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Purpose of DC/AC Motor

The purpose of a AC/DC Motor is to


Convert Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy
Electrical
energy
AC/DC
motor
Mechanical
energy
There are two main types of electric motors
There are direct current or DC and alternating
current or AC motors
The reference of DC or AC refers to how the
electrical current is transferred through and
from the motor.
BASIC CONSTRUCTION
Consist of stationary part (stator)
Rotating part (rotor) connected to shaft that
couples the machine to its mechanical load
Usually stator and rotor are made of iron to
intensify the magnetic field
Armature and field windings
A machine may contain several sets of
windings (commonly armature and field)
The purpose of the field winding is to set up
the magnetic field required to produce torque
The armature windings carry currents that
vary with mechanical load
In DC motor, the field winding is on the stator
while armature is on the rotor
ROTATING DC MACHINES
Consist of
Rotor (rotating part)
Stator (stationary part)
Brushes
Commutator
Shaft
Field magnet
Induced EMF and commutation
Rotation of the shaft
When we supply the specified
voltage to a motor, it rotates the
output shaft at some speed.
This rotational speed or angular
velocity, is typically measured
in revolutions/minute (rpm)


Torque is the product of Force x Lever Arm
Length (Radius)
Clockwise and Counter-Clockwise efforts are
distinguished by differences in sign (+ or -)
The quantitative measure of the tendency of
a force to cause or change rotational motion
is called torque

Equivalent Circuit of the DC Motor
The field circuit is represented by resistance R
F
and
inductance L
F
in series
Consider steady state operation in which current are
constant, and neglect the inductance because it
behaves as a short circuit for dc current
Thus for DC field ,
F F F
I R V =
The voltage E
A
shown in the equivalent circuit
represents the average voltage induced in the
armature due to the motion of the conductors
relative to the magnetic field.
The resistance R
A
is the resistance of the
armature windings plus the brush resistance.


DC MOTOR
Type Power
range
(hp)
Rotor Stator Comments and
applications
Wound field Shunt
connected
10-200 Armature
winding
Field
winding
Industrial applications,
grinding, machine tools
Series
connected
High torque at low
speed; dangerous if not
loaded; drills,
automotive starting
motor
Compound
connected
Traction motors
Permanent
magnet field
1/20-
10
Armature
winding
Permanent
magnet
Servo applications,
machine tools,
computer peripherals,
automotive fans,
window motors
SHUNT CONNECTED DC MOTOR
The field current is in parallel with the armature
The field circuit consist of rheostat having a
adjustable resistance (Radj) in series with field coil
that can be used to adjust motor speed
If the adjustable resistance is increase while
holding the source voltage constant, the speed
would also increase
Also, if the voltage source is increase the field
current could be hold constant to increase the
speed by increasing the value of adjustable
resistance
The machine is supplied by constant voltage
source, VT
Has very high starting torque and draws very
large starting currents
Usually, resistance inserted in series with
armature during starting to limit the current
to reasonable levels

Mechanical shaft
speed
Developed
torque
Induced
voltage
The armature
resistance
SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTORS
Similar to shunt-connected motor except
different source are used for the armature and
field
Separate as reason to be able to control speed
by varying one of these two sources
PERMANENT MAGNET MOTORS
The field is supplied by magnets mounted on the stator
rather than field coil
Advantages;
No power required to establish the field-leading to better
efficiency
PM motor can be smaller than equivalent machine with
field winding
Disadvantages;
The magnet can become demagnetized by overheating/
excessive armature current
Torque produced per ampere of armature current is
smaller
SERIES CONNECTED DC MOTORS
The field winding is in series with armature
Has moderate starting torque and starting
current
Speed automatically adjust over a large range as
the load torque varies
Because it slows down for heavier load, its output
power is more nearly constant than other types
of motor
Advantageous because the motor can operate
within its maximum power rating for a wide
range of load torque
Ex: starter motor in automobiles, when engine is cold
the starter motor operate at lower speed, when
engine warm the starter spin faster.in either case, the
currrent drawn from battery remains within
acceptable limit

