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CHAPTER 14 In-Vehicle Engine Service

OBJECTIVES
After studying Chapter 14, the reader will be able to:
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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Prepare for ASE certification test content area “A” (General Engine Diagnosis) Diagnose and replace the thermostat. Diagnose and replace the water pump. Diagnose and replace an intake manifold gasket Determine and verify correct cam timing Replace a timing a belt Describe how to adjust valves Explain hybrid engine precautions
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Automotive Engine Performance, 3/e By James D. Halderman

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KEY TERMS
• • •

EREV Fretting HEV

• •

Idle stop Skewed

Automotive Engine Performance, 3/e By James D. Halderman

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Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.

THERMOSTAT REPLACEMENT
FAILURE PATTERNS

All thermostat valves move during operation to maintain the desired coolant temperature. Thermostats can fail in the following ways:
• • • •

Stuck Open Stuck Closed Stuck Partially Open Skewed

Automotive Engine Performance, 3/e By James D. Halderman

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Halderman 5 Copyright © 2010. Automotive Engine Performance. Upper Saddle River. 2007. This caused the vehicle to set a diagnostic trouble code P0128 (coolant temperature below thermostat regulating temperature). 2003 Pearson Education. Inc. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved..THERMOSTAT REPLACEMENT FAILURE PATTERNS FIGURE 14–1 A stuck-open thermostat. 3/e By James D. .

Automotive Engine Performance. 2007. 2003 Pearson Education. . Inc. 3/e By James D. Halderman 6 Copyright © 2010. Upper Saddle River.THERMOSTAT REPLACEMENT REPLACEMENT PROCEDURE • Before replacing the thermostat.. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. double-check that the cooling system problem is not due to another fault. such as being low on coolant or an inoperative cooling fan.

7 Automotive Engine Performance. STEP 4 Remove the thermostat housing and thermostat. STEP 3 Remove any necessary components to get access to the thermostat. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Halderman Copyright © 2010.. 2007. .THERMOSTAT REPLACEMENT REPLACEMENT PROCEDURE • Most recommended procedures include the following steps: • • • • STEP 1 Allow the engine to cool for several hours so the engine and the coolant should be at room temperature. STEP 2 Drain the coolant into a suitable container. 2003 Pearson Education. 3/e By James D. Most vehicle manufacturers recommend that new coolant be used and the old coolant disposed of properly or recycled. Upper Saddle River.

2007. STEP 9 Verify that the engine is reaching correct operating temperature. STEP 7 Pressurize the cooling system to verify that there are no leaks around the thermostat housing. STEP 6 Refill the cooling system with the specified coolant and bleed any trapped air from the system. 3/e By James D. Upper Saddle River. Torque all fasteners to specifications. Halderman 8 Copyright © 2010.. STEP 8 Run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature and check for leaks. Automotive Engine Performance.THERMOSTAT REPLACEMENT REPLACEMENT PROCEDURE • • • • • STEP 5 Replace the thermostat housing gasket and thermostat. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. . 2003 Pearson Education. Inc.

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2007. Halderman 9 Copyright © 2010. 3/e By James D. Inc.. Upper Saddle River. .WATER PUMP REPLACEMENT NEED FOR REPLACEMENT • A water pump will require replacement if any of the following conditions are present: • • • Leaking coolant from the weep hole Bearing noisy or loose Lack of proper coolant flow caused by worn or slipping impeller blades Automotive Engine Performance. 2003 Pearson Education.

Inc. Halderman 10 . STEP 7 Fill the cooling system with the specified coolant. Copyright © 2010. check for leaks. STEP 4 Remove the water pump assembly. 2003 Pearson Education. check service information for the exact procedure to follow. STEP 2 Drain the coolant and dispose of properly or recycle. 3/e By James D. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. STEP 8 Run the engine. STEP 6 Install removed engine components. STEP 5 Clean the gasket surfaces and install the new water pump using a new gasket or seal as needed. The steps usually include the following: • • • • • • • • STEP 1 Allow the engine to cool to room temperature. STEP 3 Remove engine components to gain access to the water pump as specified in service information. Upper Saddle River. Automotive Engine Performance. Torque all fasteners to factory specifications. 2007.WATER PUMP REPLACEMENT REPLACEMENT GUIDELINES • • After diagnosis has been confirmed that the water pump requires replacement.. and verify proper operation.

Upper Saddle River.WATER PUMP REPLACEMENT REPLACEMENT GUIDELINES FIGURE 14–2 Use caution if using a steel scraper to remove a gasket from aluminum parts. Inc. Halderman 11 Copyright © 2010. 2007. 2003 Pearson Education. Automotive Engine Performance.. 3/e By James D. . NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. It is best to use a wood or plastic scraper.

