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CHAPTER 19 Onboard Diagnosis

OBJECTIVES
After studying Chapter 19, the reader will be able to:
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Prepare for ASE Electrical/Electronic Systems (A6) certification test content area “A” (General Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnosis). Explain the purpose and function of onboard diagnosis. List the various duties of the diagnostic executive (task master). List five continuous monitors. List five noncontinuous monitors.

Automotive Engine Performance, 3/e By James D. Halderman

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Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.

KEY TERMS


California Air Resources Board (CARB) Component identification (CID) Comprehensive component monitor (CCM) Diagnostic executive Enable criteria Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) monitor Federal Test Procedure (FTP) Freeze-frame
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Functionality Malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) On-board diagnosis (OBD) Parameter identification (PID) Rationality Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Test identification (TID) Task manager

Automotive Engine Performance, 3/e By James D. Halderman

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.

Inc.ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS GENERATIONII (OBD-II) SYSTEMS • PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF OBD II • • The automotive industry calls these systems OnBoard Diagnostics (OBDs). . 2003 Pearson Education. 3/e By James D. Automotive Engine Performance. 2007. OBD Generation I (OBD I) applies to all vehicles sold in California beginning with the 1988 model year. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Halderman 4 Copyright © 2010. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed the first regulation requiring manufacturers selling vehicles in that state to install OBD. Upper Saddle River..

Upper Saddle River.ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS GENERATIONII (OBD-II) SYSTEMS FIGURE 19–1 A typical malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) often labeled “check engine.” Automotive Engine Performance. 3/e By James D. .. 2007. Halderman 5 Copyright © 2010. Inc. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2003 Pearson Education.

2.ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS GENERATIONII (OBD-II) SYSTEMS • OBD-II OBJECTIVES • Generally.. the CARB defines an OBD-II-equipped vehicle by its ability to do the following: • • • 1. Halderman 6 Copyright © 2010. Detect component degradation or a faulty emissionrelated system that prevents compliance with federal emission standards. 3. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2003 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. Inc. 3/e By James D. Alert the driver of needed emission-related repair or maintenance. Use standardized DTCs and accept a generic scan tool. 2007. . Automotive Engine Performance.

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. it is called the task manager.. On Ford and GM systems. Halderman 7 Copyright © 2010. . 3/e By James D. Inc. This software program is designed to manage the operation of all OBD-II monitors by controlling the sequence of steps necessary to execute the diagnostic tests and monitors. this software is called the diagnostic executive. the PCM incorporates a special segment of software.DIAGNOSTIC EXECUTIVE AND TASK MANAGER • • • • On OBD-II systems. On Chrysler systems. 2003 Pearson Education. Automotive Engine Performance. 2007.

2007.MONITORS • • • • A monitor is an organized method of testing a specific part of the system. 2003 Pearson Education. a DTC will be stored and the MIL illuminated by the second trip. . 3/e By James D. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Upper Saddle River.. Monitors are simply tests that the computer performs to evaluate components and systems. Halderman 8 Copyright © 2010. If a component or system failure is detected while a monitor is running. The two types of monitors are: • • CONTINUOUS MONITORS NONCONTINUOUS MONITORS Automotive Engine Performance.

However. . Inc. 2003 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.OBD-II MONITOR INFORMATION COMPREHENSIVE COMPONENT MONITOR • • • • The circuits and components covered by the comprehensive component monitor (CCM) do not include those directly monitored by another monitor. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Both inputs and outputs are to be checked electrically. Halderman Copyright © 2010. 3/e By James D. 9 Automotive Engine Performance. and that outputs to powertrain components from the PCM be tested for functionality. 2007. OBD II also requires that inputs from powertrain components to the PCM be tested for rationality.. Rationality checks refer to a PCM comparison of input value to values.

.. 3/e By James D. 2007.OBD-II MONITOR INFORMATION • • • • CONTINUOUS RUNNING MONITORS ONCE PER TRIP MONITORS EXPONENTIALLY WEIGHTED MOVING AVERAGE (EWMA) MONITORS NONCONTINUOUS MONITORS Automotive Engine Performance. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. 2003 Pearson Education. Halderman 10 Copyright © 2010.

2007. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. different manufacturers have different names for this director. As mentioned. such as the diagnostic executive or the task manager. . Each monitor has enabling criteria. Automotive Engine Performance. the PCM needs an internal director to keep track of when each monitor should run. 3/e By James D. Halderman 11 Copyright © 2010. These criteria are a set of conditions that must be met before the task manager will give the goahead for each monitor to run. Upper Saddle River.ENABLING CRITERIA • • • • With so many different tests (monitors) to run.. Inc. 2003 Pearson Education.

