PulseWidth Modulation (PWM) Techniques
Instructor: Prof. Ali Keyhani
Contact Person:
Email: keyhani.1@osu.edu
Tel.: 6142924430
1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The Ohio State University
Lecture 25
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ORGANIZATION
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. SixStep VSI
B. PulseWidth Modulated VSI
II. PWM Methods
A. Sine PWM
B. Hysteresis (Bangbang)
C. Space Vector PWM
III. References
2
/35
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. SixStep VSI (1)
3
SixStep threephase Voltage Source Inverter
Fig. 1 Threephase voltage source inverter.
/35 4
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. SixStep VSI (2)
Fig. 2 Waveforms of gating signals, switching sequence, line to negative voltages
for sixstep voltage source inverter.
Gating signals, switching sequence and line to negative voltages
/35
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. SixStep VSI (3)
where, 561 means that S
5
, S
6
and S
1
are switched on
Fig. 3 Six inverter voltage vectors for sixstep voltage source inverter.
Switching Sequence:
561 (V
1
) ÷ 612 (V
2
) ÷ 123 (V
3
) ÷ 234 (V
4
) ÷ 345 (V
5
) ÷ 456 (V
6
) ÷ 561 (V
1
)
5
/35
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. SixStep VSI (4)
Fig. 4 Waveforms of line to neutral (phase) voltages and line to line voltages
for sixstep voltage source inverter.
Line to line voltages (V
ab
, V
bc
, V
ca
) and line to neutral voltages (V
an
, V
bn
, V
cn
)
V
ab
= V
aN
 V
bN
V
bc
= V
bN
 V
cN
V
ca
= V
cN
 V
aN
Line to line voltages
V
an
= 2/3V
aN
 1/3V
bN
 1/3V
cN
Phase voltages
V
bn
= 1/3V
aN
+ 2/3V
bN
 1/3V
cN
V
cn
= 1/3V
aN
 1/3V
bN
+ 2/3V
cN
6
/35
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. SixStep VSI (5)
Amplitude of line to line voltages (V
ab
, V
bc
, V
ca
)
Fundamental Frequency Component (V
ab
)
1
Harmonic Frequency Components (V
ab
)
h
: amplitudes of harmonics decrease inversely proportional to their harmonic order
dc dc
dc
V 78 . 0 V
6
2
V 4
2
3
~ = =
t t
(rms) ) (V
1 ab
3,.....) 2, 1, (n 1 6n h where,
V
78 . 0
dc ab
= ± =
=
h
(rms) ) (V
h
7
/35 8
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. SixStep VSI (6)
Characteristics of Sixstep VSI
It is called “sixstep inverter” because of the presence of six “steps”
in the line to neutral (phase) voltage waveform
Harmonics of order three and multiples of three are absent from
both the line to line and the line to neutral voltages
and consequently absent from the currents
Output amplitude in a threephase inverter can be controlled
by only change of DClink voltage (V
dc
)
/35 9
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
B. PulseWidth Modulated VSI (1)
Objective of PWM
Disadvantages of PWM
Increase of switching losses due to high PWM frequency
Reduction of available voltage
EMI problems due to highorder harmonics
Control of inverter output voltage
Reduction of harmonics
/35
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
B. PulseWidth Modulated VSI (2)
PulseWidth Modulation (PWM)
Fig. 5 Pulsewidth modulation.
10
/35
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
B. PulseWidth Modulated VSI (3)
Inverter output voltage
When v
control
> v
tri
, V
A0
= V
dc
/2
When v
control
< v
tri
, V
A0
= V
dc
/2
A0 1 A0
1 0
V of component frequecny l fundamenta : ) (V where,
,
2 /
) (
dc
A
tri
control
V
V of peak
v
v
m = =
Modulation Index (m)
Control of inverter output voltage
Amplitude is controlled by the peak value of v
control
Fundamental frequency is controlled by the frequency of v
control
PWM frequency is the same as the frequency of v
tri
11
/35
II. PWM METHODS
A. Sine PWM (1)
Fig. 6 Threephase Sine PWM inverter.
Threephase inverter
12
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II. PWM METHODS
A. Sine PWM (2)
V
A
0
V
B
0
V
C
0
V
A
B
V
B
C
V
C
A
t
Fig. 7 Waveforms of threephase sine PWM inverter.
Threephase sine PWM waveforms
v
tri
v
control_A
v
control_
B
v
control_C
where, V
AB
= V
A0
– V
B0
V
BC
= V
B0
– V
C0
V
CA
= V
C0
– V
A0
When v
control
> v
tri
, V
A0
= V
dc
/2
When v
control
< v
tri
, V
A0
= V
dc
/2
Frequency of v
tri
= f
s
Frequency of v
control
= f
1
Frequency of v
tri
and v
control
where, f
s
= PWM frequency
f
1
= Fundamental frequency
Inverter output voltage
13
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II. PWM METHODS
A. Sine PWM (3)
Amplitude modulation ratio (m
a
)
A0 1 A0
1 0
V of component frequecny l fundamenta : ) (V where,
,
2 /
) (
dc
A
tri
control
a
V
V of value peak
v of amplitude
v of amplitude peak
m = =
Frequency modulation ratio (m
f
)
frequency l fundamenta f and frequency PWM f where, ,
1 s
1
= = =
f
f
m
s
f
m
f
should be an odd integer
if m
f
is not an integer, there may exist sunhamonics at output voltage
if m
f
is not odd, DC component may exist and even harmonics are present at output voltage
m
f
should be a multiple of 3 for threephase PWM inverter
An odd multiple of 3 and even harmonics are suppressed
14
/35
II. PWM METHODS
B. Hysteresis (Bangbang) PWM (1)
Threephase inverter for hysteresis Current Control
Fig. 8 Threephase inverter for hysteresis current control.
15
/35
II. PWM METHODS
B. Hysteresis (Bangbang) PWM (2)
Hysteresis Current Controller
