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this chapter we show how to obtain the velocity profiles for laminar flows of fluids in simple flow systems. These derivations make use of the definition of viscosity, the expressions for the molecular and convective momentum fluxes, and the concept of a momentum balance. Once the velocity profiles have been obtained, we can then get other quantities such as the maximum velocity, the average velocity, or the shear stress at a surface.

Apply

only to steady flow - the pressure, density, and velocity components at each point in the stream do not change with time

keep

in mind that the molecular momentum flux includes both the pressure and the viscous contributions

The procedure in this chapter for setting up and solving viscous flow problems is as follows: i) Identify the nonvanishing velocity component and the spatial variable on which it depends. ii) Write a momentum balance of the form of Eq. 2.1-1 over a thin shell perpendicular to the relevant spatial variable. iii) Let the thickness of the shell approach zero and make use of the definition of the first derivative to obtain the corresponding differential equation for the momentum flux. iv) Integrate this equation to get the momentumflux distribution

v)

vi) vii)

Insert Newton's law of viscosity and obtain a differential equation for the velocity Integrate this equation to get the velocity distribution Use the velocity distribution to get other quantities, such as the maximum velocity, average velocity, or force on solid surfaces

Boundary

i)

conditions (statements about the velocity or stress at the boundaries of the system) are as follows: At solid-fluid interfaces, the fluid velocity equals the velocity with which the solid surface is moving; this statement is applied to both the tangential and the normal component of the velocity vector. The equality of the tangential components is referred to as the "no-slip condition.'

ii)

iii)

At a liquid-liquid interfacial plane of constant x, the tangential velocity components vy and vz are continuous through the interface (the "noslip condition") as are also the molecular stress-tensor components p + xx, xy, and xz. At a liquid-gas interfacial plane of constant x, the stress-tensor components xy and xz are taken to be zero, provided that the gas-side velocity gradient is not too large. This is reasonable, since the viscosities of gases are much less than those of liquids.

Assumption: no adsorption, absorption, dissolution, evaporation, melting, or chemical reaction at the surface between the two phases

The

flow of a liquid down an inclined flat plate of length L and width W, as shown in Fig. 2.2-

Such films have been studied in connection with wetted-wall towers, evaporation and gasabsorption experiments, and applications of coatings. We consider the viscosity and density of the fluid to be constant. For small flow rates we expect that the viscous forces will prevent continued acceleration of the liquid down the wall, so that vz will become independent of z in a short distance down the plate. Therefore it seems reasonable to postulate that vz = vz(x), vx = 0, and vy = 0, and further that p = p(x).

we

set up a z-momentum balance over this shell, which is a region of thickness x, bounded by the planes z = 0 and z = L, and extending a distance W in the y direction

We

can include all the possible mechanisms for momentum transport at once:

Shell of thickness x over which a z-momentum balance is made. Arrows show the momentum fluxes associated with the surfaces of the shell. Since vx and vy are both zero, vxvz and vyvz are zero. Since vz does not depend on y and z, it follows from Table B.1 that yz = 0 and zz = 0. Therefore, the dashed-underlined fluxes do not need to be considered. Both p and vzvz are the same at z = 0 and z = L, and therefore do not appear in the final equation for the balance of z-momentum, eq 2.2-10

equation

eq 2.2-7

The

first term on the left side is exactly the definition of the derivative of xz with respect to x. Therefore Eq. 2.2-7 becomes

eq 2.2-8

In

accordance with the postulates that vz = vz(x), vx = 0, vy = 0, and p = p(x), we see that (i) since vx = 0, the vxvz term in Eq. 2.2-9a is zero; (ii) since vz= vz (x), the term -2(dvz/dz) in Eq. 2.2-9b is zero; (iii) since vz= vz (x), the term vzvz is the same at z = 0 and z = L; and (iv) since p = p(x), the contribution p is the same at z = 0 and z = L. Hence xz depends only on x, and Eq. 2.2-8 simplifies to

integrate

the equation:

The

constant of integration may be evaluated by using the boundary condition at the gas-liquid interface:

B.C 1

Substitution of this boundary condition get C1=0. Therefore the momentum-flux distribution is:

Next

Substitute

Then,

(differential equation for velocity distribution)

Integrate

the equation:

The

constant of integration is evaluated by using the no-slip boundary condition at the solid surface:

B.C 2

Then,

we can calculate:

The

Film

thickness:

For

falling films the Reynolds number is defined by Re = 4<vz>/. The three flow regime are then:

We

consider then the steady-state, laminar flow of a fluid of constant density and viscosity in a vertical tube of length L and radius R. The liquid flows downward under the influence of a pressure difference and gravity; the coordinate system is that shown in Fig. 2.3-1. We specify that the tube length be very large with respect to the tube radius, so that "end effects" will be unimportant throughout most of the tube; that is, we can ignore the fact that at the tube entrance and exit the flow will not necessarily be parallel to the tube wall.

We

postulate that vz = vz(r), vr = 0, v = 0, and p = p(z). With these postulates it may be seen from Table B.l that the only nonvanishing components of are rz = zr = -(dvz/dr).

select as our system a cylindrical shell of thickness r and length L and we begin by listing the various contributions to the zmomentum balance:

We

add

Divide

rrz

with respect to r:

evaluate

Integration:

B.C 1

C1

must be zero, for otherwise the momentum flux would be infinite at the axis of the tube:

Substitute

Integration:

B.C 2

From

Hagen-Poiseuille equation

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