2003 Pearson Education.ENABLING CRITERIA • Most enabling criteria follow simple logic. . The task manager will not authorize the start of the EGR monitor when the engine is at idle. Upper Saddle River. Halderman 12 Copyright © 2010. 3/e By James D. for example: • • The task manager will not authorize the start of the O2S monitor until the engine has reached operating temperature and the system has entered closed loop. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. because the EGR is always closed at this time. 2007. Automotive Engine Performance. Inc..

Inc. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2007.ENABLING CRITERIA • • • • • • TRIP WARM-UP CYCLE MIL CONDITION: OFF MIL CONDITION: ON STEADY MIL CONDITION: FLASHING MIL: OFF Automotive Engine Performance. Halderman 13 Copyright © 2010. Upper Saddle River. . 2003 Pearson Education.. 3/e By James D.

Inc. Upper Saddle River.OBD-II DTC NUMBERING DESIGNATION • • A scan tool is required to retrieve DTCs from an OBD-II vehicle. Halderman 14 Copyright © 2010. Automotive Engine Performance.. 3/e By James D. Every OBD-II scan tool will be able to read all generic Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) DTCs from any vehicle. . 2003 Pearson Education. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2007.

2003 Pearson Education.. 3/e By James D. Automotive Engine Performance. 2007. Inc. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. Halderman 15 Copyright © 2010. .OBD-II DTC NUMBERING DESIGNATION FIGURE 19–2 OBD-II DTC identification format.

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.OBD-II DTC NUMBERING DESIGNATION • • DTC NUMBERING EXPLANATION TYPES OF DTCS • • • TYPE A CODES TYPE B CODES TYPE C AND D CODES • DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE PRIORITY Automotive Engine Performance. 3/e By James D. Halderman 16 Copyright © 2010. 2003 Pearson Education. . 2007. Inc. Upper Saddle River..

. A scan tool is required to retrieve this data. OBD II requires the computer to take a “snapshot” or freeze-frame of all data at the instant an emission-related DTC is set. Inc. 3/e By James D. 2007. Halderman 17 Copyright © 2010. 2003 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Automotive Engine Performance.OBD-II FREEZE-FRAME • • To assist the service technician.

OBD-II FREEZE-FRAME • Freeze-frame items include: • • • • • • • • • Calculated load value Engine speed (RPM) Short-term and long-term fuel trim percent Fuel system pressure (on some vehicles) Vehicle speed (mph) Engine coolant temperature Intake manifold pressure Closed-open-loop status Fault code that triggered the freeze-frame Automotive Engine Performance. Inc. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2007. Upper Saddle River. . 2003 Pearson Education. Halderman 18 Copyright © 2010. 3/e By James D..

. 3/e By James D. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Halderman 19 Copyright © 2010..OBD-II FREEZE-FRAME Automotive Engine Performance. 2003 Pearson Education. 2007. Upper Saddle River.

yet the conditions have not yet been met to set a DTC. 2007. 2003 Pearson Education.What Are Pending Codes? • Pending codes are set when operating conditions are met and the component or circuit is not within the normal range. a sensor may require two consecutive faults before a DTC is set.. If a scan tool displays a pending code or a failure. a driveability concern could also be present. Upper Saddle River. The pending code can help the technician to determine the root cause before the customer complains of a check engine light indication. . NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 20 Automotive Engine Performance. 3/e By James D. For example. Inc. Halderman Copyright © 2010.

. Halderman 21 Copyright © 2010. run time. 2007. VSS. Inc. • • • PENDING CONFLICT SUSPEND Automotive Engine Performance.ENABLING CONDITIONS OR CRITERIA • These are the exact engine operating conditions required for a diagnostic monitor to run. 2003 Pearson Education. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 3/e By James D. etc.. MAP. Upper Saddle River. • Example: • • Specific RPM Specific ECT.

PCM TESTS • • • RATIONALITY TEST FUNCTIONALITY TEST ELECTRICAL TEST Automotive Engine Performance. 3/e By James D. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. .. Upper Saddle River. 2003 Pearson Education. Halderman 22 Copyright © 2010. Inc. 2007.

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.. Upper Saddle River.GLOBAL OBD-II • • • • • All OBD-II vehicles must be able to display data on a global (also called generic) scan tool under nine different modes of operation. 2007. The numbers 0 to 9 (zero counts as a number) make up the first 10 and then capital letters A to F complete the 16 numbers. Inc. Halderman Copyright © 2010. The global (generic) data is used by most state emission programs. which use 16 numbers instead of 10. To help identify the number as being in a hexadecimal format. a dollar sign ($) is used in front of the number or letter 23 Automotive Engine Performance. 3/e By James D. 2003 Pearson Education. Global OBD-II displays often use hexadecimal numbers. .

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.GLOBAL OBD-II Automotive Engine Performance. 2007. Halderman 24 Copyright © 2010. 2003 Pearson Education.. . 3/e By James D. Upper Saddle River. Inc.

