load full
load full load no
ation speedregul
q
q q
The induced armature voltage is given by
K is a machine constant that depends on the
design parameters of the machine
is the magnetic flux produced by each stator
pole
is the angular velocity of the rotor
m A
K E e =

m
e
The torque developed in the machine is given
by
is the armature current
The developed power is the power converted
to mechanical form, which is given by the
product of developed torque and angular
velocity,
This is the power delivered to the induced
armature voltage, and also given by
A dev
I K T  =
dev m dev
T P e =
A A dev
I E P =
A
I
There are 3 types of power in DC motor which
include P
in
, P
dev
and P
out
A A dev m dev
E I T P = = e
L T in
I V P =
m out out
T P e =
R
adj
is a rheostat used to adjust motor speed
The graph shows a
torque/speed curve of a
typical D.C. motor.
Note that torque is
inversely proportional to
the speed of the output
shaft. In other words, there
is a tradeoff between how
much torque a motor
delivers, and how fast the
output shaft spins.
) (
m T
A
dev
K V
R
K
T e

=
Motor characteristics are frequently given as
two points on this graph:
The stall torque represents the point on the graph
at which the torque is a maximum, but the shaft is
not rotating
The no load speed is the maximum output speed
of the motor (when no torque is applied to the
output shaft)
 K
V
T
T
A
V
R
K
Several methods can be used to control the
speed of dc motors:
Vary the voltage supplied to the armature circuit
while holding the field constant.
Vary the field current while holding the armature
supply voltage constant.
Insert resistance in series with the armature
circuit.
A certain 5hp threephase induction motor operates from
a 440Vrms (line to line) threephase source and draws a
line current of 6.8Arms at a power factor of 78% lagging
(cos = 0.78) under rated full load conditions.
The full load speed is 1150 rpm. Under noload conditions,
the speed is 1195 rpm, and the line current is 1.2 Arms at a
power factor of 30% lagging.
Determine :
(a) Power loss
(b) Efficiency
(c) The input power with noload
(d) Speed regulation
A group of students have been assigned to carry out an
experiment using a new dc motor through Pout= 37.285 kW
that operates from a 220Vrms dc source with losses of 3350
W under rated fullload conditions. The fullload speed is
1150 rpm. Under noload conditions, the speed is 1200
rpm.
Determine :
(a) Source current
(b) Efficiency with full load
(c) Speed regulation
A 50hp shuntconnected dc motor has the machine constant
K=2.228. The dc supply voltage is VT=240V, the armature
resistance is RA= 0.065, the field resistance is RF=10, and
adjustabler esistance is Radj=14. At speed of nm=1200 rpm, the
rotational loss is Prot=1450 W. If this motor drives a hoist that
demands a torque of Tout=250 Nm independent of speed,
determine:
(a) Filed current
(b) Trot and Tdev
(c) Armature current and voltage
(applying Kirchhoffs voltage law)
(d) Angular velocity of rotor
(e) Motor speed
(f) Efficiency
With an aid of the equivalent circuit diagram.
Phase  defines the type of electrical power
being supplied to the motor
Each phase is displace 120
ElectroMagnets
Stator
Rotor
Time 5
Time 4
Time 6
Time 1
Time 7
Time
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
A
C
B
Time 2
Time 3 Time 5 Time 7
N S
B1 C2
A1
A2
B2
C1
N S
N S
B1
A1
A2
B2
C1
N
B1
C2
A1
A2
B2
C1
B1 C2
A1
A2
B2
C1
B1
C2
A1
A2
B2
C1
B1
C2
A1
A2
B2 C1
B1
C2
A1
A2
B2 C1
S
N
S
N
N
N
S
S
N
N
S
S
N
N
S
S
N
N
S
S
C2
S
f is Applied Frequency
P is magnetic poles that rotate at synchronous speed
Synchronous Speed  The speed of the stators magnetic
field rotation
P
f
n
s
120
=
Synchronous Speed (60 Hz) = 7200
No of Poles
P n
s
2 3600
4 1800
6 1200
8 900
10 720
12 600
Synchronous speed versus number of poles for f=60 Hz
s
m s
n
n n
s
=
Motor slip, s is defined to be the relative speed as a
fraction of synchronous speed
Slip s varies from 1 when rotor is stationary to 0 when
the rotor turns at synchronous speed
s
n
is mechanical speed of the rotor
m
n
is synchronous speed
O rpm 900 rpm 1750
Motor
Speed
1800
Sync
Speed
0.0278
Slip
In figure, the reflected resistance is split into
two parts as follows;
The power delivered, P
dev
to the resistance is
the part that is converted to mechanical form.
The equivalent circuit shown is one of the
three phase in AC motor, thus the total
developed power is
r r
r
R
s
s
R
s
R
'
1
'
'
+ =
2
) ' ( '
1
3
r r dev
I R
s
s
P
=
The power delivered to the rotor resistance Rr
is converted to heat
Generally we refer to I
2
R losses as copper
losses. The total copper losses in the rotor is
The stator copper loss is
The input power from the three phase source
is
is the power factor
2
) ' ( ' 3
r r r
I R P =
2
3
s s s
I R P =
u cos 3
s s in
V I P =
u cos
Part of the developed power is lost to friction
and windage.
Another loss is core loss due to hysteresis and
eddy currents.
The output power is developed power minus
rotational loss;
Efficiency of the machine
rot dev out
P P P =
% 100 =
in
out
P
P
q
The developed torque is
The power P
ag
that crosses the air gap into the
rotor is delivered to the rotor resistances
m
dev
dev
P
T
e
=
dev r ag
P P P + =
2
) ' ( '
1
3
r r ag
I R
s
P =
ag dev
P s P ) 1 ( =
We also have . Using this
equation to substitute in above equation, we
get;
For speed to increase from a standing start,
the initial torque or starting torque produced
by the motor must be larger than the torque
required by the load
m
ag
dev
P s
T
e
) 1 (
=
s m
s e e ) 1 ( =
s
ag
dev
P
T
e
=
Example 2: Inductionmotor
performance
A certain 30hp four pole 440Vrms 60Hz
three phase deltaconnected induction motor
has
Under load, the machine operates at 1746
rpm and has rotational losses of 900W. Find
the power factor, the line current, the output
power, copper losses, output torque and
efficiency
O = 0 . 2
s
X
O = 2 . 1
s
R
O = 50
m
X
O = 8 . 0
'
r X
O = 6 . 0
'
r R
Factors to be considered;
Electrical sources available
Output power required
Load torque versus speed
The servicelife requirements
Efficiency
Speed regulation
Starting current
Desired operating speed
Acceptable frequency of maintenance
Ambient temperature
1. Describe briefly operation of DC motor with
the aid of sketch diagram
2. Describe shuntconnected, separatelyexcited
and seriesconnected type of DC motor with
the aid of sketch diagram
3. How speed can be controlled in shunt
connected motor?
4. Determine the synchronous speed for motor
having 4pole with frequency of 60Hz