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Chapter 6
Research Design: An Overview

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Learning Objectives
Understand the major descriptors of research design Understand the major types of research designs Understand the relationships that exist between variables in causal designs and the steps for evaluating those relationships

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Research Design
Blueprint

Plan
Guide Framework

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Exhibit 6-1 Design in the Research Process

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Exhibit 6-2 Descriptors of Research Design


Category
The degree to which the research question has been crystallized The method of data collection The power of the researcher to produce effects in the variables under study The purpose of the study The time dimension The topical scopebreadth and depthof the study The research environment

Options
Exploratory study Formal study Monitoring Communication Study Experimental Ex post facto Descriptive Causal Cross-sectional Longitudinal Case Statistical study Field setting Laboratory research Simulation Actual routine Modified routine

The participants perceptions of the research activity

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The Degree of Structure


Exploratory Study Loose structure Expand understanding Provide insight Develop hypotheses Formal Study Precise procedures Begins with hypotheses Answers research questions

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The Topical Scope


Statistical Study Breadth Population inferences Quantitative Generalizable findings Case Study Depth Detail Qualitative Multiple sources of information

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Descriptive Studies

Who?

How much?

What?

When?

Where?

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Causal Studies
Experiment Ex Post Facto study Study involving the After-the-fact report manipulation or on what happened to control of one or more the measured variables to determine variable the effect on another variable

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Exhibit 6-3 Mills Method of Agreement

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Exhibit 6-4 Mills Method of Difference

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Methods of Data Collection


Monitoring Communication

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The Time Dimension

Cross-sectional

Longitudinal

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The Research Environment


Field conditions Lab conditions

Simulations

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Participants Perceptions
No deviation perceived Deviations perceived as unrelated Deviations perceived as researcher-induced

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Approaches for Exploratory Investigations


Interviewing Participant observation Film, photographs Projective techniques Psychological testing Case studies Street ethnography Elite or expert interviewing Document analysis Proxemics and Kinesics

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Desired outcomes of Exploratory Studies_1


Established range and scope of possible management decisions

Established major dimensions of research task Defined a set of subsidiary questions that can guide research design

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Desired outcomes of Exploratory Studies_2


Developed hypotheses about possible causes of management dilemma

Learned which hypotheses can be safely ignored Concluded additional research is not needed or not feasible

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Common Exploratory Techniques for Research


Secondary Data Analysis

Experience Surveys

Focus Groups

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Delve emphasizes that face-to-face interaction is still one of the best ways to learn about consumers

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Experience Surveys
What is being done? What has been tried in the past with or without success? How have things changed? Who is involved in the decisions? What problem areas can be seen? Whom can we count on to assist or participate in the research?

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Focus Groups
Group discussion 6-10 participants Moderator-led 90 minutes-2 hours

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Descriptive Studies
Descriptions of population characteristics
Estimates of frequency of characteristics Discovery of associations among variables

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Causal Studies

Symmetrical Reciprocal

Asymmetrical

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Exhibit 8-3 Asymmetrical Casual Relationships

Stimulus-Response

PropertyBehavior

PropertyDisposition

Disposition-Behavior

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Exhibit 6-6 Types of Asymmetrical Causal Relationships


Relationship Type
Stimulus-response

Nature of Relationship
An event or change results in a response from some object.

Examples
A change in work rules leads to a higher level of worker output. A change in government economic policy restricts corporate financial decisions. A price increase results in fewer unit sales. Age and attitudes about saving. Gender attitudes toward social issues. Social class and opinions about taxation. Opinions about a brand and its purchase. Job satisfaction and work output. Moral values and tax cheating. Stage of the family life cycle and purchases of furniture. Social class and family savings patterns. Age and sports participation.

Property-disposition

An existing property causes a disposition. A disposition causes a specific behavior. An existing property causes a specific behavior.

Disposition-behavior

Property-behavior

Definitions: A stimulus is an event or force (e.g., drop in temperature, crash of stock market, product recall, or explosion in factory). A response is a decision or reaction. A property is an enduring characteristic of a subject that does not depend on circumstances for its activation (e.g., age, gender, family status, religious affiliation, ethnic group, or physical condition). A disposition is a tendency to respond in a certain way under certain circumstances (e.g., attitudes, opinions, habits, values, and drives). A behavior is an action (e.g., consumption habits, work performance, interpersonal acts, and other kinds of performance).

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Evidence of Causality
Covariation between A and B

Time order of events

No other possible causes of B

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Causation and Experimental Design

Control/ Matching

Random Assignment

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Ex Post Facto Design

Club Member Age


Under 30 years

Nonclub Member High Absentee


30

High Absentee
36

Low Absentee
6

Low Absentee
48

30 to 45
45 and over

Substitute BRM 4 Exhibit 6-8


0

4
0

35
5

117
115

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Key Terms
Asymmetrical relationship Case study Causal study Causation Childrens panels Communication study Control Control group Correlation Cross-sectional study Descriptive study Ethnographic research Ex post facto design Experience Experiment Exploratory study Field conditions Focus group Formal study Individual depth interview Intranet

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Key Terms (cont.)


Laboratory conditions Longitudinal study Matching Monitoring Primary data Qualitative techniques Random assignment Reciprocal relationship Research design Secondary data Simulation Statistical study Symmetrical relationship