This failure can be contributed to one or more of the following: • • 1. coolant. Inc. 2003 Pearson Education.6) gasket deterioration caused by the coolant. Upper Saddle River. 2007.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET INSPECTION CAUSES OF FAILURE • • Many V-type engines leak oil. 12 Automotive Engine Performance. 3/e By James D. Halderman Copyright © 2010. Plastic (Nylon 6.. Expansion/contraction rate difference between the cast-iron head and the aluminum intake manifold can cause the intake manifold gasket to be damaged by the relative motion of the head and intake manifold. 2. or experience an air (vacuum) leak caused by a leaking intake manifold gasket. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. . This type of failure is called fretting.

Halderman 13 Copyright © 2010.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET INSPECTION CAUSES OF FAILURE FIGURE 14–3 An intake manifold gasket that failed and allowed coolant to be drawn into the cylinder(s). 3/e By James D. 2003 Pearson Education. Automotive Engine Performance. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.. Inc. 2007. . Upper Saddle River.

determining that the intake manifold gasket is the root cause can be a challenge. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS OF LEAKING INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET • • Because intake manifold gaskets are used to seal oil. 2003 Pearson Education. air. Halderman 14 Copyright © 2010. and coolant in most causes. 2007. To diagnose a possible leaking intake manifold gasket. perform the following tests: • • • Visual inspection Coolant level Air (vacuum) leak Automotive Engine Performance. .. 3/e By James D.

Upper Saddle River.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET REPLACEMENT • • When replacing the intake manifold gasket. and inspect for faults. 3/e By James D. Automotive Engine Performance. loosen all fasteners in the reverse order of the tightening sequence. STEP 3 To help ensure that the manifold does not warp when removed. Halderman 15 Copyright © 2010. 2007.. The steps usually include the following: • • • • STEP 1 Be sure the engine has been off for about an hour and then drain the coolant into a suitable container. STEP 4 Remove the upper intake manifold. 2003 Pearson Education. if equipped. always check service information for the exact procedure to follow. . STEP 2 Remove covers and other specified parts needed to get access to the retaining bolts. Inc. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.

Halderman 16 Copyright © 2010. attaches to the cylinder heads. Upper Saddle River. .. 2007. Automotive Engine Performance. 2003 Pearson Education. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 3/e By James D.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET REPLACEMENT FIGURE 14–4 The lower intake manifold. Inc.

3/e By James D. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2003 Pearson Education. 2007. often called a plenum. Automotive Engine Performance.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET REPLACEMENT FIGURE 14–5 The upper intake manifold. . Upper Saddle River.. attaches to the lower intake manifold. Inc. Halderman 17 Copyright © 2010.

STEP 6 Thoroughly clean the area and replace the intake manifold if needed. and even the current part could look different from the original. STEP 9 Reinstall all parts needed to allow the engine to start and run. . 3/e By James D. 2007. using the same bolt removal procedure of starting at the ends and working toward the center. STEP 8 Torque all fasteners to factory specifications and in the proper sequences. Halderman 18 Copyright © 2010.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET REPLACEMENT • • • • • • STEP 5 Remove the lower intake manifold (plenum). STEP 7 Install the intake manifold using new gaskets as specified. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Check that the correct replacement manifold is being used. Some designs use gaskets that are reusable. 2003 Pearson Education. STEP 10 Start the engine and check for leaks and proper engine operation. Inc.. including refilling the coolant if needed. Automotive Engine Performance.

Upper Saddle River. 2007. Automotive Engine Performance. Halderman 19 Copyright © 2010.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET REPLACEMENT FIGURE 14–6 Many aftermarket replacement intake manifolds have a different appearance from the original manifold. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. 3/e By James D. . 2003 Pearson Education..

STEP 13 Check and replace the air filter if needed. Automotive Engine Performance. 2007. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Halderman 20 Copyright © 2010. Inc. 3/e By James D. which would contaminate the oil. STEP 12 Install all of the remaining parts and perform a test drive to verify proper operation and no leaks.INTAKE MANIFOLD GASKET REPLACEMENT • • • • STEP 11 Reset or relearn the idle if specified. 2003 Pearson Education. . using a scan tool. STEP 14 Change the engine oil if the intake manifold leak could have caused coolant to leak into the engine. Upper Saddle River..

