be traced for up to 1400m with average thickness of 10m. fine quartzites.

08g/t Associated with Fe-filled fractures Au 1. SANTA HELENA Au 8.61g/t Au with quartz vein .9g/t Au with Fe-filled fractures Au 1.Pembrook Mining Corp.16g/t Au with quartz veinlets Au 1.66g/t Au with Fe-filled breccia Au 15.

90g/t Au . 9 holes drilled 2008.Pembrook Mining Corp. .Previous drilling by junior explorer in 1998: 129m @ 0. . .04g/t Au 71m @ 0.Mineralization related to sheeted quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets.46g/t Au 44m @ 0. SANTA HELENA – OLLACHEA EMERGING GOLD DISTRICT OLLACHEA Potential ? . .Mineralization associated with pyrrhotite (magnetitic).56g/t Au 74m @ 1.Area of extensive informal mining since colonial times. Community agreements in place.MIRL work. Metallurgical test program in 2009.74g/t Au 51m @ 0.

30g/t from 88-162m DDH08-03 DDH08-02 DDH08-22 DDH08-04 DDH08-01 DDH08-05 DDH08-23 All data from MIRL wesite 126m @ 2.02 102m @ 1.00 Drill hole Assay results Gold g/t Samples 1m intervals (note: intervals with <0. SANTA HELENA – OLLACHEA (MIRL) EMERGING GOLD DISTRICT DDH-08-04 113m @2.83 70m @ 2.30 122m @ 2.Pembrook Mining Corp.2 g/t not noted) .95 94m @ 3.

Mineralized zone with 3km of strike and thickness from 25-95m Gold Zone 30-90 meters thick Best surface geochemistry 100m @ 1. SANTA HELENA – AYAPATA EMERGING GOLD DISTRICT .Pembrook Mining Corp.Stratabound sheeted zone veins/veinlets of qtz-ser-py-aspy .Gold zone within siltstone immediately beneath graphitic shale .1g/t Au AYAPATA Potential +1M ounces 0 100 m .3g/t Au Best drill intercept 110m @ 1.Folded and sheared clastic sediments .

10 1.93 3.35 0.48 0.60 0.09 0.02 0.01 0.27 0.91 0.24 0.01 0.59 0.47 0.02 0.45 1.14 0.34 0.01 0.31 g/t Trench A 127m @ 1.72 0.13 0.62 0.866 g/t .21 0.02 0.96 0.79 0.56 g/t C 3.13 0.60 g/t 380500 381000 381500 DRILL RESULTS (1997) APD-1 7m @ 2.42 0.168 g/t 0.46 0.37 0.04 50m @ 0.10 0.33 0.60 g/t 9.2 Proposed drill holes B Trench C 95m @ 0.03 1.10 0.35g/t from 73-83m APD-4 33m @ 1.02 0.20 1.6 Trench F 127m @ 1. SANTA HELENA – AYAPATA EMERGING GOLD DISTRICT Black graphitic shale 8488000 Mineralized zone Trench Trench Trench Trench Trench C D E F G 0.6m @ 32.31 0.61 0.06 0.82 1.07 0.02 0.05 4.28 g/t 100m @ 0.17 0.44 0.26 g/t 382000 382500 383000 40m @ 0.14 5.40 g/t 8487000 A D 8487000 Trench D 40m @ 0.02 100m @ 0.18 0.03 0.40 0.22 0.01 1.34 0.310 g/t 0.39 0.15 0.02 0.56 g/t 70m @ 1.04 5.98g/t from 42-49m APD-2 1.25 0.03 1.04 0.6m APD-2A 16m @ 0.28 g/t 5.85g/t from 61-94m APD-5 69m @ 1.02 0.09 1.10 0.04 0.22 0.31 0.05 1.18 0.25 0.24 0.56 0.86g/t from 71-140m 95m @ 0.45 1.99g/t from 107-123m APD-3 10m @ 1.06 0.46 2.04 0.39 0.01 1.02 8.60 g/t F G Trench G 70m @ 1.27 2.96 1.34 7.22 0.05 0.29 0.03 0.08 Trench B 45m @ 3.05 0.02 0.02 0.10 0.4 Trench E 65m @ 1.Pembrook Mining Corp.03 2.80g/t from 102-103.02 0.95 6.94 0.04 0.26 g/t 65m @ 1.03 0.04 1.57 1.39 0.

BULK MINEABLE LOW GRADE . RICH.Milky quartz with iron oxide. high-grade (15-150g/t Au) . Au-bearting quartz veins with associated colluvial and alluvial workings .Quartz-carbonate veins .“white clay” wall rock alteration???? .“Sheeted ladder” veins in fold closures EASTERN CORDILLERA OROGENIC GOLD DEPOSITS POTENTIAL FOR SMALL.High-grade gold (10-100g/t Au) . HIGH GRADE LARGE VOLUME. SANTA HELENA – HIGH GRADE EMERGING GOLD DISTRICT Penon de Oro Yanacocha .Small. free gold .Narrow (2-50cm).Pembrook Mining Corp.

Te. Gold mineralization 312my .Bi. Potential +10M oz Tertiary Volcanics Mesozoic Sandstone Limestone Sandstone (Mitu) Limestone Siltstone / Sandstone (Ambo) Pataz Batholith Slate Quarzite Sandstone Volcanics Phyllite Schist 9140000 ! ( ( Papagayo ! ( ! ( Consuelo ! ( ! ( ! Mississippian to Triassic Pataz San Francisco ( ! Mississippian Ordovician Cambrian . and on margin of batholith and in Ordovician phyllites Geochemical assemblage Au-Ag-As-Fe-Pb-Zn+Cu.Pembrook Mining Corp.Ordovician ( Ariabamba ! 9120000 Late Proterozoic Cambrian ( ! ( ! ! ( Culebrillas ( ! ( El Gigante ! ( ! 9100000 ( Buldibuyo ! 5 Kilometers 0 5 Estrella ! ( 200000 220000 240000 Orogenic Gold Belt – 160km long in Eastern Cordillera NW-trending. EASTERN CORDILLERAN PATAZ 240000 9160000 200000 220000 PRODUCED 6M Oz. 1-5km wide corridor associated with the Pataz Batholith (Miss) Quartz veins within.W Three distinct phases of vein filling (1) quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite-ankerite (2) quartz-galena-sph-ccpy-Sb sulfosalts-Electrum-Gold (3) calcite-dolomite-quartz Shoots average 7-15g/t Au and Ag to 120g/t Pataz Batholith 329my.Sb.

Pembrook Mining Corp. vegetation cover. magnetics-radiometrics • Presence of gold occurrences (Use of Imagery) • Drainage anomalies – Discriminate primary sources contra secondary sources . Santa Helena Orogenic Gold Deposits Exploration • Integrated and systematic exploration approach Regional & District Exploration • Challenges – topography. isolation • Discriminate prospective from non-prospective areas • Understanding the structure architecture and lithological sequences (the geology) – existing maps. satellite Imagery (topography. Landsat).

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