isomorphism,euler and hamilton graphs,basic operators in graphs

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isomorphism,euler and hamilton graphs,basic operators in graphs

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Nitin Upadhyay

February 27, 2006

Bits-Pilani Goa campus

Discussion

What is a Graph?

Applications of Graphs

Categorization

Terminology

Special Graph Structures

Complete graphs K

n

Cycles Cn

Wheels Wn

n-Cubes Qn

Bipartite graphs

Complete bipartite graphs Km,n

Graph Representations

Adjacency-matrix representation

Incidence matrix representation

Edge-set representation

Adjacency-set representation

Adjacency List

Graph Isomorphism

Formal definition:

Simple graphs G1=(V1, E1) and G2=(V2, E2) are

isomorphic if there is a function f:V1→V2 such that

f is one-to-one .

f is onto, and

∀ a,b∈V1, a and b are adjacent in G1 iff f(a) and

f(b) are adjacent in G2.

f is the “renaming” function that makes the two

graphs identical.

Graph Invariants under

Isomorphism

Necessary but not sufficient conditions for

G1=(V1, E1) to be isomorphic to G2=(V2, E2):

|V1|=|V2|, |E1|=|E2|.

The number of vertices with degree n is the same

in both graphs.

For every proper subgraph g of one graph, there

is a proper subgraph of the other graph that is

isomorphic to g.

Isomorphism Example

isomorphism, else identify difference.

b d * Same # of

vertices

a b a* Same # of

d c

edges

e•Same # of

e c f degrees for

f all vertices

Hence, they are isomorphic!

Are These Isomorphic?

isomorphism, else identify difference.

* Same # of

a vertices

b

* Same # of

edges

* Different

d

# of verts of

c e degree 2!

Hence, they are NOT isomorphic! (1 vs 3)

Subgraphs

H=(W, F) where W⊆V and F⊆E.

G H

Spanning Subgraph

spanning subgraph of G iff:

W(H)=V(G)

F(H) ⊆ E(G)

G H

Connectivity

from u to v is a sequence of n adjacent edges

going from vertex u (=x0) to vertex v (=xn).

A path is a circuit if u=v and n > 0.

A path pass through the vertices x1, x2,.., xn-1,

or traverses the edges e1, e2, …, en.

A path is simple if it does not contain the

same edge more than once.

Path Example

a, d, c, f, e is a simple

path of length 4.

a b c d, e, c, a is not a path

since {e, c} is not an edge.

b, c, f, e, b is a circuit of

length 4 since this path

begins and ends at b.

Path a, b, e, d, a, b is not

a simple path since it

contains the edge {a, b}

d e f twice.

Counting Paths and

Adjacency Matrices

is equal to (Ak)i,j. (The notation (M)i,j denotes

mi,j where [mi,j] = M.)

Counting Paths Example

8 0 0 8 aa bb

length 4 are there of paths ofA length

0 8 8 0

=

4

0 8 8 0

4 from a to d8is0 the

from a to d in the right 0 8

a b (1, 4)th entry of A4.

graph? cc

Since 8 0 0 8 dd

The adjacency matrix 0 8 8 0

of the graphcis A4 =

d 0 8 8 0

0 1 1 0 8 0 0 8

1 0 0 1 There are 8 paths of length

A =

1 0 0 1 4 from a to d.

0 1 1 0

Euler & Hamilton Paths

circuit containing every edge of G.

An Euler path in G is a simple path

containing every edge of G.

A Hamilton circuit is a circuit that traverses

each vertex in G exactly once.

A Hamilton path is a path that traverses each

vertex in G exactly once.

Some Useful Theorems

iff each vertex has even degree.

A connected multigraph has an Euler path

(but not an Euler circuit) iff it has exactly 2

vertices of odd degree.

If (but not only if) G is connected, simple, has

n≥3 vertices, and ∀v deg(v)≥n/2, then G has

a Hamilton circuit.s

Paths in Directed Graphs

must go in the direction of the arrows.

Graph Unions

G1=(V1, E1) and G2=(V2,E2) is the simple

graph (V1∪V2, E1∪E2).

Graph Union Example

shown below.

The vertex set of the union G1∪G2 is the union of the

two vertex sets, namely {a, b, c, d, e, f}. The edge

set of the union is the union of the two edge set.

a b c a b c a b c

d e d f d e f

G1 G2 G1 ∪ G2

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