ADVANTAGES OF DC
MOTOR:

DISADVANTAGES OF DC
MOTOR:

Ease of control
Deliver high starting
torque
Near-linear
performance

High maintenance
Large and expensive
(compared to induction motor)
Not suitable for high-speed
operation due to commutator
and brushes
- Not readily available for use
at home

u cos 3
rms rms in
V I P =
m out out
T P e =
60
2[
=
m m
n e
7376 . 0 =
meters newton pounds foot
T T
746
watts
horsepower
P
P =
% 100 =
in
out
P
P
q
% 100


load full
load full load no
ation speedregul
q
q q
The induced armature voltage is given by

K is a machine constant that depends on the
design parameters of the machine
is the magnetic flux produced by each stator
pole
is the angular velocity of the rotor

m A
K E |e =
|
m
e
The torque developed in the machine is given
by
is the armature current
The developed power is the power converted
to mechanical form, which is given by the
product of developed torque and angular
velocity,

This is the power delivered to the induced
armature voltage, and also given by
A dev
I K T | =
dev m dev
T P e =
A A dev
I E P =
A
I
There are 3 types of power in DC motor which
include P
in
, P
dev
and P
out

A A dev m dev
E I T P = = e
L T in
I V P =
m out out
T P e =
R
adj
is a rheostat used to adjust motor speed

The graph shows a
torque/speed curve of a
typical D.C. motor.
Note that torque is
inversely proportional to
the speed of the output
shaft. In other words, there
is a tradeoff between how
much torque a motor
delivers, and how fast the
output shaft spins.

) (
m T
A
dev
K V
R
K
T |e
|
=
Motor characteristics are frequently given as
two points on this graph:
The stall torque represents the point on the graph
at which the torque is a maximum, but the shaft is
not rotating


The no load speed is the maximum output speed
of the motor (when no torque is applied to the
output shaft)

| K
V
T
T
A
V
R
K|
Several methods can be used to control the
speed of dc motors:
Vary the voltage supplied to the armature circuit
while holding the field constant.
Vary the field current while holding the armature
supply voltage constant.
Insert resistance in series with the armature
circuit.



A certain 5-hp three-phase induction motor operates from
a 440-Vrms (line to line) three-phase source and draws a
line current of 6.8-Arms at a power factor of 78% lagging
(cos = 0.78) under rated full load conditions.
The full load speed is 1150 rpm. Under no-load conditions,
the speed is 1195 rpm, and the line current is 1.2 Arms at a
power factor of 30% lagging.
Determine :
(a) Power loss
(b) Efficiency
(c) The input power with no-load
(d) Speed regulation

A group of students have been assigned to carry out an
experiment using a new dc motor through Pout= 37.285 kW
that operates from a 220-Vrms dc source with losses of 3350
W under rated full-load conditions. The full-load speed is
1150 rpm. Under no-load conditions, the speed is 1200
rpm.
Determine :
(a) Source current
(b) Efficiency with full load
(c) Speed regulation

A 50-hp shunt-connected dc motor has the machine constant
K=2.228. The dc supply voltage is VT=240V, the armature
resistance is RA= 0.065, the field resistance is RF=10, and
adjustabler esistance is Radj=14. At speed of nm=1200 rpm, the
rotational loss is Prot=1450 W. If this motor drives a hoist that
demands a torque of Tout=250 Nm independent of speed,
determine:
(a) Filed current
(b) Trot and Tdev
(c) Armature current and voltage
(applying Kirchhoffs voltage law)
(d) Angular velocity of rotor
(e) Motor speed
(f) Efficiency

With an aid of the equivalent circuit diagram.



