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Mathematics & Algebra

1

Lifetime Learning, Building Success

Topics to be Covered

• • • • • • Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Operations with Whole Numbers Fractions Decimals & Percentages Exponents or Powers Solving Algebraic Equations Solving Word Problems

2

Lifetime Learning, Building Success

Unit 1

Operations with Whole Numbers

3

Lifetime Learning, Building Success

**The Order of Operations
**

• • • • • • B E D MA S Brackets (innermost first) Exponents Division (from left to right) Multiplication (from left to right) Addition (from left to right) Subtraction (from left to right)

4

Lifetime Learning, Building Success

Building Success .Examples Ex 1: 3-4+2=? -1 + 2 = 1 2+6x42=? 2+6x 2=? 2 + 12 = 14 Ex 2: 5 Lifetime Learning.

Examples (cont’d) Example 3: 2 x (3 + 5) 4 + 2 2x84+2 2x2+2 4+2=6 Example 4: 2 + (3 .14) = 2 +(.7 x 2) = 2 + (3 .(2 + 5) x 2) = ? 2 + (3 . Building Success .11) = -9 6 Lifetime Learning.

(3 .(-29) = 16 + 29 = 45 7 Lifetime Learning.(3 . Building Success .23 x 4) = ? 42 .(3 .32) = 42 .8 x 4) = 42 .Examples (cont’d) Example 5: 42 .

Building Success .Unit 2 Fractions 8 Lifetime Learning.

Building Success .Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers • An improper fraction is where the numerator is larger than the denominator (Ex: 9/6) • A mixed number is where there is a whole number and a fraction put together – (Ex: 2 3/4) 9 Lifetime Learning.

it should be used as the numerator which goes over the existing denominator – Example: 9/4 becomes 2 1/4 10 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .Changing Improper Fractions into Mixed Numbers • Divide the denominator into the numerator to determine the whole number part of the mixed number • If there is a remainder.

Building Success . then add the numerator • Place that number over the denominator – Example: 3 4/5 becomes 19/5 11 Lifetime Learning.Changing Mixed Numbers to Improper Fractions • Multiply the whole number part of the mixed number by the denominator.

Adding & Subtracting Fractions • We must make a common denominator in order to add & subtract fractions • Once the common denominator is determined. Building Success . the fractions must be changed into equivalent fractions • Then the numerators are added or subtracted and placed over the common denominator 12 Lifetime Learning.

Adding & Subtracting Fractions • Example: 2/3 + 3/4 = ? • Solution: – The lowest common denominator is 12 – The fractions are converted to 8/12 + 9/12 – The answer is 17/12 or 1 5/12 13 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .

Multiplication of Fractions • Multiply the numerator of the first fraction by the numerator of the second fraction • Multiply the denominator of the first fraction by the denominator of the second fraction – Example: 3/5 x 1/4 – Solution: Numerator 3 x 1 = 3 – Denominator 5 x 4 = 20 – therefore 3/20 is the solution 14 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .

Turn the second fraction upside down (3/4 x 5/2) 2.Division with Fractions • Turn the second fraction upside down. Multiply numerators and denominators 3. Building Success . then follow the rules for multiplication of fractions – Example: 3/4 2/5 – Solution: 1. The answer is therefore 15/8 or 1 7/8 15 Lifetime Learning.

Unit 3 Decimal Numbers & Percentages 16 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .

Decimal Numbers • They are a different way of representing an amount other than in fraction form • They are a series of digits separated by a dot • The digits to the left of the dot represent a whole number • The digits to the right of the dot represent an amount that is less than one – Example: 25.55 17 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .

Percentages (%) • Is a method of expressing an amount in terms of a part of one hundred • It is like a fraction that has 100 as the denominator (25/100 = 25%) • 100% of an amount means the entire amount 18 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .

Converting Fractions to Decimals • Simply divide the numerator by the denominator – Example: 3/5 – Solution: 3 5 = . Building Success .6 19 Lifetime Learning.

Building Success .Converting a Fraction to a Percent • Convert the fraction to an equivalent fraction that has a denominator of 100 • Place the % sign to the right of the numerator amount – Example: 3/5 = 60/100 = 60% 20 Lifetime Learning.

57 – Solution: 0. then place a % sign after it • Or. move the decimal point two places to the right.57 x 100 = 57% 21 Lifetime Learning. Building Success . then place a % sign after it – Example: 0.Converting a Decimal to a Percent • Multiply the decimal number by 100.

28 22 Lifetime Learning. then remove the % sign – Example: 28.Converting a Percent to a Decimal • Divide the percentage by 100 and take away the % sign • Or.0 % – Solution: 28. move the decimal point two places to the left.0/100 = . Building Success .

