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EPILEPSY

DEFINITION
Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain's electrical system. Abnormal electrical impulses cause brief changes in movement, behavior, sensation, or awareness.

*seizure a brief, temporary disturbance in the electrial activity of the brain

The brain is the source

S all brain functions included feeling, seeing, thinking,

moving muscles
S overload of electrical activity S temporary disturbance in the messaging systems
S "mixed up brain

CAUSES

S idiopathic (unknown reason)

S genetic factors (mutations in several genes/ineffective

GABA)
S brain injuries

S chemical imbalances in the brain

CAUSES
brain injuries
S

chemical imbalances in the brain


S S

types of injuries agedependent


S

drugs, alcohol low blood sugar, low oxygen, low blood sodium or low blood calcium kidney or liver failure

childhood - birth traumas, infections (meningitis), congenital abnormalities adulthood - head injuries, infections, alcohol, stimulant drugs or medication side effects older adults - brain tumors, strokes

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

S recurrent seizures

S bitten tongue
S decreased level of consciousness S periods of blackout or confused memory S episodes of blinking or chewing

CLASSIFICATION OF SEIZURES
S more than 30 different types of seizures

two major categories - focal seizures and generalized seizures


many different types of seizures in each of these categories

Focal seizures

S partial seizures S

occur in one part of the brain

S about 60 percent of people with epilepsy have focal seizures S frequently described by the area of the brain in which they

originate
S experience of unusual feelings S may or may not include loss of consciousness

Generalized seizures

S abnormal neuronal activity on both sides of the brain

loss of consciousness, falls, massive muscle spasms


muscles, stiffening of muscles twitching

S petit mal seizures - staring into space,

S grand mal seizures (tonic-clonic) - mixture of

symptoms; stiffening of the body, repeated jerks of the arms and/or legs, loss of consciousness

Seizure triggers

S missed medication

S stress/anxiety
S hormonal changes S lack of sleep S photosensitivity

DIAGNOSIS

*presence of recurrent, unprovoked seizures


S clinical assessment S patient history S tests (blood, EEG, CT, MRI or PET scans) S neurologic exam
S ID of seizure type S clinical evaluation to look for causes

TREATMENT

S medication - "anticonvulsant" or "antiepileptic" drugs S side effects S surgery (e.g., brain tumor/abnormality must be removed) S non-pharmacological treatment S ketogenic diet S vagus nerve stimulation S lifestyle modifications

Famous people that suffered from this disorder


S Roman Emperor Caligula, Julius Caesar, Socrates,

Napoleon
S many saints and other religious figures (Muhammad,

Joan of Arc)
S artist, musicians ( Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Ian Curtis, Susan

Boyle)

REFRENCES

S en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy

S www.epilepsy.com