Fig. 9 Hysteresis current controller at Phase “a”.
16
/35
II. PWM METHODS
B. Hysteresis (Bangbang) PWM (3)
Characteristics of hysteresis Current Control
Advantages
Drawbacks
17
Excellent dynamic response
Low cost and easy implementation
Large current ripple in steadystate
Variation of switching frequency
No intercommunication between each hysterisis controller of three phases
and hence no strategy to generate zerovoltage vectors.
As a result, the switching frequency increases at lower modulation index and
the signal will leave the hysteresis band whenever the zero vector is turned on.
The modulation process generates subharmonic components
/35
Output voltages of threephase inverter (1)
Fig. 10 Threephase power inverter.
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (1)
where, upper transistors: S
1
, S
3
, S
5
lower transistors: S
4
, S
6
, S
2
switching variable vector: a, b, c
18
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (2)
t
dc
ca
bc
ab
c] b [a vector variable switching where ,
c
b
a
1 0 1
1 1 0
0 1 1
V
V
V
V
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
2 1 1
1 2 1
1 1 2
V
3
1
V
V
V
dc
cn
bn
an
Output voltages of threephase inverter (2)
S
1
through S
6
are the six power transistors that shape the ouput voltage
When an upper switch is turned on (i.e., a, b or c is “1”), the corresponding lower
switch is turned off (i.e., a', b' or c' is “0”)
Line to line voltage vector [V
ab
V
bc
V
ca
]
t
Line to neutral (phase) voltage vector [V
an
V
bn
V
cn
]
t
Eight possible combinations of on and off patterns for the three upper transistors (S
1
, S
3
, S
5
)
19
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (3)
Output voltages of threephase inverter (3)
The eight inverter voltage vectors (V
0
to V
7
)
20
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (4)
Output voltages of threephase inverter (4)
The eight combinations, phase voltages and output line to line voltages
21
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (5)
Principle of Space Vector PWM
This PWM technique approximates the reference voltage V
ref
by a combination
of the eight switching patterns (V
0
to V
7
)
The vectors (V
1
to V
6
) divide the plane into six sectors (each sector: 60 degrees)
V
ref
is generated by two adjacent nonzero vectors and two zero vectors
CoordinateTransformation (abc reference frame to the stationary dq frame)
: A threephase voltage vector is transformed into a vector in the stationary dq coordinate
frame which represents the spatial vector sum of the threephase voltage
Treats the sinusoidal voltage as a constant amplitude vector rotating
at constant frequency
22
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (6)
Basic switching vectors and Sectors
Fig. 11 Basic switching vectors and sectors.
6 active vectors (V
1
,V
2
, V
3
, V
4
, V
5
, V
6
)
Axes of a hexagonal
DC link voltage is supplied to the load
Each sector (1 to 6): 60 degrees
2 zero vectors (V
0
, V
7
)
At origin
No voltage is supplied to the load
23
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (7)
Comparison of Sine PWM and Space Vector PWM (1)
Fig. 12 Locus comparison of maximum linear control voltage
in Sine PWM and SV PWM.
24
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (8)
Comparison of Sine PWM and Space Vector PWM (2)
Space Vector PWM generates less harmonic distortion
in the output voltage or currents in comparison with sine PWM
Space Vector PWM provides more efficient use of supply voltage
in comparison with sine PWM
Sine PWM
: Locus of the reference vector is the inside of a circle with radius of 1/2 V
dc
Space Vector PWM
: Locus of the reference vector is the inside of a circle with radius of 1/\3 V
dc
Voltage Utilization: Space Vector PWM = 2/\3 times of Sine PWM
25
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (9)
Realization of Space Vector PWM
Step 1. Determine V
d
, V
q
, V
ref
, and angle (o)
Step 2. Determine time duration T
1
, T
2
, T
0
Step 3. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S
1
to S
6
)
26
/35
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷ ÷
=
(
(
¸
(
¸
cn
bn
an
q
d
V
V
V
2
3
2
3
0
2
1
2
1
1
3
2
V
V
frequency) l fundamenta f (where,
t 2ππ t ω )
V
V
( tan α
V V V
s
s s
d
q
1
2
q
2
d
ref
=
= = =
+ =
÷
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (10)
Fig. 13 Voltage Space Vector and its components in (d, q).
cn bn an
cn bn q
cn bn an
cn bn an d
V
2
3
V
2
3
V
cos30 V cos30 V 0 V
V
2
1
V
2
1
V
cos60 V cos60 V V V
÷ + =
· ÷ · + =
÷ ÷ =
· ÷ · ÷ =
Step 1. Determine V
d
, V
q
, V
ref
, and angle (o)
Coordinate transformation
: abc to dq
27
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (11)
Fig. 14 Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors at sector 1.
Step 2. Determine time duration T
1
, T
2
, T
0
(1)
28
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (12)
Switching time duration at Sector 1
) 60 α 0 (where,
) 3 / ( sin
) 3 / ( cos
V
3
2
T
0
1
V
3
2
T
) ( sin
) ( cos
V T
) V T V (T V T
V dt V dt V V
dc 2 dc 1
ref
z
2
2
1
1
ref
z
T
T T
0
T T
T1
2
T
0
T
0
1 ref
z
2 1
2 1 z 1
° s s
(
¸
(
¸
· · · +
(
¸
(
¸
· · · =
(
¸
(
¸
· · ¬
· + · = ·
+ + =
} } } }
+
+
π
π
α
α
Step 2. Determine time duration T
1
, T
2
, T
0
(2)




