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Immigration is the movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native in order to settle there. Immigration is a result of a number of factors, including economic and/or political reasons, family re-unification, natural disasters or the wish to change one's surroundings voluntarily.


Interna:moving to a new home within a state,country,or continent. External: Moving to a new home in a different state, country, or continent.

When a government forces a large group of people out of a region, usually based on ethnicity or religion.

Internal/ external Migration

Population Transfer

A series of shorter, less extreme migrations from a person's place of origin to final destination, such as moving from a farm, to a village, to a town, and finally to a city.

Step Migration

Seasonal Migration:

The process of moving for a period of time in response to labor or climate.


People move for a variety of reasons. They consider the advantages and disadvantages of staying versus moving, as well as factors such as distance, travel costs, travel time, modes of transportation, terrain, and cultural barriers.

Reasons for emigrating (leaving a place) because of a difficulty such as a food shortage, war, flood, etc.

Reasons for immigrating because of something desirable such as a nicer climate, better food supply, freedom, etc. Several types of push and pull factors may influence people in their movements (sometimes at the same time), including: 1. Environmental (climate, natural disasters) 2. Political (war) 3. Economic (work) 4. Cultural (religious freedom, education)


Human migration affects population patterns and characteristics, social and cultural patterns and processes, economies, and physical environments. As people move, their cultural traits and ideas diffuse along with them.

Diffusion The process through which certain characteristics (cultural traits, ideas, disease) spread over space and through time.

Cultural markers Expansion Relocation Structures or Diffusion Diffusion artifacts (buildings, Ideas, cultural Ideas, cultural spiritual places, traits, etc., that architectural styles, traits, etc. that move with people move with people signs, etc.) that from one place to reflect the cultures from one place to another but are not another and do not and histories of lost at the point of remain in the point those who origin, such as constructed or of origin. language. occupy them.


Morocco has become one of the most important emigration countries in the last few decades . The emigration flows from Morocco are considered to be highly diverse because the Moroccan migrants, who belong to various ethnic groups and socio-economic positions, are found in many different countries all over the world . The country has played an especially major role in labor migration to Europe over the past six decades . Consequently, Morocco provides a perfect example where the dynamism caused by international migration can be observed.


Early Migration

The Moroccan migration boom, started with the guest worker programs in the 1960s. Migration has a long tradition in the North African country: seasonal and circular migration patterns between some rural areas and towns in Western and Northern Morocco, as well as trans-Saharan caravan trade, have existed for centuries
Since the 1990s Moroccan migration has been characterized by the diversification of patterns and destinations. A first new characteristic was the increased appearance of family formation. After family reunification was to a large extent completed by the end of the 1980s, marrying a partner in Europe became the only legal way of migrating to the classic European destination countries for many Moroccans. Family formation thus became an important means of migration. A further new characterization can be seen in the diversification of destinations. Next to Spain and Italy, Canada and the United States have also seen an increasing number of (often highly skilled) Moroccan migrants coming to their territories.

New Characteristics of Moroccan Migration


while moroccan migration has changed in nature in recent years, there are also new developments to be observed in migration to and through morocco. since the mid- 1990s morocco has become a transit and a destination country for sub-saharan migrants. between the time of moroccan independence and the beginning of the 1990s, some students and highly-qualified migrants from sub-saharan countries came to morocco, but their numbers remained limited . this changed in the 1990s when an increasing number of migrants came to morocco, often with the intention to continue their journey to europe .


Historically, migration to the UAE has been driven by economic factors and to fulfill the economic demand of labor. Of the large number of jobs that were created, those towards the relatively lower end of the skill spectrum were sought by immigrants from several Asian countries. Today, migrant workers fill UAEs labor gaps, primarily in manufacturing, construction, services, and domestic work sectors. Number of immigrants According to the United Nations World Migration Report, the UAE has seen a sharp increase in international migration over the past two decades. In 1990, there were 1.33 million international migrants who comprised about 71% of the UAEs entire population. The following decade, in 2000, this figure increased to 2.286 million. In 2010, number of international migrants in the UAE increased to 3.293 million.


Main countries of origin of immigrants According to the estimates of the Word Bank, Indians comprise the vast majority of the immigrant population population in the UAE (66.4%), followed by Pakistanies and Sri Lankans (13.8% and 4.9% respectively), while migrants from Egypt comprise 4.3%. Emigration The UAE is a country of immigration rather than emigration. The UAE citizens go abroad for study or business and they usually return. In 2010, there were 55,900 UAE citizens abroad, accounting for 1.2% of the UAE population.6 Top destination countries for UAE citizens are India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Jordan, Germany, New Zealand, Bahrain, and France.

WEBOGRAPHY ns/09/g68/migrationguidestudent.pdf orocco.pdf the_Gulf.pdf ddle_East_and_Mediterranean.pdf