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Environment Health & Safety
Accident / Incident Theories

D. Annadurai

OVERVIEW/DESCRIPTION  This course helps to know the way of happening of accident/ incident and find out the different causes involved through various available theories.  . Gives an idea to interpret these causes while doing accident / incident investigation to reach preventive actions with respect to them.

Engineers & Managers. Expected Duration 3.Target Audience This training course is intended for Foreman.0 hour .

 .LESSON OBJECTIVES  To know various theories on accident / incident. To know interrelation of causes in accident / incident occurrences.   To develop knowledge to interpret those causes in accident / incident Investigation. To develop knowledge about potential causes for use in accident / incident prevention.

COURSE OVERVIEW     Theories on Accident / Incident Domino Theories Heinrich’s Domino Theory Bird’s Domino Updated Theory        Human Factors Theory Peterson Accident / Incident Theory Epidemiological Theory System Theory Model Swiss Cheese Theory Model Energy Release Theory Combination Model  Interpretation of Causes in Accident / Incident Investigation & Prevention .



FERREL’S HUMAN FACTOR  Ferrell identifies three general causes of accidents:  overload incompatibility and improper activities   .


unintentional act resulting from the interaction of host (accident victim). . agent (injury deliverer) and environmental factors within situations which involve risk taking and perception of danger". unavoidable.EPIDEMIOLOGICAL THEORY Suchman stated epidemiological definition of accident as "An unexpected.


and are continually varying in size and position in all slices. leading to a failure. permitting (in Reason's words) "a trajectory of accident opportunity". . so that a hazard passes through all of the holes in all of the defences. The system as a whole produces failures when all of the holes in each of the slices momentarily align.SWISS CHEESE MODEL The holes in the cheese slices represent individual weaknesses in individual parts of the system.

chemical. This model is most useful to identify hazards and to understand system safety. Leslie Ball. introduced a causation theory. 1970. and all hazards involve energy. either due to involvement with destructive energy sources or due to a lack of critical energy needs. former Director of Safety for NASA. events or environment interacting with people. The energy exchange resulting in an injury could be mechanical. thermal. William Hadden. His thesis is that all accidents are caused by hazard. Hence it was suggested that the energy exchange should be considered as the injury agent. explained 'energy transfer or release' as the main factor for accident causation and said that accidents and injuries are caused because of transfer or release of energy between objects.ENERGY RELEASE THEORY  Dr.   . electrical etc. Gibson noted that injury to a living organism can be only by some energy interchange. This concept is useful in understanding the way injury caused and examining the solutions.

COMBINATION MODEL  Under Preparation .

INTERPRETATION OF CAUSES IN ACCIDENT / INCIDENT INVESTIGATION & PREVENTION  Recommends to have the Combination Model approach in Accident / Incident Investigation & Preventive Actions. .