Global refe •r s t o : International Context of

engineering • Social & Environmental Dimensions of Engineer’s Work • Engineers need to consider these •2 aspects while making

• •

What do we discuss under Global Issues ?

1 2 Ethics

Multinational Environmental

Corporations • • 3

Computer Ethics

• 1)


Corporations (MNCs)

• Corporates business the Globe


have in


many countries across • Issues related to MNCs

•M N C s do business across Globes • probably because of 3. Inexpensive Labour 4. Availability of Abundant & Cheap Natural Resources 5. Favourable Tax

Host Country antages


• Creation of Most Jobs • Social Benefits from Wealth Sharing • Higher Living Standard • Overall Prosperity • Access to Latest Technology • Probably Better /Refined

However , the ultimate question to is : be answered the moral of a the



responsibilities operating in

Corporations & Individuals Foreign

RELATIVI SM ( C ntext • Moral o Judgementu a l is m is made
w.r.t factors that vary from case to case • That is,moral judgement are contextual • Particularly , Laws & Customs


ETHICAL RELA • It saysTthat Iactions are IV SM
morally right within a particular society when they are approved by Law, Custom or other

OF IMPORT • ANCE •fA) rStandard O P E R Aguide to o MNC TIO




working in a Foreign Country • B) International Rights • C) Promotion of Morally Just Measures • D) Technology Transfer &

•A) S T A N D A R D

TO GUIDE EN •G I N E E R S C Orules Cof Follow the N D U T

the country in which you work • When in Rome do as Romans do ( Ethical

INTERNATIO NAL •ThomasRDonaldson’s list of IGHTS
International Rights : • Right to • Freedom of Physical Movement • Ownership of Property • Freedom from Torture


• • • • • •

Non discriminatory Treatment A Physical Security Freedom of Speech & Association Minimal Education Political Participation Subsistence

C) P R O M O T I N G M O R A L LY JUST ME • Overall A S U R E S dealings business must promote morally just institutions in the society • Help the overall economy to improve and not benefit the corrupt few • Contextual approach needed

D) T E C H N O L O G Y T R A N SFER & AP PR c h I o l o Hr OL y • T eO P Rn A T E g T E C T N a n

sfer • The process of moving technology to a new setting & implementing there • Transfer of technology

A P PR O P R I A T E T E C H N • Refers to identification , transfer OLOGY
& implementation of the most suitable technology for a new set of conditions Appropriateness may scrutinized in terms of be

Ø Scale , Technical & Managerial Skill Ø Ø Materials & Energy Physical Environment /

Appropriate also and implies not

technology that the from

technology should contribute distract sustainable development of

the Host country • Conditions include Social


ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS Engineers are responsible for
environment are thus created

creation of technology that lead to damage of the • Engineers

responsible for working to find solutions to problems and can potentially be created

•We share a environment , OSPHERE” • • Goal is to

common “EC

Control Introduction Toxic & Unnatural Substances Protect Biosphere



• Anthropocentric • Only Human Beings have moral standing. Animal & plants are important only in respect of their usefulness to humans Ecocentric • Talks wholesome • A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity , stabailityand beauty of Biotic

• The

human have an

centered views to shifted

or of a

Anthropocentric nature from



conservationist attitude • Recognition of the limits of

A P PR O A C H E S for R E S OLVINGENVIRONMEN • C o sT A L b Pi R io u s E M p r o a t O l v O B L Ap S
ch • Cost not taken into account. Only the acceptable level of environmental degradation is criterion • Cost B e n e f it Approach A n a l y s is


E N G I N E ER S DEAL WITH ENVIRO PROB EMS? Making Ldecisions thro‘

both •



Personal Ethics By following applicable Federal, State &

Following Professional Code that tells us that “Safety of Human & Environment is of Paramount Importance” Not making decisions in areas in which he is not competent

• When choosing a career , Engineers should ask what extent does a • To particular industry affect the environment? • To what extent can those effects be controlled physically or regulated politically ? • Have all reasonable abatement measures been implemented ?


benefits to society and unfortunately can also be misused grossly leading to serious Ethical issues • Engineers’ roles as Designer, Manager and User bring with them

COMPUTER E Computers I C S T H provide many

BROAD CATEG • 1 Computer an O R I E S is
instrument • 2 • 3 ( for unethical act ( defrauding a Bank ) is the object of Act Autonomous computer to Nature take (software stolen)


• • • • • • •

employees at work Stealing by non- employees or former employees Cheating Clients/ Customers Using Computer network for Widespread fraud Hacking Virus Injection Alteration of Database

CASES OF COMPUTER Stealing ABUSE or Cheating by

•Weapons seen •Rights weapons •There

Development the ( in of context & -

by of as

Engineers only ) needs to be Engineering Ethics are is an

Engineers meant


destruction only – Engineering

E N G I N E ER S ’ I N V O L VEMENT • ‘A’ is a Chemical Engineer
•‘B’ s employer manufactures antipersonnel Bombs • ‘C’ is specialised Control & Guidance in Missile

• ‘D’s foremost love is Physical Electronics •‘E’ is an Electronic Engineer – Avionics for Fighter Plane

•Engineering becoming within •This

is a Social across and requires

increasingly Experiment national to

that pervades all aspects of life boundaries Engineers achieve wider perspective on their

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