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Prepared and Presented by

Akram M. Megdad
Sr. Mech. Inspector

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

When Steel Structure Bolting has been designed, manufactured, installed and inspected according to Codes and specified Procedures, this will ensure structural integrity. But when any of these tasks fail to meet the job requirements, disaster could happen including the loss of human lives.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints


1981 two suspended walkways within the atrium of the Kansas City Hyatt Regency Hotel collapsed, resulting in the death of 114 people
The collapse was caused by failure of the connections between the hanger rods and the main-carrying box beams of the walkways.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints


In this presentation I will discuss the following topics. High Strength Steel Bolts

How Bolts Work


Bolt Failures Bolt Inspection Conclusion

Structural Steel Bolted Joints


Threaded fasteners are classified by shape, material and finish, which are specified by industry standards. In the United States, the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) sets the standards. In Europe, the International Standards Organization (ISO) sets the standards.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Steel structural bolts are heavy hexagon head bolts having a controlled thread length intended for use in steel structural connection assemblies such as:

Buildings Bridges Pipe Racks

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

How Bolts Work


To keep steel structure connection joints together, high Applied force must be exerted on the joints, that is If connection joint needed 8,000 pounds of force to hold two plates together, any force applied to the plates that is less than 8,000 pounds would not be enough to separate the plates.

Force

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

How Bolts Work


It is often helpful to think of the bolt as a spring. It may seem odd to think of steel structure as being held together by a bunch of springs, but this analogy works to show what happens when a bolt is tightened.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

How Bolts Work


Mathematically
The clamping force Fc is the difference between the preload force Fp and the tension force Ft on the joint. The clamping force is what holds the parts together. This translates mathematically to:

Fc

Fp

Ft

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Pre-Load
When a bolt is tightened, both tension and torsional stress is established within the bolt. This establishes a PRE-LOAD (clamping force) that is developed and applied to structural bolt connection assembly.
is the technical term for the tension caused PRE-LOAD by tightening the fastener that holds the assembled parts together.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Strengths of Bolts
The bolt material strength is specified by the its "grade. For example : A grade 8 bolt is stronger than a grade 5, which is stronger than a grade 2. The grade is indicated by a series of marks on the bolts head

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Strengths of Bolts
One important consideration for steel structure and is determined by: a bolt is its Strength

I.

The alloy (example: cold working)

II. Processing method (example: heat treating)

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Strength of Bolts
Looking at the stress strain curve Yield Strength is the stress level where material Tensile Strength sometimes called the the ultimate
yields or permanently deforms. strength, is the stress level where the material breaks

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolted connections
Bolted joints are widely used in all types of steel structural connections, designed to operate under the expected loads without exceeding the yield stress of the material. Bolted joints offer many advantages over welded joints such as maintainability. However they are costly in that frequently additional parts are needed (washer, nut) compared to riveted or welded joints and they require more skill & effort to assemble.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolted connections
Joints required to resist shear between their connected parts are designated as either
Bearing-Type Connections Friction-Type Connections

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolted connections
Bearing Type Connection: In this joint, the

load is transferred from the steel into the bolt by bearing against the shank of the bolt, carried through the bolt by shear, then into the next layer of steel by bearing of the bolt against the side of the bolt hole.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints


Friction Type Connected are defined as joints which slip would be detrimental to the serviceability of the structure. They include:: 1. Joints subjected to fatigue loading. 2. Joints with bolts installed in oversized holes. 3. Joints with bolts installed in slotted holes. 4. Joints subject to significant load reversal. 5. Joints in which welds and bolts share in transmitting load at a common faying surface. 6. Joints in which the engineer designated on the contract plan and specifications.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolts Installation
Bolts in connections not within the slipcritical category nor subject to tension loads nor required to be fully tensioned bearing type connections shall be installed in properly aligned holes, but need only be tightened to the Snug Tight Condition.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Snug Tied Condition


The "snug tight condition" is defined as "the tightness attained by either a few hits of an impact wrench or the full effort of a worker with an ordinary spud wrench that brings the connected plies into firm contact" by the most

AISC LRFD Specification (Dec. 1, 1993), Section J3.1.


recent

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolts Installation
In

Slip-Critical Connections,

subject to direct tension, and fully pretensioned bearing connections fasteners, together with washers of size and quality specified, shall be installed in properly aligned holes and tightened to provided at least the minimum tension shown in table 4, section 8 (AISC ninth edition). By

one of the following methods

Structural Steel Bolted Joints


Turn of the nut method
When Turn of the nut method used, a representative sample of not less than three bolts and nuts of each diameter, length and grade to be used shall be checked at the start of work in a device capable of indicating bolt tension not less than five percent greater than tension required.