.

\

= = + ÷ =
· · =
÷
· · =
dc
ref
s
z 2 1 0
2
1
V
3
2
V
a and
f
1
T where, ), (
) 3 / ( sin
) ( sin
) 3 / ( sin
) 3 / ( sin
T T T T
a T T
a T T
z
z
z
t
o
t
o t
29
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (13)
Switching time duration at any Sector
Step 2. Determine time duration T
1
, T
2
, T
0
(3)


.

\

° s s
=
÷ ÷ =

.

\
 ÷
· +
÷
· ÷
·
=


.

\


.

\
 ÷
÷
· ·
=

.

\

÷
· ·
=

.

\

÷
· ·
=


.

\


.

\
 ÷
+ ÷
· ·
=
60 α 0
6) to Sector1 is, (that 6 through 1 n where,
,
3
1
cos sin
3
1
sin cos
3
3
1
sin
3
sin
3
cos cos
3
sin
3
3
sin
3
3
1
3
sin
3
2 1 0
2
1
T T T T
n n
V
ref V T
n
V
ref V T
T
n n
V
ref V T
n
V
ref V T
n
V
ref V T
T
z
dc
z
dc
z
dc
z
dc
z
dc
z
t o t o
t o
o t o t
o t
t o
t
30
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (14)
Fig. 15 Space Vector PWM switching patterns at each sector.
(a) Sector 1. (b) Sector 2.
Step 3. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S
1
to S
6
) (1)
31
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (15)
Fig. 15 Space Vector PWM switching patterns at each sector.
(c) Sector 3. (d) Sector 4.
Step 3. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S
1
to S
6
) (2)
32
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (16)
Fig. 15 Space Vector PWM switching patterns at each sector.
(e) Sector 5. (f) Sector 6.
Step 3. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S
1
to S
6
) (3)
33
/35
II. PWM METHODS
C. Space Vector PWM (17)
Table 1. Switching Time Table at Each Sector
Step 3. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S
1
to S
6
) (4)
34
/35
III. REFERENCES
[1] N. Mohan, W. P. Robbin, and T. Undeland, Power Electronics: Converters,
Applications, and Design, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1995.
[2] B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drives:Technology
and Applications. IEEE Press, 1997.
[3] H.W. van der Broeck, H.C. Skudelny, and G.V. Stanke, “Analysis and
realization of a pulsewidth modulator based on voltage space vectors,”
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.24, pp. 142150, 1988.
35