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# Lecture 14 - Design

## October 18, 2001

CVEN 444
Lecture Goals
Slab design reinforcement
Bar Development
Hook development

Flexural Reinforcement in Slabs
For a 1 ft strip of slab is designed like a beam
A
s(reqd)
is in units of (in
2
/ft)
(

=
inches in spacing bar
in 12
ft /
b s
A A
The table is A-9 from
MacGregors book.
Flexural Reinforcement in Slabs
The minimum spacing of the bars is given as:
Also, check crack control - important for exterior
exposure (large cover dimensions) - ACI Sec. 10.6.4
( )
( )

## = 7.6.5 Sec. ACI

in. 18
thickness slab 3t
of smaller
max
S
Flexural Reinforcement in Slabs
Thin slabs shrink more rapidly than deeper beams.

Temperature & shrinkage (T&S) steel is provided
perpendicular to restrain cracks parallel to span.
(Flexural steel restrains cracks perpendicular to
span)
Maximum & Minimum reinforcement requirements
Flexural Reinforcement in Slabs
Maximum & Minimum reinforcement requirements
T&S Reinforcement (perpendicular to span) ACI Sec 7.12
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) t
f t
f
f t
f t A
* " 12 * 0.0014
ksi 60 * " 12 *
60
* 0018 . 0
ksi 60 * " 12 * 0018 . 0
ksi 50 or 40 * " 12 * 0020 . 0
y
y
y
y min s
>
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
= =
Flexural Reinforcement in Slabs
T&S Reinforcement (perpendicular to span) ACI Sec 7.12
Flexural Reinforcement (parallel to span) ACI Sec 10.54
S
max
from reinforced spacing

=
18"
5t
of smaller
max
S
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) bal s max s
& min s min s
75 . 0 A A
A A
S T
=
=
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
A. Concept of Bond Stress and Rebar Anchorage
Internal Forces in a beam
Forces in Rebar
Bond stresses provide mechanism
of force transfer between concrete
and reinforcement.
Forces developed in the beam
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
Equilibrium Condition for Rebar
= bond stress
(coefficient of
friction)
Note: Bond stress is zero at cracks

t
t
4
.
0
4
.
0 Force Bond . 0 F
b y
d
b b y
2
b
d f
l
l d f
d
T
=
=
= =

( ) bar
c
| f k
f k
=
~
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
Sources of Bond Transfer
(1) Adhesion between concrete & reinforcement.
(2) Friction
Note: These properties are quickly lost for tension.
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
Sources of Bond Transfer
(3)Mechanical Interlock.
The edge stress concentration
causes cracking to occur.
Force interaction between the
steel and concrete.
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
Splitting cracks result in loss of bond transfer.
Reinforcement can be used to restrain these cracks.
Splitting Load is Affected by:
Minimum edge distance and spacing of bars
(smaller distance= smaller load)
Tensile strength of concrete.
Average bond stress along bar.(Increase in bond
stress larger wedging forces)
1.

2.
3.
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
Typical Splitting Failure
Surfaces.
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
General splitting of
concrete along the
bars,either in vertical
planes as in figure (a) or
in horizontal plane as in
figure (b). Such splitting
comes largely from
wedging action when the
ribs of the deformed bar
bear against the concrete.
The horizontal type of splitting frequently begins at a diagonal crack.
The dowel action increases the tendency toward splitting. This
indicates that shear and bond failure are often intricately interrelated.
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
ACI Code expression for development length for
bars in tension/in compression.
B.
Development Length, l
d

Shortest length of bar in which the
bar stress can increase from zero to
the yield strength, f
y
.
( l
d
used since bond stresses, ,
vary along a bar in a tension zone)
Development Length for Bars in Tension
Development length, l
d
12 ACI 12.2.1
f
c
10000 psi for Ch. 12 provisions for development length in ACI Codes.
Development length, l
d
(simplified expression from ACI
12.2.2)
Clear spacing of bars being developed or
spliced not less than d
b
, clear cover not less
than d
b
, and stirrups or ties throughout ld not
less than the code minimum
or
Clear spacing of bars being
developed or spliced not less than 2d
b
and
clear cover not less than d
b
.
Other cases
No. 6 and smaller No. 7 and larger
bars and deformed bars
wires
>
s
c
y
b
d
25 f
f
d
l
o|
=
c
y
b
d
20 f
f
d
l
o|
=
c
y
b
d
50
3
f
f
d
l
o|
=
c
y
b
d
40
3
f
f
d
l
o|
=
Development Length for Bars in Tension
Development length, l
d
ACI 12.2.3
2.5 limit to safeguard against pullout type failure.
5 . 2 in which

40
3
b
ct
b
ct c
y
b
d
<
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
d
K c
d
K c f
f
d
l o|
Factors used in expressions for
Development Length (ACI 12.2.4)
o = reinforcement location factor
Horizontal reinforcement so placed that more than 12 in of fresh concrete
is cast in the member below the development length or splice
Other reinforcement
| = coating factor (epoxy prevents adhesion &
friction between bar and concrete.)
Epoxy-coated bars or wires with cover less than 3d
b
or clear spacing less
than 6d
b