Inc. Upper Saddle River. Halderman 21 .000 km) to about 100. 2003 Pearson Education. Automotive Engine Performance.000 km). 3/e By James D. Copyright © 2010.000 miles (97.. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. The timing belt has failed (missing belt teeth or broken).000 miles (161. The timing belt has been contaminated with coolant or engine oil. Timing belts are required to be replaced if any of the following conditions occur: • • • Meets or exceeds the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended timing belt replacement interval. 2007.TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT NEED FOR REPLACEMENT • • Timing belts have a limited service and a specified replacement interval ranging from 60.

3/e By James D. STEP 3 If the timing belt is not broken. 2003 Pearson Education.. Halderman 22 Copyright © 2010. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Most timing belt replacement procedures include the following steps: • • • • STEP 1 Allow the engine to cool before starting to remove components to help eliminate the possibility of personal injury or warpage of the parts. check service information for the recommended procedure to follow. rotate the engine until the camshaft and crankshaft timing marks are aligned according to the specified marks. . Inc. STEP 4 Loosen or remove the tensioner as needed to remove the timing belt. 2007. STEP 2 Remove all necessary components to gain access to the timing belt and timing marks. Upper Saddle River. Automotive Engine Performance.TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT GUIDELINES • Before replacing the timing belt.

Check for any leaks. Components that some vehicle manufacturers recommend replacing in addition to the timing belt include: • • • • Tensioner assembly Water pump Camshaft oil seal(s) Front crankshaft seal • • • STEP 6 Check (verify) that the camshaft timing is correct by rotating the engine several revolutions. 3/e By James D. especially if seals have been replaced. STEP 7 Install enough components to allow the engine to start to verify proper operation. Halderman 23 . 2003 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. Automotive Engine Performance.TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT GUIDELINES • STEP 5 Replace the timing belt and any other recommended items.. STEP 8 Complete the reassembly of the engine and perform a test drive before returning the vehicle to the customer. 2007. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Copyright © 2010. Inc.

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 3/e By James D. 2003 Pearson Education.TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT GUIDELINES FIGURE 14–7 A single overhead camshaft engine with a timing belt that also rotates the water pump. Automotive Engine Performance.. Upper Saddle River. . Inc. 2007. Halderman 24 Copyright © 2010.

.HYBRID ENGINE PRECAUTIONS HYBRID VEHICLE ENGINE OPERATION • • • • Gasoline engines used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and in extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) can be a hazard to be around under some conditions. . NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. 25 Automotive Engine Performance. This feature is called idle stop. 2003 Pearson Education. This means that the engine is not running. but could start at any time if the computer detects the need to charge the hybrid batteries or other issue that requires the gasoline engine to start and run. Halderman Copyright © 2010. 3/e By James D. These vehicles are designed to stop the gasoline engines unless needed. 2007. Inc.

26 Automotive Engine Performance. Always use high-voltage linesman’s gloves whenever depowering the high-voltage system. Halderman Copyright © 2010. be sure that the ignition is off and the key is out of the ignition. Inc. 2007. These precautions could include: • • • • Before working under the hood or around the engine.HYBRID ENGINE PRECAUTIONS PRECAUTIONS • • Always check service information for the exact procedures to follow when working around or under the hood of a hybrid electric vehicle. . Check that the “Ready” light is off. 3/e By James D. Do not touch any circuits that have orange electrical wires or conduit. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.. 2003 Pearson Education.

2007. If the ready light is on. Automotive Engine Performance. Halderman 27 Copyright © 2010.HYBRID ENGINE PRECAUTIONS PRECAUTIONS FIGURE 14–8 A Toyota/Lexus hybrid electric vehicle has a ready light. 2003 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. 3/e By James D. the engine can start at anytime without warning. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. .. Inc.

. 2003 Pearson Education. Inc. . The viscosity required is often: • • SAE 0W-20 SAE 5W-20 Automotive Engine Performance. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Halderman 28 Copyright © 2010. 2007.HYBRID ENGINE PRECAUTIONS HYBRID ENGINE SERVICE • • The gasoline engine in most hybrid electric vehicles specifies low viscosity engine oil as a way to achieve maximum fuel economy. 3/e By James D.

HYBRID ENGINE PRECAUTIONS HYBRID ENGINE SERVICE FIGURE 14–9 Always use the viscosity of oil as specified on the oil fill cap. 2007. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Automotive Engine Performance. 2003 Pearson Education. .. Upper Saddle River. 3/e By James D. Halderman 29 Copyright © 2010. Inc.

2007. . Thermostats can fail in the following ways: • • • • Stuck open Stuck closed Stuck partially open Skewed 2. A water pump should be replaced if any of the following conditions are present: • • • • Leaking from the weep hole Noisy bearing Loose bearing Lack of normal circulation due to worn impeller blades 30 Automotive Engine Performance. Upper Saddle River. 3/e By James D. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.SUMMARY 1. 2003 Pearson Education.. Inc. Halderman Copyright © 2010.