Building Success .Unit 4 Exponents or Powers 23 Lifetime Learning.

What is an Exponent? • It is when a number is multiplied by itself “n” times. if “n” is the exponent • Given the expression 23: – – – – – The 2 is called the “base” The 3 is called the “exponent” The expression 23 is called a “Power” The 2 is multiplied by itself 3 times 2 x 2 x 2 The answer is 8 24 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .

Building Success .Negative Exponents • Exponents (n) can be negative numbers • It means that the number raised to the negative power (-n) is a denominator raised to the positive power (n) where one (1) is the numerator – Example: 2-4 = 1/24 = 1/(2x2x2x2) = 1/16 25 Lifetime Learning.

Powers of Ten (10) • Given the expression 103 . we simply need to write a 1 with 3 .0’s beside it in order to get the solution 1000 101 = 10 102 = 100 104 = 10000 100 = 1 (any number with a 0 exponent = 1) 10-6 = 1/1000000 26 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .

22 . we must calculate each expression before adding them together (solution 8 + 16 = 24) – if we have the expression 23 . we must calculate each expression before subtracting them (solution 8 .4 = 4) 27 Lifetime Learning.Operations with Exponents Having the Same Base • Addition/Subtraction – if we have the expression 23 + 24 . Building Success .

Building Success .Operations with Exponents Having the Same Base (Cont’d) • Multiplication – If we have the expression 32 x 34 . we can simplify the expression by adding the exponents (n) together and using the sum as the exponent for the base of 3 as follows: 32 x 34 = 32 +4 = 36 = 729 It is simply (3 x 3) x (3 x 3 x 3 x 3) = 36 28 Lifetime Learning.

Building Success . 34 32 . we can simplify the expression by subtracting the second exponent from the first one and using the result as the exponent (n) for the base of 3 as follows: 34 32 = 34-2 = 32 = 9 29 Lifetime Learning.Operations with Exponents Having the Same Base (Cont’d) • Division – If we have the expression.

Unit 5 Solving Algebraic Equations 30 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .

Equations with one Unknown Variable • An equation is an equality between two mathematical terms • These terms can be numbers. Building Success . variables (expressed with letters). or a combination of both • For Example: 3n + 5 = 14 is an algebraic equation with “n” being the unknown variable 31 Lifetime Learning.

we need to perform operations to isolate numbers on one side of the equation and variables on the other side • In order for the equation to remain unaffected.Solving Equations with one Unknown Variable • First we need to collect alike terms on each side of the equation • Second. Building Success . we must also do to the other side 32 Lifetime Learning. whatever we do to one side of the equation.

2n + 3n + 4n = 3 + 5 + 10 Solution: Step 1. Divide both sides by 9 9n = 18 n=2 33 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .Examples #1. Collect alike terms Step 2.

Divide both sides by 3 n=5 34 Lifetime Learning. 3n + 5 = 20 Solution: Step 1. Subtract 5 from both sides 3n = 15 Step 2. Building Success .Examples #2.

Add 2 to each side 6 = n or n = 6 35 Lifetime Learning.Examples #3. Building Success . Subtract 2n from both sides 4=n-2 Step 2. 2n + 4 = 3n .2 Solution: Step 1.

3(2n + 5) = n + 20 Solution: Step 1. Subtract n from both sides 5n + 15 = 20 Step 3. Divide both sides by 5 n=1 36 Lifetime Learning. Multiply the terms in the brackets by 3 6n + 15 = n + 20 Step 2. Subtract 15 from both sides 5n = 5 Step 4.Examples # 4. Building Success .

Building Success .Unit 6 Solving Word Problems 37 Lifetime Learning.

Original Amount = Rate of Change Original Amount 38 Lifetime Learning. Building Success .Percentage Increases & Decreases • When prices or interest rates go up or down we must be able to compute the new price or the rate of change etc. • The formula for solving problems like these is as follows: New Amount .

80 = 16 > X = 96 80 39 Lifetime Learning.20 X .Example #1 If the original price of a clock was $80 and then it went up by 20%.20 > X .80 = . Building Success . what was the new price of the clock? Solution: Let X = New Amount Original Amount = $80 Rate of Change = 20% or .

25X > X = 80 40 Lifetime Learning. What was the price before it went up? Solution: Let X = Original Amount New Amount = 100 Rate of Change = 25% 100 .Example #2 A stock price went up by 25% to $100. Building Success .X = .25X X 100 = 1.25 > 100 .X = .

20 or ..10 = X 50 50 X = . Building Success .Example #3 • The price of a shirt went from $50 to $40. What was the % change in price? Solution: Let X = rate of change in price New Amount = 40 Original Amount = 50 40 .50 = X > .20% 41 Lifetime Learning.

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