All other epoxy-coated bars or wires
Uncoated reinforcement
1.3
1.0
1.5
1.2
1.0
where o| < 1.7
Factors used in expressions for
Development Length (ACI 12.2.4)
= reinforcement size factor (Reflects more favorable
performance of smaller | bars)
No.6 and smaller bars and deformed wire
No. 7 and larger bars
= lightweight aggregate concrete factor (Reflects lower
tensile strength of lightweight concrete, & resulting
reduction in splitting resistance.
When lightweight aggregate concrete is used.
However, when f
ct
is specified, shall be permitted to be taken as
but not less than
When normal weight concrete is used
0.8
1.0
1.3
1.0
1.0
ct c
7 . 6 f f
Factors used in expressions for
Development Length (ACI 12.2.4)
c = spacing or cover dimension, in.
Use the smaller of either
(a) the distance from the center of the bar or wire to
the nearest concrete surface.
or
(b) one-half the center-to-center spacing of the bar or
wires being developed.
Factors used in expressions for
Development Length (ACI 12.2.4)
K
ct
= transverse reinforcement index (Represents the contribution
of confining reinforcement across potential splitting planes.)
Total cross-section area of all transverse reinforcement within the spacing s,
which crosses the potential plane of splitting along the reinforcement being
developed with in the development length, in
2
.
Specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement, psi.
maximum center-to-center spacing of transverse reinforcement within l
d
in.
number of bars or wires being developed along the plane of splitting.
A
tr
=
f
yt
=
s =
n =
Note: It is permitted to use K
ct
=0 as a design simplification
even if transverse reinforcement is present.
n s
f A
K
* * 1500
yt tr
tr
=
Excess Flexural Reinforcement
Reduction (ACI 12.2.5)
Reduction = (A
s
reqd ) / (A
s
provided )
- Except as required for seismic design (see ACI 21.2.14)
- Good practice to ignore this provision, since use of
structure may change over time.
- final l
d
12 in.
( )
( ) ( ) provided n
u
provided n
d req' n
Reduction
M
M
M
M
|
= =
>
Development Length for Bars in
Compression (ACI 12.3)
Compression development length l
dc
= l
dbc
* applicable
reduction factors 8 in.
Basic Development Length for Compression, l
dbc

>

=
y b
c
y b
dbc
0003 . 0
0.02
of larger
f d
f
f d
l
Development Length for Bars in
Compression (ACI 12.3)
Reduction Factors (ACI 12.3.3)
- Excessive Reinforcement Factor = (A
s
reqd)/(A
s
provided)
- Spiral and Ties
If reinforcement is enclosed with spiral
reinforcement 0.25 in. diameter and 4 in. pitch or
within No. 4 ties according to 7.10.5 and spaced 4 in.
on center. Factor = 0.75
Note l
dc
< l
d
(typically) because
- Beneficial of end bearing is considered
- weakening effect of flexural tension cracks is not
present for bars in compression.
> s
s
Hooked Bar at Discontinuous
Ends (ACI 12.5.4)
If side cover and top (or bottom cover) 2.5 in.
Enclose hooked bar w/ ties or stirrup-ties:
s
Spacing 3d
b

d
b
=| of hooked bar
s
Note: Multiplier for ties or
stirrups (ACI 12.5.3.3)
is not applicable for
this case.
Hooked Bar at Discontinuous
Ends (ACI 12.5.4)
Table A-11, A-12, A-13 (Back of textbook) - Basic
Development lengths
Others Mechanical Anchorage ACI (12.6)
Welded Wire Fabric ACI (12.7)
Bundled Bars ACI (12.4)
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
C. Use of Standard Hooks for Tension Anchorage
Hooks provide additional anchorage when
there is insufficient length available to
develop a bar.
Note: Hooks are not allowed to developed
compression reinforcement.
Reinforcement Development Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Continuity Requirements
C. Use of Standard Hooks for Tension Anchorage
Standard Hooks are
defined in ACI 7.1.
Hooks resists tension by
bond stresses on bar
surface and bearing on on
concrete inside the hook.
Design of Standard Hooks for
Tension Anchorage (ACI 12.5)
Development Length for Hooked Bar, l
db
.
. in 6 and 8 where s multiplier *
db b db hd dh
> > = l d l l l
Basic Development Length for Hooked Bar = l
hb

when f
y
= 60,000 psi
c
b
hd
1200
f
d
l =
Design of Standard Hooks for
Tension Anchorage (ACI 12.5)
Conditions
Bar Yield Strength
Bars with f
y
other than 60,000 psi
Concrete Cover for 180 Degree Hooks
For No. 11 bars and smaller.
Side cover (normal to plane of hook) 2.5 in.
Concrete Cover for 90 Degree Hooks
For No. 11 bars and smaller.
Side cover (normal to plane of hook) 2.5 in.
Cover on bar extension beyond hook tail 2 in.
Multiplier
f
y
/60,000

0.7

0.7
>
>
>
Design of Standard Hooks for
Tension Anchorage (ACI 12.5)
Conditions
Excessive Reinforcement
Where anchorage or development for fy is not
specified required.
Lightweight Aggregate Concrete
Ties or Stirrups
For No. 11 bar and smaller.
Hook enclosed vertically or horizontally within ties
or stirrup-ties spaced along full l
dh
no farther apart
than 3d
b
, where d
b
is diameter of hooked bar.
Multiplier
A
s
(reqd) /
A
s
(provided)

1.3

0.8
Design of Standard Hooks for
Tension Anchorage (ACI 12.5)
Conditions
Epoxy-coated Reinforcement
Hooked bars with epoxy coating
Multiplier

1.2
Example
Determine the
anchorage of 4 #8 top
bars in column. The
transverse steel is 4#11.
f
y
= 60000 psi
f
c
= 3000 psi