When working on a Toyota/Lexus hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). . Upper Saddle River. Inc. Automotive Engine Performance.. A leaking intake manifold gasket can cause coolant to get into the oil or oil into the coolant. most vehicle manufacturers also recommend that the following items be replaced: • • • • Tensioner assembly Water pump Camshaft seal(s) Front crankshaft seal 5. as well as other faults. 2007. 2003 Pearson Education. be sure that the key is off and out of the ignition and the READY light is off. such as a poor running engine. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. When a timing belt is replaced. 4.SUMMARY 3. 3/e By James D. Halderman 31 Copyright © 2010.

2. How can a thermostat fail? How can a water pump fail requiring replacement? What will happen to the engine if the intake manifold gasket fails? Why must timing belts be replaced? Why is it important that the READY light be out on the dash before working under the hood of a hybrid electric vehicle? Automotive Engine Performance. Halderman 32 Copyright © 2010. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. . 5.. 4. 2003 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. 3/e By James D. 3.REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 2007.

3/e By James D. c. 2003 Pearson Education. . Stuck open Stuck closed Stuck partially open Any of the above Automotive Engine Performance. b. d. Inc. A thermostat can fail in which way? a.. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.CHAPTER QUIZ 1. 2007. Halderman 33 Copyright © 2010.

2003 Pearson Education. 2007.CHAPTER QUIZ 2. 3/e By James D. Upper Saddle River. Halderman 34 Copyright © 2010. Inc. c. but not at the correct temperature Not working Missing the thermo wax in the heat sensor Contaminated with coolant Automotive Engine Performance. A skewed thermostat means it is ________. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Working. a. .. b. d.

3/e By James D. c.. Coolant drained from the cooling system when replacing a thermostat or water pump should be ________.CHAPTER QUIZ 3. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2007. d. . Inc. Upper Saddle River. 2003 Pearson Education. a. Halderman 35 Copyright © 2010. b. Reused Disposed of properly or recycled Filtered and reinstalled after the repair Poured down a toilet Automotive Engine Performance.

A water pump can fail to provide the proper amount of flow of coolant through the cooling system if what has happened? a.. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.CHAPTER QUIZ 4. c. b. The coolant is leaking from the weep hole The bearing is noisy The impeller blades are worn or slipping on the shaft A bearing failure has caused the shaft to become loose Automotive Engine Performance. . Halderman 36 Copyright © 2010. d. Upper Saddle River. Inc. 3/e By James D. 2003 Pearson Education. 2007.

b. Upper Saddle River.CHAPTER QUIZ 5. Halderman 37 Copyright © 2010. c. 2003 Pearson Education. . Intake manifold gaskets on a V-type engine can fail due to what factor? a. Inc. 2007. d. Fretting Coolant damage Relative movement between the intake manifold and the cylinder head All of the above Automotive Engine Performance.. 3/e By James D. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. 2003 Pearson Education. d. 2007. c.. . P0171 P0172 P0128 P0300 Automotive Engine Performance. A defective thermostat can cause the Powertrain Control Module to set what diagnostic trouble code (DTC)? a. Inc.CHAPTER QUIZ 6. 3/e By James D. Halderman 38 Copyright © 2010. b.

True False Automotive Engine Performance. 3/e By James D. b. Halderman 39 Copyright © 2010. 2003 Pearson Education. . A replacement plastic intake manifold may have a different design or appearance from the original factory-installed part. Upper Saddle River. Inc. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2007. a.CHAPTER QUIZ 7..

Inc.. 3/e By James D. Upper Saddle River. c. Pound-inches Pound-feet Ft-lbs per minute Lb-ft per second Automotive Engine Performance.CHAPTER QUIZ 8. d. . Halderman 40 Copyright © 2010. 2007. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2003 Pearson Education. b. The torque specifications for many plastic intake manifolds are in what unit? a.

c. 2007. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc.CHAPTER QUIZ 9. b. 2003 Pearson Education.. When replacing a timing belt. 3/e By James D. d. Halderman 41 Copyright © 2010. . many experts and vehicle manufacturers recommend that what other part(s) should be replaced? a. Upper Saddle River. Tensioner assembly Water pump Camshaft oil seal(s) All of the above Automotive Engine Performance.

b. Inc. Hybrid electric vehicles usually require special engine oil of what viscosity? a. d. . 2007. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.CHAPTER QUIZ 10. Halderman 42 Copyright © 2010. c. 2003 Pearson Education. 3/e By James D. SAE 5W-30 SAE 10W-30 SAE 0W-20 SAE 5W-40 Automotive Engine Performance..