Phase - defines the type of electrical power
being supplied to the motor
Each phase is displace 120
Electro-Magnets
Stator
Rotor



Time 5
Time 4
Time 6
Time 1
Time 7
Time
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
A
C
B
Time 2
Time 3 Time 5 Time 7
N S
B1 C2
A1
A2
B2
C1
N S
N S
B1
A1
A2
B2
C1
N
B1
C2
A1
A2
B2
C1
B1 C2
A1
A2
B2
C1
B1
C2
A1
A2
B2
C1
B1
C2
A1
A2
B2 C1
B1
C2
A1
A2
B2 C1
S
N
S
N
N
N
S
S
N
N
S
S
N
N
S
S
N
N
S
S
C2
S
f is Applied Frequency
P is magnetic poles that rotate at synchronous speed
Synchronous Speed - The speed of the stators magnetic
field rotation
P
f
n
s
120
=
Synchronous Speed (60 Hz) = 7200
No of Poles
P n
s
2 3600
4 1800
6 1200
8 900
10 720
12 600
Synchronous speed versus number of poles for f=60 Hz
s
m s
n
n n
s

=
Motor slip, s is defined to be the relative speed as a
fraction of synchronous speed
Slip s varies from 1 when rotor is stationary to 0 when
the rotor turns at synchronous speed

s
n
is mechanical speed of the rotor
m
n
is synchronous speed
O rpm 900 rpm 1750
Motor
Speed
1800
Sync
Speed
0.0278
Slip
In figure, the reflected resistance is split into
two parts as follows;


The power delivered, P
dev
to the resistance is
the part that is converted to mechanical form.
The equivalent circuit shown is one of the
three phase in AC motor, thus the total
developed power is
r r
r
R
s
s
R
s
R
'
1
'
'
+ =
2
) ' ( '
1
3
r r dev
I R
s
s
P

=
The power delivered to the rotor resistance Rr
is converted to heat
Generally we refer to I
2
R losses as copper
losses. The total copper losses in the rotor is

The stator copper loss is

The input power from the three phase source
is
is the power factor
2
) ' ( ' 3
r r r
I R P =
2
3
s s s
I R P =
u cos 3
s s in
V I P =
u cos
Part of the developed power is lost to friction
and windage.
Another loss is core loss due to hysteresis and
eddy currents.
The output power is developed power minus
rotational loss;
Efficiency of the machine

rot dev out
P P P =
% 100 =
in
out
P
P
q
The developed torque is

The power P
ag
that crosses the air gap into the
rotor is delivered to the rotor resistances
m
dev
dev
P
T
e
=
dev r ag
P P P + =
2
) ' ( '
1
3
r r ag
I R
s
P =
ag dev
P s P ) 1 ( =


We also have . Using this
equation to substitute in above equation, we
get;

For speed to increase from a standing start,
the initial torque or starting torque produced
by the motor must be larger than the torque
required by the load
m
ag
dev
P s
T
e
) 1 (
=
s m
s e e ) 1 ( =
s
ag
dev
P
T
e
=
Example 2: Induction-motor
performance
A certain 30-hp four pole 440-V-rms 60-Hz
three phase delta-connected induction motor
has


Under load, the machine operates at 1746
rpm and has rotational losses of 900W. Find
the power factor, the line current, the output
power, copper losses, output torque and
efficiency
O = 0 . 2
s
X
O = 2 . 1
s
R
O = 50
m
X
O = 8 . 0
'
r X
O = 6 . 0
'
r R
Factors to be considered;
Electrical sources available
Output power required
Load torque versus speed
The service-life requirements
Efficiency
Speed regulation
Starting current
Desired operating speed
Acceptable frequency of maintenance
Ambient temperature

1. Describe briefly operation of DC motor with
the aid of sketch diagram
2. Describe shunt-connected, separately-excited
and series-connected type of DC motor with
the aid of sketch diagram
3. How speed can be controlled in shunt
connected motor?
4. Determine the synchronous speed for motor
having 4-pole with frequency of 60Hz