Upper Saddle River. 3/e By James D. if the display asks for make.. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. model. . Halderman 25 Copyright © 2010. If the generic or global part of the PCM is being scanned.How Can You Tell Generic from Factory? • When using a scan tool on an OBD-IIequipped vehicle. then there is no need to know the vehicle details. Automotive Engine Performance. and year. 2007. 2003 Pearson Education. then the factory or enhanced part of the PCM is being accessed.

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.SUMMARY 1. All monitors must have the enable criteria achieved before a test is performed. 2007. retrieve the DTC and follow the manufacturer’s recommended procedure to find the root cause of the problem. 2003 Pearson Education.. OBD II includes generic (SAE). 3/e By James D. . Automotive Engine Performance. and data display. 2. as well as vehicle manufacturerspecific DTCs. OBD-II vehicles use common generic DTCs. 3. 4. Halderman 26 Copyright © 2010. Upper Saddle River. If the MIL is on. Inc.

4. 2007. Upper Saddle River.REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 2003 Pearson Education. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Halderman 27 Copyright © 2010.. . 2. What does the PCM do during a trip to test emissionrelated components? What is the difference between a type A and type B OBD-II DTC? What is the difference between a trip and a warmup cycle? What could cause the MIL to flash? Automotive Engine Performance. 3. 3/e By James D. Inc.

A freeze-frame is generated on an OBD-II vehicle ________.. b. c. d. . 3/e By James D. a. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.CHAPTER QUIZ 1. Halderman 28 Copyright © 2010. 2003 Pearson Education. When a type C or D diagnostic trouble code is set When a type A or B diagnostic trouble code is set Every other trip When the PCM detects a problem with the O2S Automotive Engine Performance. 2007. Inc. Upper Saddle River.

Inc. An ignition misfire or fuel mixture problem is an example of what type of DTC? a.. Type A Type B Type C Type D Automotive Engine Performance. b. 2003 Pearson Education. 3/e By James D. Halderman 29 Copyright © 2010. c. .CHAPTER QUIZ 2. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. 2007. d.

2003 Pearson Education. b. Inc. . 2007. a.. d. 3/e By James D. Halderman 30 Copyright © 2010. The comprehensive component monitor checks computercontrolled devices for_______. c. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Opens rationality shorts-to-ground All of the above Automotive Engine Performance.CHAPTER QUIZ 3. Upper Saddle River.

a. 2007. . 1986 1991 1996 2000 Automotive Engine Performance. OBD II has been on all passenger vehicles in the United States since ________. c. b. 2003 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. 3/e By James D. d..CHAPTER QUIZ 4. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Halderman 31 Copyright © 2010.

c. Upper Saddle River. Inc. . b. 2007.. 3/e By James D. Halderman 32 Copyright © 2010. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.CHAPTER QUIZ 5. Which is a continuous monitor? a. 2003 Pearson Education. d. Fuel system monitor EGR monitor Oxygen sensor monitor Catalyst monitor Automotive Engine Performance.

. 3/e By James D.CHAPTER QUIZ 6. Halderman 33 Copyright © 2010. c. a. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved.. 2007. Inc. d. Upper Saddle River. DTC P0302 is a ________. Generic DTC Vehicle manufacturer-specific DTC Idle speed-related DTC Transmission/transaxle-related DTC Automotive Engine Performance. b. 2003 Pearson Education.

Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. d. b. Plain English Hexadecimal Roman numerals All of the above Automotive Engine Performance. 2003 Pearson Education. Global (generic) OBD II contains some data in what format? a.CHAPTER QUIZ 7. 3/e By James D.. . 2007. c. Halderman 34 Copyright © 2010. Inc.

Halderman 35 Copyright © 2010. 2007. By looking at the way diagnostic trouble codes are formatted. . b.. P0221 P1301 P0442 P1603 Automotive Engine Performance. d. Inc.CHAPTER QUIZ 8. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 3/e By James D. which DTC could indicate that the gas cap is loose or defective? a. Upper Saddle River. c. 2003 Pearson Education.

a. b. c. d. NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. 2007. Forty consecutive warm-up cycles Eighty warm-up cycles Two consecutive trips Four key-on/key-off cycles Automotive Engine Performance. . 2003 Pearson Education.. Halderman 36 Copyright © 2010.CHAPTER QUIZ 9. Upper Saddle River. The computer will automatically clear a DTC if there are no additional detected faults after ________. 3/e By James D. Inc.

NJ 07458 • All rights reserved. d. c. 2003 Pearson Education. .CHAPTER QUIZ 10.. b. 2007. A pending code is set when a fault is detected on ________. Inc. Upper Saddle River. 3/e By James D. A one-trip fault item The first fault of a two-trip failure The catalytic converter efficiency Thermostat problem (too long to closed-loop status) Automotive Engine Performance. Halderman 37 Copyright © 2010. a.