7

GLOBAL ISSUES

Global refe •r s t o : International Context of

engineering • Social & Environmental Dimensions of Engineer’s Work • Engineers need to consider these •2 aspects while making

• •

What do we discuss under Global Issues ?

1 2 Ethics

Multinational Environmental

Corporations • • 3

Computer Ethics

• 1)

Multinational

Corporations (MNCs)

• Corporates business the Globe

that

have in

interests

many countries across • Issues related to MNCs

•M N C s do business across Globes • probably because of 3. Inexpensive Labour 4. Availability of Abundant & Cheap Natural Resources 5. Favourable Tax

Host Country antages

Adv

• Creation of Most Jobs • Social Benefits from Wealth Sharing • Higher Living Standard • Overall Prosperity • Access to Latest Technology • Probably Better /Refined

However , the ultimate question to is : be answered the moral of a the

What

are

responsibilities operating in

Corporations & Individuals Foreign

RELATIVI SM ( C ntext • Moral o Judgementu a l is m is made
w.r.t factors that vary from case to case • That is,moral judgement are contextual • Particularly , Laws & Customs

MORAL

ETHICAL RELA • It saysTthat Iactions are IV SM
morally right within a particular society when they are approved by Law, Custom or other

OF IMPORT • ANCE •fA) rStandard O P E R Aguide to o MNC TIO

4 AREAS
Engineers

‘conduct

when

working in a Foreign Country • B) International Rights • C) Promotion of Morally Just Measures • D) Technology Transfer &

•A) S T A N D A R D

TO GUIDE EN •G I N E E R S C Orules Cof Follow the N D U T

the country in which you work • When in Rome do as Romans do ( Ethical

INTERNATIO NAL •ThomasRDonaldson’s list of IGHTS
International Rights : • Right to • Freedom of Physical Movement • Ownership of Property • Freedom from Torture

B)

• • • • • •

Non discriminatory Treatment A Physical Security Freedom of Speech & Association Minimal Education Political Participation Subsistence

C) P R O M O T I N G M O R A L LY JUST ME • Overall A S U R E S dealings business must promote morally just institutions in the society • Help the overall economy to improve and not benefit the corrupt few • Contextual approach needed

D) T E C H N O L O G Y T R A N SFER & AP PR c h I o l o Hr OL y • T eO P Rn A T E g T E C T N a n

sfer • The process of moving technology to a new setting & implementing there • Transfer of technology

A P PR O P R I A T E T E C H N • Refers to identification , transfer OLOGY
& implementation of the most suitable technology for a new set of conditions Appropriateness may scrutinized in terms of be

Ø Scale , Technical & Managerial Skill Ø Ø Materials & Energy Physical Environment /

Appropriate also and implies not

technology that the from

technology should contribute distract sustainable development of

the Host country • Conditions include Social

2)

ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS Engineers are responsible for
environment are thus created

creation of technology that lead to damage of the • Engineers

responsible for working to find solutions to problems and can potentially be created

•We share a environment , OSPHERE” • • Goal is to

common “EC

Control Introduction Toxic & Unnatural Substances Protect Biosphere

of

ANTHROPOCENTRIC & • ECOCENTRIC ETHICS

• Anthropocentric • Only Human Beings have moral standing. Animal & plants are important only in respect of their usefulness to humans Ecocentric • Talks wholesome • A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity , stabailityand beauty of Biotic

• The

human have an

centered views to shifted

or of a

Anthropocentric nature from

away

exploitative

conservationist attitude • Recognition of the limits of

A P PR O A C H E S for R E S OLVINGENVIRONMEN • C o sT A L b Pi R io u s E M p r o a t O l v O B L Ap S
ch • Cost not taken into account. Only the acceptable level of environmental degradation is criterion • Cost B e n e f it Approach A n a l y s is

HOW

E N G I N E ER S DEAL WITH ENVIRO PROB EMS? Making Ldecisions thro‘

both •

Professional

&

Personal Ethics By following applicable Federal, State &

Following Professional Code that tells us that “Safety of Human & Environment is of Paramount Importance” Not making decisions in areas in which he is not competent

• When choosing a career , Engineers should ask what extent does a • To particular industry affect the environment? • To what extent can those effects be controlled physically or regulated politically ? • Have all reasonable abatement measures been implemented ?

3)

benefits to society and unfortunately can also be misused grossly leading to serious Ethical issues • Engineers’ roles as Designer, Manager and User bring with them

COMPUTER E Computers I C S T H provide many

BROAD CATEG • 1 Computer an O R I E S is
instrument • 2 • 3 ( for unethical act ( defrauding a Bank ) is the object of Act Autonomous computer to Nature take (software stolen)

3

• • • • • • •

employees at work Stealing by non- employees or former employees Cheating Clients/ Customers Using Computer network for Widespread fraud Hacking Virus Injection Alteration of Database

CASES OF COMPUTER Stealing ABUSE or Cheating by

•Weapons seen •Rights weapons •There

4) WEAPONS DEVELOPMENT
Development the ( in of context & -

by of as

Engineers only ) needs to be Engineering Ethics are is an

Engineers meant

for

destruction only – Engineering

E N G I N E ER S ’ I N V O L VEMENT • ‘A’ is a Chemical Engineer
•‘B’ s employer manufactures antipersonnel Bombs • ‘C’ is specialised Control & Guidance in Missile

• ‘D’s foremost love is Physical Electronics •‘E’ is an Electronic Engineer – Avionics for Fighter Plane

•Engineering becoming within •This

SUMMARY
is a Social across and requires

increasingly Experiment national to

that pervades all aspects of life boundaries Engineers achieve wider perspective on their

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