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Understanding human behaviour

POOJA GUPTA NCCE

Meaning
Behaviour simply means as a response to certain stimuli which is observable directly & indirectly. Behaviour is observed directly by studying the responses of people to their work environment.

S-R model This model assumes that the reasons which cause human behavior are of two types: * Internal feeling *External environment Internal feelings of a person may relate to his motivational factor where as the external environment which is also called the stimulus directly influences the activity of a person. Stimulus organism response input output 1.

Process of behaviour/models

2. S-O-R model- This model is achieved by inserting o (organism) in S-R model. Here die organism is constantly active, scanning its surroundings, monitoring its over actions. The organism is to overcome obstacles and satisfy his needs. Stimulus organism response input output

3.

S-O-B-A model-S in this model stands for stimulus or the external environment situation. o in this model stands for the organism as the person. B stands for behaviour. A stands for accomplishments and consequences.
S O B A

stimulus

organism

behavior

accomplishment

feedback

Understanding human behaviour


Organizational behavior is the tool which helps the managers in understanding human behavior in all the directions in which the human being interact. Human can be studied from the point of view of the following four levels: 1. Individual behavior 2. interpersonal behavior 3. Group behavior 4. inter group behavior

Individual behaviour
The main focus of behavioral sciences is on the study of individual behavior. It tries to analyze why and how an individual behaves in a particular way in a given situation. The behaviour of individuals, is affected by a number of psychological, social and cultural factors. The job of organisational behaviorist is to integrate these factors to help in understanding human behaviour.

Inter-personal behaviour
Behavioral sciences also provide means for understanding interpersonal behaviour in the organisations. In organisations, two person relationship is inevitable. Interpersonal interacts mans most natural attempt at socialization. dimensions are changed to a certain degree when the individual comes in contact with others in the organisational where he interacts: 1.On one to one basis 2.On one to group basis 3.On group to one basis 4. On group to group basis.

Group behaviour
Group behaviour is the social process by which people relate and respond to each other and perform their respective roles.

Factor affecting behaviour


Personal factors
Biographical Factors: Physical characteristics Age Learned characteristics: Personality Perception economic factors socio cultural factors physical facilities Organisation structure design

Environmental factors

Organizational factors

Gender Religion
Marital Status

Attitudes Values

political factors legal environment

Leadership Reward system

Personal factor
A) Biographical factors 1.Physical characteristics-some of these characteristics are related to height, skin, weight, etc. 2.age-age is considered to be an inherited characteristics because it is determined by the date of birth, the relationship between age and job performance is an issue of increasing performance. 3.sex-being a male or female is genetic in nature and it is considered to be an inherited feature. 4.religion-though there are no scientific studies to prove it and we cannot some generalise it, but religion and religion based cultures play an important role in determining some aspects of individual behaviour, especially those aspects which concern morals, ethics and a code of conduct.
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5.Marital status- research has consistently indicated that as marriage imposes increased responsibilities, to have a steady job becomes more valuable and important 6.experience- the next biographical characteristics is tenure or experience. The impact of seniority on job performance is an issue which is subject to a lot of misconceptions and speculations. 7.intelligence-generally, it is considered that intelligence is an inherited quality. Some people are born intelligent or in other words intelligent parents produce intelligent children.

8.ability-ability refers to the capacity or capability of an individual to perform the various task in a job. Ability of an individual can be of two types: a) Intellectual ability-if the individual is expected to perform mental activities, he must have a particular level of intellectual ability. b) Physical ability- physical abilities include a persons stamina manual dexterity, leg strength.

B) Learned characteristics
1. Personality-by personality we dont mean the physical appearance of a person. Personality generally refers to Personal traits such as dominance, aggressiveness, persistence and other qualities reflected through a parsons behaviour. Perception-perception is the view point by which one interprets a situation. Attitude-attitude is just like perception but with a frame of reference. Values-values are global beliefs that guide actions and judgments across a variety of situations.

2. 3. 4.

Environmental factors
1. Economic factors- the behaviour of an individual is affected to a large extent by the economic environment. A few economic factors are as explained below: *employment level- the employment opportunities which are available to the individuals go a long way in influencing the individual behaviour. *wage rates-the major consideration of every employee who is working in the organisation is his wages. *general economic environment-some employees who are working in government offices or public sector undertakings are not affected by economic cycles. *technological development-through technology is not an economic factor, but we include it in the economic factors because of the impact it has on the individual job opportunities.

2.socio-cultural factors- the social environment of an individual includes his relationship with family members, friends, colleagues, supervisors and subordinates. 3.Political factors- political environment of the country will affect the individual behaviour not directly, but through several other factors. 4.Legal environment- rules and laws formalized and written standards of behaviour.

Organisational factors
1.Physical facilities- the physical environment at a work place is the arrangement of people and things so that is has a positive influence on people. 2.Organisational structure and design- these are concerned with the way in which different departments in the organisational are set up. 3. Leadership - the system of leadership is established by the management to provide direction, assistance, advice and coaching to individuals. 4.Reward system- the behaviour and performance of the individuals is also influenced by the reward system established by the organisation to compensate their employees.

APPROACHES TO STUDY HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

INTRODUCTION
It is required that a systematic approach should be there to understand, explain and predict human behaviour.

BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH
Human behaviour approach is outcome of the thoughts developed by behavioural scientists who have looked at the organisation as collectivity of people for certain specified objectives. The human behaviour approach emphasises human resources in an organisation more as compared to physical and finincial resources.

MAJOR CONCLUSIONS
People do not dislike work. Most people can exercise a great deal of self direction, self control, than are required in their current job. Work satisfaction may improve as a by product of subordinates making full use of their potential.

COGNITIVE APPROACH
The cognitive approach in psychology is a relatively modern approach to study human behaviour. The cognitive approach is based on the principle that our behaviour is generated by a series of stimuli and responses to these by thinking process.

ASSUMPTIONS
Human behaviour can be explained as a set of scientific processes. Human beings have capacity to retain immediate events. There is general ability to act in a meaningful way

PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH
Psychonalytic theory is based on the notion that man is motivated more by unseen forces than he is controlled by conscious and rational thought. There are ID EGO And SUPER EGO . They are so interrelated that they can only be artificially seperated for individual study and analysis.

The ID this is unconscious part. The id is a source of psychic energy and seeks immediate gratification for biological or instinctual needs. The EGO- the ego is conscious and logical part of the human personality and associated with the reality principle. The SUPER EGO- the super ego represents social and personal norms and serves as an ethical constraint on behaviour.