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Classical Greece

Section 3

Greek Achievements
Main Idea
The ancient Greeks made great achievements in philosophy, literature, art, and architecture that influenced the development of later cultures and ideas. • How did Greek philosophy influence later thinking?

• What types of literature did the Greeks create?

Socrates thought people could discover basic nature of life • Method of learning through questions called the Socratic method • Socrates interested in broad concepts of human life—truth. societies by asking questions • Started with basic questions. like ―What is truth?‖ • Socrates followed up with more questions Socratic Method • By working through series of questions. justice.Classical Greece Section 3 Philosophy of Socrates Asking Questions • Socrates believed philosophers could learn what made good people. virtue .

Classical Greece Plato Section 3 • One of Socrates’ students. became great philosopher in own right • Left behind great number of writings that record ideas on wide variety of topics. from nature of truth to ideal form of government • The Republic argues that government should be led by philosophers Theory of Government • Philosophers most qualified to make good decisions • Did not support Athenian democracy in which all men could take part • Plato wanted to make philosopher’s education more formal • Founded the Academy. which in Plato’s lifetime became most important site for Greek philosophers to do their work .

think rationally about what one has seen Inferring New Facts • Aristotle also helped develop field of logic. lay eggs. owl must be a type of bird . lay eggs.Classical Greece Section 3 Aristotle The Third Philosopher • Aristotle was among students who studied at the Academy • More concerned with nature of world that surrounded him • Tried to apply philosophical principles to every kind of knowledge Emphasis on Reason and Logic • Emphasis on reason. use reason to learn about world • Observe carefully. therefore. clear and ordered thinking. process of making inferences • Example: birds have feathers. logic • Reason. owls have feathers.

Classical Greece Section 3 .

tell stories of Trojan War These two works became basis for the Greek education system. Homer’s Epics • Most famous works are some of earliest Iliad and Odyssey • Iliad tells story of last year of war. and drama. two heroes—Achilles and Hector • Odyssey tells story of heroes from the war. with Odysseus who was forced to wander the sea • Epic poems of great events and heroes • The Iliad and the Odyssey. .Classical Greece Section 3 Greek Literature Other Greek literature remains. attributed to poet Homer. Greeks excelled in poetry—both epics and other forms—history. with a great many works still popular today.

dealt with daily life. lives of peasants • Greeks also created lyric poetry – Named after the lyre. early 400s. one of few Greek women to gain fame as writer.Classical Greece Section 3 Other Forms of Poetry Greeks wrote many types of poetry besides epics • Hesiod wrote descriptive poetry about works of gods. late 500s. desires • Lyric poets – Sappho. but deal with emotions. like Olympic Games . musical instrument often played to accompany reading of poems – Lyric poems do not tell stories. poems commemorated public events. marriage. love – Pindar.

god of wine and celebration • Group of actors called a chorus • Recited stories Development • Dramas became more complex • Individual actors took on roles of specific characters in stories • Two distinct forms of dramas developed.Classical Greece Section 3 Drama While the Greeks wrote histories to preserve the past. they created a new form of writing for entertainment—drama. the art of playwriting. Athenian Roots • Earliest dramas part of festivals • Dionysus. tragedy and comedy .

tragedy brought on by chance. plays written to expose flaws of society • Aristophanes greatest Greek comedy writer • Plays poke fun at aspects of Athenian society. from government to treatment of women – Aeschylus.Classical Greece Section 3 Distinct Forms Tragedies • Focused on hardships faced by Greek heroes • Three great writers Comedies • Many comedies were satires. behavior . suffering people brought on selves – Euripides. Greek myths – Sophocles.

described battles and public debates in The Histories Primary Sources • Thucydides lived during Peloponnesian War. irrelevant ones Describing Famous Men • Another early historian. Xenophon fought in Persia after Persian Wars • Concentrated less on sources. like speeches he heard delivered • Looked at sources critically. ignored unreliable. wrote about it • Included primary sources. had less critical style • Work has helped us learn what life was like in 300s BC Greece . Herodotus Lived in Greece during wars with Persia. debates.Classical Greece Section 3 History • • • • Among fields for which Greeks best known Greek authors wrote about and analyzed own past First major Greek historian. more on describing famous men.

447 BC • Took 14 years to build . visual beauty through architecture. both written and visual • Expressed love of written beauty through literature. public buildings Enhancements • To enhance appearance of buildings. art Architecture • Athenians wanted their city to be most beautiful in Greece • Built magnificent temples. added fine works of art. theatres. at city’s center Parthenon • Most magnificent on acropolis • Massive temple to Athena • Begun by Pericles.Classical Greece Section 3 Greek Architecture and Art Beauty • Athenians enjoyed beauty. painted and sculpted • Grandest buildings built on acropolis.

paid particular attention to muscles Lifelike. without blemishes. moving • Tried to re-create what they saw. studied people at rest. not necessarily realistic • Portrayed subjects as physically perfect. most copies made a few hundred years later • Roman artists made many copies of greatest Greek statues • Many copies survived even after original statues destroyed . active. grace Roman Copies • Few original works remain.Classical Greece Section 3 Sculpture Human Forms • Greek sculptors among finest world has ever known • Particularly adept at sculpting human form. Not Realistic • Greeks wanted statues to look lifelike. imperfections • Greek statues almost all depict figures of great beauty.

other vessels • Scenes from everyday life. black. or from myths. written sources say Greeks created murals in many public buildings • Often included scenes from Iliad. legends • Most use only red. plates. depth Larger Paintings • Little evidence of larger works. showed aftermath of battles. still convey movement.Classical Greece Painting • Only a few original Greek paintings survive Section 3 • Best preserved are paintings on vases. rather than battle itself • Themes similar to tragic drama popular with Athenians . Odyssey.