Following this initial operation all bolts in the connection shall be tightened further by the applicable amount of rotation specified in table 5 of (AISC section 8, ninth edition)

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Installation
Tightening of bolts using direct tension indicator is permitted provided the suitability of the device can be demonstrated by testing bolts sample table 5 of (AISC section 8, ninth edition)

Direct tension indicator

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Installation
Calibrated wrench tightening
Calibration wrench tightening may be used only when the installation procedures are calibrated on a daily basis. When this procedure is used, it shall be set to provide tension not less than 5% in excess of the minimum tension specified in table 4 of (AISC section 8, ninth edition). It shall be verified during actual installation in the assembled steel work that the wrench adjustment selected by the calibration does not produce a nut or bolt head rotation from snug tight greater than that permitted in table 5 of (AISC section 8, ninth edition). If manual torque wrenches are used, nut shall be turned in the tightening direction when torque is measured.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Inspector Responsibility
In progress work Inspector should :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Determine the job requirement. Inspect the material (bolts, washers, nuts etc.) Observe the calibration procedure. Verify equipment calibration documents. Monitor bolt installation. Select a procedure properly use to tighten all bolts.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Inspector Responsibility
Arbitration Inspection:
When high strength bolts in slip-critical connection and connection subject to direct tension have been installed, the following arbitration procedures may be used.
5. Bolts in the structure shall be 10% randomly checked, 1. The 2. 3. 4. This Tightening Theinspecting inspector specification beyond shall wrench does the use shall initial not a manual recognize then condition be torque applied standard must wrench to not the torques to give but not less than 2 bolts selected at random in each tightened an indication determined produce bolts greater in from that the nut tables work the rotation job to orinspecting determine formulas. than 1 1/2 torque the times torque has that been connection joint in the question. any nut 5 or bolt is turned necessarily reached. permitted to in turn table 5. nut The of If job bolt inspecting head degrees torque shall be by the application of the job inspecting torque, all the (approximately taken as the 1 average inch atthree 12 inch value. radius). bolts in the connection shall be rejected (then all the rejected bolts shall be tightened and reinspected).

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Inspector Responsibility
Delayed verification Inspection:
If verification of bolt tension is required after a passage of a period of time and exposure of the completed joint, the arbitration inspection will provide indication of bolt tension which is of questionable accuracy. Procedures appropriate to the specific situation should be used for verification of bolt tension (this might involve use of the arbitration procedure or might require the development and sue of alternative procedures.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Failure
When a threaded fastener can not sustain the expected loading and becomes detached, a significant failure In structural connection may occur.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Failure
Examples of bolt failures that have been involved in serious losses.

Metal Fatigue

Improper Design Failure as a result of an overload Failure from improper torque

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Failure
Metal Fatigue
Metal fatigue is the phenomenon characterized by progressive crack growth during cyclic loading. A crack is often initiated at a flaw or stress riser (sharp notch) in a part. repeated impact cause the crack to increase in size until the part can no longer sustain the load, and a final fracture occurs.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Failure
Improper Design
Wear on the bolt threads is the result of bolt movement due to insufficient clamping force.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Failure
Failure as a result of an overload
This is a view of a bolt that fractured in the threaded area. The 45 degree full-slant fracture surface indicates high tensile loads. The fine, gray appearance of the fracture surface is consistent with

a sudden overload instantaneous failure.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Bolt Failure
Failure from improper torque
When threaded fasteners are utilized, the amount of tightening or bolt torque is often important.. The appropriate torque is required in order to prevent relative flexing of the two parts being fastened and to assure an acceptable mechanical connection.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints


CONCLUSION

( SAEP 1150)
Inspection department responsibility on capital projects is to provide the Company with an independent Quality Assurance assessment function that assures compliance with the Companys Engineering requirements, and provide specialized inspection and Non Destructive Testing Services that assures optimum economic quality is maintained throughout the life cycle of the Companys facilities to minimize losses due to unscheduled events and to maximize Company profitability.

Structural Steel Bolted Joints


CONCLUSION

And this task can be a accomplish by

Knowledge &
Team Work Determination

Structural Steel Bolted Joints

Prepared and Presented

Akram M. Megdad

BAPIU